Šajā tīmekļa vietnē tiek izmantotas sīkdatnes. Turpinot lietot šo vietni, jūs piekrītat sīkdatņu izmantošanai. Uzzināt vairāk.
Teksta versija
LEGAL ACTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA
home
 
Republic of Latvia

Cabinet
Order No. 180
Adopted 4 April 2017

On Road Traffic Safety Plan for 2017-2020

1. To support the Road Traffic Safety Plan for 2017-2020 (hereinafter - the Plan).

2. To determine the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Ministry of Education and Science (in accordance with their competence) as the responsible institutions for the implementation of the Plan.

3. The ministries involved shall ensure the implementation of the Plan in 2017 within the limits of the funds allocated from the State budget. The issue regarding allocation of additional funds from the State budget for the implementation of the Plan in 2018, 2019 and 2020 shall be examined during the drawing up of the Cabinet draft law on medium-term budget framework and draft law on the State budget for the following years together with the proposals from all ministries and central State authorities in conformity with the financial possibilities of the State budget.

Prime Minister Māris Kučinskis

Minister for Transport Uldis Augulis

 

(Cabinet Order No. 180
of 4 April 2017)

Road Traffic Safety Plan for 2017-2020

Riga
2017

Contents

Abbreviations Used

Summary

1. Characterisation of the Existing Situation

1.1. Objectives Identified in the European Union Policy Documents

1.2. Objectives Identified in the Planning Documents of Latvia and Assessment of Their Fulfilment

1.3. Road Traffic Safety Situation

1.3.1. Statistics of road traffic accidents and their assessment

1.3.2. Map of black spots

1.3.3. Safety of the most vulnerable road traffic participants

1.3.4. Road traffic violations

1.3.5. Education of road traffic participants

1.3.6. Mitigation and prevention of consequences of road traffic accidents

1.3.7. Preventive measures for prevention of road traffic accidents

1.3.8. Existing road infrastructure

1.3.9. Impact of technical condition of the vehicle on the road traffic safety

1.4. Conclusions on the Level of Road Traffic Safety

1.5. Direct Action Results and Their Assessment

2. Objective and Lines of Action of the Plan

3. Description of the Lines of Action

3.1. Preventive Road Traffic Safety Measures

3.2. Education and Informing of Traffic Participants

3.3. Introduction of Solutions for Traffic Safety in the Motorway and Street Network

3.4. Response to Road Traffic Accidents and Mitigation and Prevention of Their Consequences

4. Planning of the Financing for the Measures Included in the Plan, Impact Assessment on the State and Local Government Budgets

Abbreviations Used

RTSD State joint stock company "Road Traffic Safety Directorate"
RTA Road traffic accident
RTL Road Traffic Law
RTR Road Traffic Regulations
RTSC Road Traffic Safety Council
eCall - eCall A vehicle technology which contacts an interoperable eCall service in case of an accident and builds on 112 line.
MoE Ministry of Economics
EU European Union
MoF Ministry of Finance
PPE Personal protective equipment
MoI Ministry of the Interior
ICoMoI Information Centre of the Ministry of the Interior
MoES Ministry of Education and Science
ITS Intelligent (smart) transport systems
MoW Ministry of Welfare
LALRG Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments
MIBoL Motor Insurers' Bureau of Latvia
LSR State joint stock company "Latvian State Roads"
MAIS Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale
NDP2020 National Development Plan for 2014-2020
NGOs Non-governmental organisations
CCLI Compulsory Civil Liability Insurance
CRPC Consumer Rights Protection Centre
LCA Association "Latvian Cyclists' Union"
RTU Riga Technical University
TDoRCC Traffic Department of the Riga City Council
TDG2020 Transport Development Guidelines for 2014-2020
Vehicle Vehicle
TI State Technical Inspection of Vehicles
MoJ Ministry of Justice
MoT Ministry of Transport
MoEPRD Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development
NCE National Centre for Education
SFRS State Fire and Rescue Service
SP State Police
SBG State Border Guard
MoH Ministry of Health

Summary

Road traffic safety concerns each and every citizen of our country. When comparing statistics of fatalities and casualties in RTAs among EU Member States, it should be acknowledged that the number of fatalities and casualties in RTAs in Latvia is still higher than in other EU Member States.

The Road Traffic Safety Plan for 2017-2020 (hereinafter - the Plan) has been developed in accordance with the objective identified in the Transport Development Guidelines for 2014-2020 (hereinafter - the TDG2020) and in order to achieve the goal established in the policy, i.e. to reduce the number of fatalities in road traffic accidents by 50 % in comparison with 2010. It is also intended to reduce the number of severely injured persons by 50 % in comparison with 2010. The Plan envisages specific lines of action to improve the road traffic safety by determining the responsible institutions and deadlines for implementation of lines of action, and the necessary financing.

It is essential for successful implementation of the measures for improvement of road traffic safety to ensure and promote cooperation between all responsible institutions. Such institutions are involved in the processes related to education and informing of the public, prevention, improvement of road audits and infrastructure, improvement of laws and regulations and system of fines, as well as rescue of casualties in RTAs and restoration of their health. The MoI and its subordinate institutions, the MoES and its subordinate institutions, the MoT and its subordinate institutions, the MoH, the TDoRCC, the State Forensic Science Bureau of the MoJ, the LALRG, as well as different associations and non-governmental organisations are involved in the development and implementation of the Plan. The implementation of the Plan is supervised by the RTSC.

Planning documents regarding road traffic safety have been developed in Latvia for a specific period of time since 1994. The most critical situation in road traffic safety in Latvia was in 1991 when 923 persons lost their lives in road traffic accidents. According to statistics, situation in the road traffic safety in Latvia has significantly improved over the last 15 years, even taking into account a considerable increase in the number of vehicles and drivers. It should, however, be taken into account that, although a decrease in the number of fatalities is one of the sharpest in the EU, the number of fatalities per million residents in 2015 is still one of the highest in the EU.

The Plan especially focuses on the factors directly affecting road traffic safety (the number of RTAs, the numbers of fatalities and casualties in RTAs). It should be indicated that road traffic safety depends on three major factors: a person (a traffic participant), a vehicle (its condition and equipment), and environment (road infrastructure).

In order to achieve the objective established in the TDG2020 and consequently in the Plan, the following four lines of action have been identified: preventive road traffic safety measures, education and informing of traffic participants, introduction of solutions for traffic safety in the motorway and street network, response to RTAs and mitigation and prevention of their consequences.

Implementation of the measures included in the Plan for a four-year period requires financial resources in the amount of EUR 14 174 525, out of which EUR 5 950 000 are State budget funds, EUR 4 322 635 are the RTSD's dividends, and EUR 3 901 890 are planned be allocated from the CCLI available financing, moreover, it will be possible to determine an amount of financing for separate measures only after the initial research.

1. Characterisation of the Existing Situation

1.1. Objectives Identified in the European Union Policy Documents

Improvement of road traffic safety in the EU by preventing RTAs and significantly reducing the number of casualties and fatalities constitutes a considerable challenge for the next years, meeting of which requires a substantial work. So far the European Commission had set itself the objective of preventing fatalities in RTAs, however, currently attention is also focused on the efforts to reduce the number of severe RTAs which is also related to the so-called zero-vision1 objective in order to prevent fatalities and serious injuries caused by RTAs in the EU territory.

It is worth mentioning that according to the information provided by the World Health Organization, approximately 1.25 million people die in RTAs each year worldwide, also 20 to 50 million people are seriously injured therein, therefore it should be indicated that consequences of RTAs have devastating impact on families in every country of the world. RTAs cause also huge economic damage which is estimated to account for approximately 2-5 % of gross domestic product. The large numbers of fatalities and casualties are unacceptable both from the perspective of sufferings of individuals and the total financial losses of the society, moreover, future transport must be sustainable and thus also safe.2

Although a positive trend has been observed over the last years in the improvement of road traffic safety in the EU, the total number of fatalities in RTAs in the EU is significant - in 2014, approximately 25 000 people died in the EU which means that about 70 people die on EU roads every day3. Statistics also show that the number of fatalities increased in 2015 - it was 26 300 people which in total accounted for an increase of 1 % in comparison with 2014. The number of casualties of RTAs is also significant - in 2015, approximately 200 000 persons suffered.

From 2010 to 2015, the number of fatalities in RTAs in the EU has reduced by approximately 17 % which means on average 3.6 % per year4. In order to achieve the common EU objective of reducing the numbers of fatalities and casualties in 2020 by 50 % in comparison with 2010, it would have been necessary to ensure an annual decrease at around 7 % from 2010 to 2020, therefore major efforts will be required in the next years to pursue this objective. In order to fully pursue the objective and catch up, a decrease must already be 9.7 % every year.

It should be indicated that with unlimited resources and funds the majority of the RTAs would be predictable and also preventable. It is also known that countries with large income have managed to balance an increase in the road transport units and the number of RTAs - popularity of transport has not resulted in a sharp increase in the numbers of fatalities and casualties in RTAs. Such result has been largely achieved by creating a systematic approach to the problem - ensuring implementation of an efficient comprehensive and verified programme for the improvement of road traffic safety.2

European Commission's White Paper of 28 March 2011 "Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system" sets a very ambitious objective regarding the road traffic safety, i.e. by 2050, to move close to zero fatalities in road transport. According to this objective, the goal of the EU is to reduce the number of fatalities by half by 2020 and to further continue proportional reduction of the number of fatalities by 2050.

Although the number of fatalities in RTAs has decreased in the EU over the last decade, any accident which involves death of a person will always be too much in order to achieve the ambitious objective of 2050. In order to reduce the number of fatalities even more rapidly, initiatives in technology, implementation and education will further play the most important role, as well as special focus on the most vulnerable road traffic participants.

In order to progress towards the objective identified in the White Paper, complex solutions are required for promotion of road traffic safety, therefore in the achievement of the objective to move close to zero fatalities and seriously injured persons in RTAs by 2050 the White Paper emphasises the following:

- It is required to harmonise and deploy road traffic safety technologies, such as driver assistance systems, (smart) speed limiters, seat-belt reminders, eCall, vehicle and infrastructure interoperability systems, as well as improve control of technical condition, including that of vehicles with alternative fuels, electricity, hydrogen etc.

- It is required to develop a comprehensive strategy of action on road injuries and emergency services, including common definitions and standard classifications of injuries and fatalities, in view of adopting an injuries reduction target.

- Attention should be paid to training and education of all traffic participants, and the use of safety equipment (seat-belts, protective clothes, anti-tampering) should also be promoted.

- Particular attention should be paid to vulnerable traffic participants, such as pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists, including through safer infrastructure and vehicle technologies.

Communication of 20 July 2010 from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions"Towards a European road safety area: policy orientations on road safety 2011-2020" (hereinafter - the policy orientations on road safety) indicates that success of the previous EU programmes for road traffic safety may not be used as a reason for not continuing the ongoing work and not initiating new ones. EU motorways are still far from being safe - the policy orientations on road safety state that 35 000 people died in RTAs in 2009, also more than 1.7 million people suffered injuries. Re-referring to the objective set by the EU to reduce the numbers of fatalities and casualties by 2020, it is important to ensure a set of measures which would cover all sectors that are directly or indirectly related to road traffic safety in a balanced way.

The most important measures to be performed which are referred to in the policy orientations on road safety and may be applied to Latvia are as follows:

- introduction of a road traffic safety framework at the EU level in order to guarantee equal treatment of all EU residents in the case of a RTR violation;

- increasing of safety of vulnerable traffic participants by improving communication between institutions and traffic participants;

- improvement of tools which allow to collect and analyse information regarding accidents in order to more efficiently monitor progress which is achieved in road traffic safety in Member States and ensure precise data that could be used for the development of new road traffic safety regulations.

As emphasised in the policy orientations on road safety, the problems of road traffic safety are common to all EU Member States, and EU may help the Member States to cooperate and exchange information.

Experience shows that in implementing the previous EU programmes for road traffic safety from 2001 to 2010 lives of 78 000 people were saved which was achieved through a wide set of measures.

1.2. Objectives Identified in the Planning Documents of Latvia and Assessment of Their Fulfilment

Planning documents regarding road traffic safety have been developed in Latvia for a specific period of time since 1994. According to the Road Traffic Safety Plan for 2014-2016, the Road Traffic Safety Programme for 2007-2013 was implemented by approximately 90 %. During these five years 1167 lives were potentially saved and 6988 less people suffered injuries, traumas than at the equivalent traffic safety level of 2006. Although substantial improvements of indicators in terms of a decrease in the numbers of casualties and fatalities in road traffic accidents have been observed since 1999, over the least years a degree of stagnation has been experienced, and situation improves very slowly - 33.5 % of RTAs involving fatalities in Latvia in 2015 were accidents with pedestrians. The most critical situation in road traffic safety in Latvia was in 1991 when 923 persons died in RTAs. These tragic statistics, as well as the rapid development of relations between Latvia and European countries followed by consequent growth of international transport volume, including transit, raised the issue of ensuring of the traffic safety on the Latvian motorways at the European level. In 1994, the first Road Traffic Safety Programme was developed in Latvia within the framework of the Transport Development Programme. In implementing the measures referred to in the programme, the number of fatalities was reduced by 1.47 times already in 1998 in comparison with 1991. At the same time the objectives laid down in the Road Traffic Safety Programme of 1994 were overall implemented in the beginning of 1999. The rapid growth of the automobilisation, as well as accession process of Latvia to the EU defined new objectives, and on 25 January 2000 the Cabinet approved the National Road Traffic Safety Programme for 2000-2006. The objectives laid down in the National Road Traffic Safety Programme for 2000-2006 were overall implemented in the beginning of 2007 - the number of fatalities was reduced by 1.6 times in 2006 in comparison with 1999. On 13 April 2007, the Cabinet approved the Road Traffic Safety Programme for 2007-2013 by its Order No. 209 the intermediate objective of which - to reduce the number of fatalities twice by 2010 in comparison with 2001 - was achieved.

The National Development Plan for 2014-2020 (hereinafter - the NDP2020) is hierarchically the highest national level medium-term planning document. The NDP2020 is closely related to the Sustainable Development Strategy of Latvia until 2030 (hereinafter - Latvia2030) and the National Reform Programme for the Implementation of the EU2020 Strategy. The NDP2020 also includes measures which concern directly or indirectly the improvement of road traffic safety.

As indicated in the NDP2020, it is important to improve access to health care which also applies to the treatment of casualties after RTAs. According to the line of action "Healthy and Fit for Work" determined in the NDP2020, approximately 30 % of all deaths in Latvia are premature, while still being at the working-age. As the causes of premature mortality and loss of the capacity for work are in most cases related to various health risks, then by mitigating their impact it is possible to increase people's healthy life span and the quality of life, thus also improving natural population growth and facilitating employment in the country to ensure an "economic breakthrough".

The Transport Development Guidelines for 2014-2020 (hereinafter - the TDG2020) is a medium-term policy planning document which identifies objectives, guiding principles and priorities of development of the transport policy, as well as results to be achieved in the transport sector. The Guidelines include planning of further action by determining specific measures for achievement of the identified objectives.

The Guidelines have been developed in conformity with the objective determined in the White Paper - to establish a system that underpins European economic progress, enhances competitiveness and provides high-quality mobility services while using resources more efficiently - and the relevant challenges by assessing the priorities, objectives and results to be achieved in the transport sector which have been identified in the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, ensuring conformity with the objectives and tasks identified in the Sustainable Development Strategy of Latvia until 2030, ensuring conformity with the objectives and tasks identified in the National Development Plan for 2014-2020, assessing and taking into account the study "Evaluation of Competitiveness of Latvia 2011" carried out by the Stockholm School of Economics in Riga and financed by the European Social Fund, as well as ensuring links with other sectoral policy planning documents.

As indicated in the TDG2020, vision of sustainable transport system also includes high-level traffic safety.

According to the TDG2020, safety is one of the most significant factors when selecting different transport solutions, therefore it is also important to assess the work carried out so far in the improvement of road traffic safety. From 2001 to 2010 Latvia made significant efforts to improve road traffic safety by achieving reduction of the number of fatalities by 60.9 %, Although in terms of reduction of the number of fatalities from 2001 to 2010 Latvia has been in one of the leading places in the EU, such indicator as the number of fatalities per million residents is still high - 94 persons where the average number of fatalities in the EU is almost twice less - 51.5 persons.

The TDG2020 have identified major problems of road infrastructure, and one of such is insufficient quality of the condition of motorways which is one of the significant risks of road traffic safety.

1.3. Road Traffic Safety Situation

1.3.1. Statistics of road traffic accidents and their assessment

In assessing statistics of RTAs, it should be taken into account that from 1985 to 2003 a person was recognised as killed in an RTA in Latvia if he or she died at the place of accident or within 7 days after the accident, but in other countries - within 30 days. In order for Latvia to be compared with other countries in terms of RTAs currently the internationally recognised coefficient is used by moving from a 7-day period used previously to a 30-day period. More specifically, since 2004 persons are recognised as killed in RTAs in Latvia if they die at the place of accident or within 30 days after the accident, and persons who are hospitalised for more than 24 hours are recognised as seriously injured. It should also be indicated that for the purpose of statistics of RTAs referred to in the Plan a traffic participant up to the age of 15 full years is considered a child. According to the internationally accepted practice and standards for the statistics of road traffic accidents, the statistics of road traffic accidents by age groups shall be divided as follows:

• Child - a person up to the age of 15 full years;

• Teenager - a person aged from 15 to 17 full years.

Serious road traffic accident is considered a RTA which involves at least one casualty.

Casualty is considered a person who has died or suffered injury as a result of a RTA (medical assistance has been provided).

Vehicle driver is considered a person who drives a motor vehicle, but a cyclist, a moped rider, a motorcycle rider and a quadricycle rider are identified separately from the drivers.

Driver of a B category vehicle is a person who drives a motor vehicle whose laden weight does not exceed 3500 kg and the number of seats, excluding the driver's seat, does not exceed 8 seats.

Vulnerable traffic participants include a pedestrian, a cyclist and his or her passengers, a moped rider and his or her passengers, a motorcycle rider and his or her passengers, a quadricycle rider and his or her passengers.

It is worth mentioning with regard to the statistics of RTAs that Paragraph 40 of the RTR (Regulation No. 279 of 2 June 2015) stipulates that if people have not suffered in the road traffic accident, damages have not been caused to the third person's property, as well as damages have not been sustained to a vehicle due to which they cannot or are prohibited to drive, the vehicle driver shall:

- immediately stop and stay at the place of the accident, light on emergency light signal and install emergency sign, but in case it is not possible, warn other road traffic participants otherwise regarding the road traffic accident;

- agree with the driver of other vehicle involved in the road traffic accident regarding all significant circumstances of the accident, fill out a co-ordinated notification and, without noticing the police regarding the accident, leave the place of the accident.

According to statistics, over the last 15 years situation in the road traffic safety in Latvia has significantly improved, even taking into account a considerable increase in the number of vehicles and drivers - see Figure 1. It should, however, be taken into account that, although a decrease in the number of fatalities is one of the best in the EU, the number of fatalities per million residents in 2015 is still one of the highest in EU. It is (106 fatalities in 2014, 94 fatalities in 2015) approximately twice as high as the EU average (51 fatalities on average in 2014 and 2015). At the same time statistics of the last 5 years show that the numbers of fatalities and casualties decrease insufficiently. It should be taken into account that in order to achieve the established objectives regarding reduction of the numbers of fatalities and casualties, a research should be carried out on the most efficient measures to be taken.

It should be indicated that the decrease in the number of fatalities and in the number of RTAs in 2009 and 2010 may be partly explained with the decrease in the number of vehicles during the economic crisis, however, it is only one of several causes. At the same time this was also the period when the first speed cameras appeared which ensured significant reduction of the average speed on State roads, thus increasing traffic safety.

According to the statistics of the previous period, from 2001 to 2010 Latvia has made significant efforts to improve road traffic safety by achieving reduction of the number of fatalities by 60.9 %, thus meeting the ambitious objective identified by the EU, i.e. to reduce the number of fatalities by 50 % by 2010. The number of fatalities also decreased in 2011 by 24.6 % in comparison with 2010.

Figure 1. Changes in the characteristics of traffic safety - number of vehicles/number of drivers/number of RTAs involving casualties/number of fatalities (percentage change from 2000 - 2000 = 100 %)

Statistics of road traffic safety for the period from 1990 to 2010

In 2010, the number of RTAs involving casualties in Latvia was 3193 where 218 persons died and 4023 suffered injuries. It should be noted that 218 fatalities constitute the smallest number of fatalities since the statistics of RTAs have been recorded in Latvia (it has been recorded since 1970).

Taking into account that EU had established an objective to reduce the number of fatalities twice by 2010 in comparison with 2001, the number of fatalities in Latvia could not exceed 280 fatalities in 2010, therefore Latvia managed to meet this objective. Thus reduction of the fatalities which accounted for 61 % at that moment was one the best results in the EU.

Figure 2. Dynamics of road traffic accidents (percentage - 100 %) in Latvia for the period from 1985 to 20155

Even taking into account that Latvia occupied one of the leading places in the EU in terms of the reduction of the number of fatalities from 2001 to 2010 (reduction in the amount of 61 %), an indicator, however, such as the number of fatalities per million residents (97 persons in 2010) was still significantly higher than the EU average (70 persons in 2009).

It should be noted that, comparing the numbers in 1990 to those in 2010, the number of fatalities in RTAs had decreased five times from 947 persons in 1990 to 218 persons in 2010, while the number of injured persons had decreased by 13.4 % from 4646 persons in 1990 to 4023 persons in 2010.

Statistics of road traffic safety for the period from 2010 to 2015

In 2015, comparing to 2010, the number of fatalities has decreased by 13.8 %, while the number of injured persons has increased by 13.5 %.

Figure 3. Decrease in the number of fatalities in RTAs in the EU Member States from 2010 to 2015
(source of information: European Commission).

Figure 4. Number of fatalities per million residents in the EU Member States in 2015
(source of information: European Commission).

Statistics of road traffic safety for 2015

Taking into account that on 31 January 2015 the population of Latvia was 1 971 300, the number of registered vehicles was 887 969, and the total number of drivers was 839 424, a total of 40 091 RTAs occurred in 2015 which is 7.4 % more than in 2014 when 37 326 RTAs were registered. Overall, most accidents took place during the summer vacation period, i.e. in July (3633), August (3739) and September (3634), while in winter months the number of road traffic accidents was even smaller, for example, 2691 RTAs were registered in February 2015.

In 2015, the RTAs involving casualties were registered 3692 times which is 1 % less than in 2014 when the number was 3728. Most RTAs involving casualties were again registered during vacation season, i.e. in July (402), August (482) and September (378), while in winter months the number of RTAs involving casualties is as follows: 239 in January, 194 in February, 234 in March, 321 in October, 261 in November, 297 in December. Statistics show that the accidents and the accidents involving casualties do not always occur in winter months which tend to be the most dangerous when driving conditions may be difficult.

In 2015, 25 % of the RTAs involving casualties in Latvia were accidents involving pedestrians, 45 % of the accidents were collisions of two or more vehicles, while accidents involving one vehicle and casualties accounted for 30 %.

In 2015, the total number of fatalities in RTAs was 188 (1876) persons which is 11.3 % less than in 2014 when 212 persons died in RTAs. Most fatalities occurred in August 2015, i.e. 30 persons, while in the dark winter months the numbers were smaller - 22 persons in January, 7 persons in February, 17 persons in November, 23 persons in December. A similar trend also emerges in 2014 when 24 persons died in July, and 23 persons in August. August 2015 when the number of fatalities in road traffic accidents reached 30 persons accounts for 16 % of all the fatalities in 2015. Three accidents in August 2015 cost 8 lives.

In 2015, 33.5 % of the RTAs involving fatalities in Latvia were accidents involving pedestrians, 34.8 % of fatalities were in accidents involving collisions of two or more vehicles, while accidents involving one vehicle and fatalities accounted for 29.6 %.

In 2015, the causes of the RTAs resulting in death of a vehicle driver were choice of inappropriate speed (17.6 %), failure to observe manoeuvring rules (0.5 %), as well as negligence (10.6 %).

In 2015, 45.2 % of the persons who died in RTAs were drivers and passengers of passenger cars, also approximately half of such accidents were accidents involving one vehicle. At the same time it should be indicated that although in 2015 the number of vulnerable traffic participants has decreased by 16.5 %, they still account for 45.7 % of all the fatalities (pedestrians, cyclists, moped riders, motorcycle riders and quadricycle riders).

Table 1. Number of casualties and fatalities in RTAs by type of vehicle or status of a road traffic participant in 2015

In 2015, the number of casualties in RTAs was 4566 which is 0.8 % less than in 2014 when the number was 4603, thus the total number of injured persons has not changed significantly. In 2015, 479 persons were seriously injured (434 persons in 2014), thus an increase is + 10.4 %. 593 persons suffered injuries in August, 511 persons in July, and 440 persons in September. As to winter months, 294 persons sustained injuries in January, 247 persons in February, 283 persons in March, 422 persons in October, 306 persons in November, 339 persons in December.

In 2015, the vulnerable road traffic participants accounted for 45.7 % of the fatalities, i.e. 86 persons. In 2014, the number was 16.5 % more - 103 persons. Out of the fatalities pedestrians constituted 63 persons (33.5 % of the fatalities) which is 11.3 % less than in 2014 when the number was 71. It should also be noted that 60 % of the pedestrians were on carriageway at the moment of accident. In 2015, 9 cyclists died, 548 were injured and 31 were seriously injured in RTAs.

In 2015, only 7 persons died in RTAs as motorcyclists, while in 2014 this number was 10. It is important to indicate that the majority of the vulnerable road traffic participants who died were exactly pedestrians, i.e. 33.5 %.

Figure 5. Statistics on child casualties in RTAs in 2014 and 20157

The number of child fatalities7 in RTAs has increased from 7 persons in 2014 to 12 persons in 2015. The number of child casualties in RTAs has slightly decreased from 441 persons in 2014 to 398 persons in 2015. Taking into account the tragic statistics, it is important to use the necessary safety equipment (child car seats, bicycle helmets, reflective vests etc.), as 459 reports were drawn up regarding the failure to use child car seats or boosters in 2015 (503 statements were drawn up in 2014).

RTAs in Riga and on State motorways

In 2015, 25 % of all RTAs involving casualties occurred on State motorways, also 64.9 % of all fatalities and 30.3 % of all injured persons were registered on State motorways.

RTAs in Riga in 2015 and their impact on road traffic safety in Latvia:

• In 2015, approximately 30 % of the total number of vehicles (passenger cars, lorries, buses) were registered in Riga;

• In 2015, approximately 43 % of the total number of RTAs involving casualties were registered in Riga;

• In 2015, 12.8% of all the RTAs involving fatalities were registered in Riga;

• In 2015, 39.6% of all the RTAs resulting in injuries were registered in Riga.

As to the State motorways, in 2015 most severe RTAs were registered on the A10 State motorway (Rīga-Ventspils) - 53 severe road traffic accidents, in 2015 50 severe RTAs were also registered on the A2 State motorway (Rīga-Sigulda-Estonian Border (Veclaicene)). In 2015, most fatalities in RTAs were registered on the A6 State motorway (Rīga-Daugavpils-Krāslava (Pāternieki)) - 8 deaths, also in 2014 most fatalities, i.e. 9 deaths, were registered on the A10 motorway (Rīga-Ventspils). According to the information provided in Table 2 regarding fatalities and casualties in RTAs on State motorways, in order to gain more insight into the most dangerous roads factors, such as length of these roads and traffic volume, should be taken into account as well. A more accurate insight into the most dangerous road sections and places is provided by the "Map of black spots" which has been issued by the LSR.

Statistics of road traffic safety for 20168

Provisional8 data for 2016 show that 157 persons died in RTAs, out of which the majority, i.e. 70 persons, were drivers or passengers of passenger cars, 55 were pedestrians, 7 were cyclists, 12 were motorcyclists and 13 were drivers and passengers of other vehicles (mopeds, quadricycles, tractors etc.). Thus according to statistics, in 2016, the number of vehicle drivers and passengers who died in RTAs decreased but the current problem is still safety of pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists.

Provisional data for 2016 show that overall 19 544 RTAs occurred in 2016 out of which 3773 were RTAs involving casualties (out of which 916 RTAs were accidents involving pedestrians). In 2016, 4644 persons were injured in RTAs, out of which 888 were pedestrians.

It is essential to note that at a constant or even slightly growing Latvian fleet the number of road fatalities decreased by 16 % in 2016, comparing to 2015 (on 1 January 2017, more than 752 000 vehicles participated in the road traffic). 2016 which cost lives of 157 persons was a record year in the history of Latvia. In comparison 188 persons died on Latvian roads in 2015 but 2012, which had been the best year so far, cost lives of 177 persons. Last year the best month was May when seven persons died but the worst month in terms of traffic safety turned out to be September when 20 persons lost their lives.

It should also be indicated that over the last years the number of alcohol-related RTAs has decreased significantly. For example, if 84 persons died in accidents caused by drunk drivers in 2007, then the last year this number decreased seven times (12 persons lost their lives in alcohol-related accidents in 2016). It is important to note that the most significant progress has been made in preserving children's lives. Last year 2 children aged up to 15 years died in RTAs but in 2015 this number was 11.

Main conclusions resulting from the Study on Severe Road Traffic Accidents

In 2015, the SP in collaboration with specialists from the University of Latvia carried out a study on causes of the severe RTAs which took place during the period from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2014, and factors affecting them. The study focused on three factors affecting RTAs - a person (internal factors), a vehicle and its technical equipment, and external environment. The study carried out by the SP was comprised of two parts out of which the biggest part of the study constituted an event (statistical) analysis, while the other part in turn consisted of a population survey (225 respondents were surveyed). Statistical analysis included an analysis regarding the relevant period of time (2122 RTAs in total) where events were selected in proportion to the magnitude of RTAs in each month and each type of event. All severe RTAs, which had occurred in this period of time, were also analysed - 393 RTAs where at least one of the participants had serious injuries and 207 RTAs involving at least one fatality.

The registered events were analysed by comparing the RTAs where serious injuries were sustained or RTAs involving fatalities, and the RTAs without any casualties or involving casualties with minor injuries. Such comparing allowed to establish factors which had served as the major causes of severe RTAs.

According to the study, most of the severe RTAs were hitting a pedestrian (31 %), then collisions of vehicles accounted for 26 % of the severe RTAs, overturning of vehicle amounted to 17 %, hitting an obstacle accounted for 10 %, hitting a cyclist comprised 6 %, but the remaining 10 % were other accidents. When considering statistics of the severe RTAs on an annual basis, it has been concluded that June and July were the months when such accidents (32.3 %) occurred most frequently (according to the statistics for the relevant year). It should, however, be indicated that a similar trend may also be noticed in other years when severe RTAs occur more often in summer months (June, July, August) than in other months.

This study has also identified a typical person who causes a severe RTA. In most cases this person is a male (82.4 %) aged under 29 years (36.1 %) who drives AUDI passenger car (21.3 %), and most frequently this car is older than 20 years (32.4 %).

In analysing circumstances at the moment of severe RTAs it has been concluded that 88 % of the severe RTAs occur under good weather conditions during daytime (57 %), it should be also indicated that in most cases the carriageway has been dry (69 %) and the permitted driving speed has been exceeded at the moment of RTAs (40 %), while the use of alcohol or other intoxicating substances has been one of the causes in 11 % of cases. Although only 11 % of the severe RTAs which occurred in the period of time covered by the study have been caused while being under the influence of alcohol or other intoxicating substances, it should be pointed out that 54.4 % of these drivers have already been punished for driving under the influence of alcohol (41.7 % were riders of motorcycles, mopeds or scooters, while 58.3 % were drivers of passenger cars).

The study has further concluded that during this period of time 68 % of the severe RTAs occurred outside populated areas, while 32 % took place in populated areas.

In analysing statistics of severe RTAs involving pedestrians for the relevant period of time it has been concluded that in 75 % of cases accident was caused by a pedestrian (who has failed to comply with requirements of the RTR), 65 % of such RTAs occurred in dark, and 55 % of such accidents took place outside populated areas (45 % in populated areas). It should also be indicated that 46 % of the RTAs which took place in populated areas and involved pedestrians occurred when lighting was turned on.

The study has concluded that a typical pedestrian who is hit in a severe RTA is male (75 %) aged above 65 years (28 %) and under the influence of alcohol (16 %) who has no valid driving licence (61 %).

According to the survey on causes of severe RTAs, in 32 % of cases drivers have indicated that they were negligent during driving, the cause of the accident was fatigue in 16 % of cases, intoxication in 11 % of cases, thinking about other things in 11 % cases, malaise in 6 % of cases, but in the remaining 4 % of cases the cause was other passenger (child) who diverted driver's attention from the road. This study has also concluded that 77 % of the drivers have assessed their driving skills as good on dry carriageway but 69 % of the severe RTAs occur exactly on dry carriageway.

1.3.2. Map of black spots

The "Map of black spots" is updated by the LSR every 3 years by identifying the spots on the basis of the information regarding the number of RTAs, while the Cabinet Regulation No. 1240 of 28 December 2010, Procedures for Classifying Road Sections where Road Traffic Accidents Often Occur, and Safety of Road Network in the Trans-European Road Network, determines procedures for classifying road sections ("black spots") where RTAs often occur.

A place where eight or more RTAs or three or more fatalities in RTAs have occurred over one kilometre within three years is considered a "black spot" outside populated areas. A crossroad is in turn considered a "black spot" if RTAs have occurred according to the said factors within a radius of 150 m to either side. Over the last years the number of "black spots" has decreased, however, pedestrians and other vulnerable road traffic participants are still particularly at risk in many places.

It should also be indicated that the criteria for identification of "black spots" and points dangerous to road traffic safety in populated areas are within the competence of each local government.

According to the information available in July 2016 currently 58 "black spots" have been identified on the State roads, the updated "Map of black spots" is available on the LSR website at www.lvceli.lv.

There were 62 "black spots" on the State roads from 2009 to 2011, while from 2007 to 2009 this number was 174. Dangerous points are mostly located on the roads near Riga with the largest traffic volume, yet increasingly more "black spots" also emerge in regions.

One of the reasons for the reduction of the number of "black spots" is the measures for improvement of traffic safety. For example, currently a roundabout has been created in the place of the dangerous crossroad at the very beginning of the A5 motorway (Riga bypass (Salaspils-Babīte)), also traffic lights have been installed at the crossroad of the A7 motorway (Riga-Bauska-Lithuanian Border (Grenctāle)) towards Baloži. Funds are also invested in many places in other road infrastructure.

In 2015, improvement works were carried out in the following "black spot": lighting was installed along the A1 motorway Rīga (Baltezers)-Estonian Border (Ainaži) for 5.90 km (at the connection of Baltezers forest nursery).

It should be indicated that in order to reduce the number of accidents driving speed is limited most often, however, drivers do not always observe it, therefore it is further planned to install speed cameras at the "black spots" as well.

In 2015, registration of the RTA location using GPS9 coordinates was introduced in order to identify the location of a RTA as accurately as possible.

1.3.3. Safety of the most vulnerable road traffic participants

The most vulnerable (pedestrians, cyclists).

Introduction of new passive and active security systems in passenger cars, lorries and buses has significantly increased the safety level of these vehicles, however, the safety level of vulnerable traffic participants, in particular pedestrians, is still very low. RTAs involving vulnerable traffic participants usually also have the most serious consequences, often even fatal. The use of light reflective elements or vests with light reflective elements requires fewer investments than significant changes in traffic and urban environment, such as separation of pedestrian flow from the rest of traffic (especially outside populated areas) and creation of special cycle lanes. In any case, both of these examples are important and if the first one may be implemented in a comparatively short period of time, then in the future when creating new traffic solutions or restoring the current ones attention should also be paid to ensure that the flow of vulnerable traffic participants (pedestrians, cyclists) is the least connected with the rest of traffic flow.

In accordance with the laws and regulations of Latvia and EU10, light reflective elements, child car seats, as well as safety helmets are considered personal protective equipment. Although the use of personal protective equipment is important, it is equally important to use personal protective equipment complying with the requirements which fulfils its functions and ensures the expected safety at the moment of RTAs. Each year the CRPC carries out the PPE market surveillance in order to reduce the risk to consumers to purchase inappropriate goods. The purpose of the use or application of PPE is to prevent one or several risk factors which may be related to sustaining of different injuries. Thus in selecting appropriate PPE not only its level of safety but also comfort should be taken into account. PPE to be used should be in working order, without tears or wear, and it must ensure complete protection. PPE may only be used for the designed purpose in compliance with the instructions for use provided by the manufacturer. Prior to the purchase of PPE consumers should make certain that it has the necessary labelling:

• name and address of the manufacturer;

• CE marking;

• information in the official language regarding its use (storage, application, cleaning, maintenance etc.). In order to maintain PPE as long as possible and prevent damage to the health of a user, it is necessary to ensure that PPE is appropriately taken care of. Only precise compliance with washing and storage instructions provided by the manufacturer guarantees constant protection.

In accordance with the Cabinet Regulation No. 74 of 11 February 2003, Requirements for Personal Protective Equipment, Procedures for Conformity Assessment and Market Supervision Thereof, reflectors are necessary not only for pedestrians but also for bicycles, baby strollers and wheelchairs. The purchase of clothing with reflective material is to be welcome, however, in terms of safety nothing can replace the use of a reflector or a reflective vest.

Cyclists are traffic participants who are allowed to ride their bicycles on general purpose roads. Cyclists could feel more safe if cycling traffic was separated from road transport and cyclists could ride their bicycles on specially designed cycle paths. As the State road network consists of roads for a length of more than 20 000 km, it will be impossible to create a network of cycle paths of such scope, therefore separated cycle paths may only be created in individual cases near populated areas with an intensive flow of cyclists in the specific route in combination with an intensive flow of pedestrians. The construction of pedestrian and cycle paths is planned and also carried out each year according to possibilities.

Taking into account the public demand, local governments, within the framework of territorial planning, have possibilities to plan cycle routes, cycle paths and cycle lanes to be constructed, as well as ensure their construction by attracting financing from both local governments and different funds and programmes. Several local governments have developed concepts for development of cycling traffic, cycling organisation schemes, as well as schematic maps and booklets of cycling path networking which include information on the created cycle routes and constructed cycle paths, as well as the most important safety conditions when riding bicycles.

The major cycling traffic safety problems in Latvia:

• Cyclists do not wear clothing with elements of light reflective material during the dark hours of the day, and lighting on motorways is insufficient in the dark hours of the day, also flows of pedestrians and cyclists are not separated from flows of motor vehicles in most cases;

• Educational institutions do not provide methodological education for children about road traffic and traffic safety;

• Part of cyclists participate in the road traffic under the influence of alcohol.

In order to improve security situation in cycling traffic, efforts should be made regarding the following measures:

• Inform the public and social partners more actively about wearing the clothing with elements of light reflective material during the dark hours of the day, as well as wearing bright clothing which contrasts with the surrounding during the light hours of the day;

• Further develop a network of cycle paths and lanes;

• Activate control of road traffic participants, increase the physical presence of the SP employees in the traffic monitoring process, in particular in the outermost State regions;

• Develop methodological training for children in road traffic safety issues in educational institutions;

• Continue moulding the public attitude towards safe participation in road traffic (each year organise public information and education campaigns on current topics).

1.3.4. Road traffic violations

The SP drew up 279 078 administrative violation reports for road traffic violations in 2014, 270 333 reports in 2015, and 273 929 reports in 2016. 100 541 administrative violation reports were drawn up for exceeding the permitted driving speed in 2014, 93 126 reports in 2015, and 99 582 reports in 2016. 2839 administrative violation reports were drawn up for using telephone while driving in 2014, 3838 reports in 2015, and 4120 reports in 2016.

Figure 6. Statistics of road traffic violations recorded by the State Police from 2014 to 2016

4190 administrative violation reports were drawn up for driving under the influence of alcohol in 2014, 4152 reports in 2015, and 3839 reports in 2016. Overall, 27 064 administrative violation reports were drawn up for the failure to use seat belts in 2014, 26 623 reports in 2015, but 26 744 reports in 2016. In 2016, a total of 128 409 administrative violation reports, including for foreign drivers, were drawn up for violation of the permitted driving speed which was recorded by speed cameras without stopping the vehicle (out of which in 97 155 cases the speed was recorded by the RTSD speed cameras, and in 31 254 cases by the SP speed cameras).

1.3.5. Education of road traffic participants

Improvements of education process of young road traffic participants should start with a family, as the family is the one that raises a child and instils attitude towards traffic safety and observance of road traffic regulations. It should be taken into account that the existing level of knowledge of road traffic regulations may not be completely attributed to practical behaviour and conduct when participating in road traffic, as it is very important to have the right attitude and create the right behaviour in children. Therefore the basics of the safety should be learnt by a child since early childhood. Solutions should be sought for teaching children to behave and feel safe on the road.

It has been observed that training in traffic safety is currently different in various schools. In many cases it is only limited to discussions on traffic safety at the beginning or end of the school year. As a result a child receives general information but has not been taught to understand and use it in road traffic in practice.

It is also necessary to provide children with knowledge of road traffic safety, as currently cyclist's licence may be obtained from the age of 10 years. It should be taken into account that such child with a bicycle will participate in the common road traffic, therefore he or she must be appropriately prepared well before that. A child must be fully prepared for participation in the road traffic, as a cyclist is a vulnerable road traffic participant.

Considerable efforts have been made to inform and educate the public in traffic safety - since 2001 the RTSD, in collaboration with the involved institutions, have regularly organised traffic safety campaigns on current topics, such as driving under the influence of alcohol (Save the friend!, Drive sober! etc.), use of seat belts (Those who fasten survive), exceeding of the permitted speed (Speed, mortally sly!), safety of vulnerable traffic participants. In Latvia, competitions for young traffic participants have been organised already for 23 years (since 1994), these include a competition for young cyclists, the competition for moped riders "I want to be mobile", and the competition for future drivers "Best Annual Future Driver".

It should also be noted that every year the RTSD develops a training aid for traffic safety which is given as a present to Latvian schools.

In 2015, campaigns for cyclist safety, use of seat belts and driving under the influence of alcohol were organised. In autumn 2015, a campaign for pedestrians "Shine a light" was organised during which 20 000 light reflective vests were distributed to low-income Latvian residents.

The RTSD has developed an interactive training aid for future cyclists. Pupils, their parents and teachers may use it during the learning process, and it is also available online at www.berniem.csdd.lv.

The National Centre for Education has developed and offered to educational institutions in autumn 2015 a diagnostic test on road traffic regulations for pupils of classes 4 and 8. Its purpose was to test knowledge and skills of pupils and ascertain their attitude towards the observance of road traffic regulations and habits in daily situations on a road, street, and in populated areas and outside them.

Organisation of the diagnostic test was supported by the RTSD, and its development and organisation were financed from insurance funds which, in accordance with the Compulsory Civil Liability Insurance of Owners of Motor Vehicles Law, insurers transfer to the account of the association "Motor Insurers' Bureau of Latvia" for the implementation of measures to prevent road traffic accidents.

Results from 19 793 pupil tests were gathered in total (10 766 in class 4, 9027 in class 8).

The diagnostic test for pupils of class 4 included questions, such as Duties of pedestrians and passengers; Additional requirements for cyclists and riders of mopeds; Regulation of road traffic and Unregulated crossroads; Road signs and their characteristics; Driving speed, distance and interval; Age limits for vehicle drivers and road traffic participants of separate categories, and General questions.

The average percentage of the right answers in the diagnostic test for class 4 accounted for 77.5 %. Pupils have considerable knowledge, as according to the analysis of questions the number of the right answers ranges from 90-100 % for a large majority of pupils (35.1 %), while only 2.7 % of the pupils have demonstrated poor results (below 33 % of the right answers).

The diagnostic test for pupils of class 8 included questions, such as General questions; Duties of pedestrians and passengers; General duties of vehicle drivers; Duties of vehicle drivers in special cases; Steps to be taken by a vehicle driver after a road traffic accident; Regulation of road traffic; Starting driving and changing directions of driving; Driving speed, distance and interval; Road traffic in residential areas; Driving over railway level crossings; Use of emergency signs; Additional requirements for cyclists and riders of mopeds; Vehicle recognition signs; Driving training; Driving at crossroads; Vehicles and their registration; Rights and duties of road traffic participants.

Overall, the average score in the test was 59.25 % which was obtained by the majority of the pupils. Moreover, the number of pupils who demonstrate very poor results (9 %) is the same as the number of those who show very high results (9 %). Pupils are better at answering the questions regarding RTR but have less awareness of important questions about the RTL.

Needless to say, the work of teachers in educational institution is not enough to acquire knowledge of all questions, this would also require safe and right behaviour in road traffic demonstrated by parents and the entire society.

Common education and awareness-raising of road traffic participants would require modern self-study educational models for traffic safety:

• Improvement, development and creation of interactive digital materials (traffic safety website - www.berniem.csdd.lv, a computer game etc.);

• Implementation of educational projects for traffic safety by the MoES, the RTSD, the SP and other responsible institutions aimed at different age groups and road traffic participants (pedestrians, passengers, cyclists, riders of mopeds and vehicle drivers), organisation of public events in schools and Latvian cities and towns to raise safety issues.

Educational awareness campaigns on the current road traffic safety problems for all road traffic participants also play an important role:

• On driving under the influence of alcohol;

• On the failure to observe safe speed;

• On the failure to use seat belts, safety helmets and child car seats;

• On the safety of vulnerable traffic participants (pedestrians, cyclists, riders of mopeds and motorcycles);

• On aggressive driving;

• On fatigue of drivers and microsleep behind the wheel;

• On the lack of mutual understanding and respect of traffic participants etc.

1.3.6. Mitigation and prevention of consequences of road traffic accidents

It is important for the reduction of fatalities to identify and focus on the injuries which cause disability or fatal consequences.

Exceeding of the permitted driving speed and choice of inappropriate speed which often lead to RTAs may also constitute a cause of serious injuries after RTAs. Speed has a direct impact on the severity of injuries sustained as a result of accidents, but other factors are also important, such as rescue of road casualties, reduction of rescue time. One of the major improvements which could significantly reduce this time in the future would be the introduction of eCall system, however, it should be taken into account that this system will only be available in new cars.

The most severe injuries are often sustained as a result of accidents which affect vulnerable traffic users, therefore it is important to reduce injuries to pedestrians and cyclists.

One of the causes of road traffic accidents which result in severe injuries or fatal consequences is usually driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotic substances, yet another cause, which has so far been neglected, is driver fatigue (also control of leisure/work time of professional drivers).

A critical element which would help to reduce the number of severe injuries is the use of seat belts by all vehicle passengers (not only the driver). It is equally important that all riders of motorcycles and mopeds and their passengers use safety helmets, that all children are restrained in child car seats when driving, it is necessary to improve the knowledge and skills of society in providing first aid in road accidents, as well as to reduce the arrival time of rescuers at the place of road traffic accident. In addition, it is necessary to conduct rescue operations more efficiently and ensure efficient, timely and high-quality emergency medical assistance to casualties in road traffic accidents, their hospital treatment and rehabilitation.

1.3.7. Preventive measures for prevention of road traffic accidents

Control of the permitted driving speed - fixed speed cameras

In order to reduce the failure to observe the permitted driving speed in road traffic, it should be continued to improve the control of road traffic participants, and it is also important to ensure information exchange among EU Member States regarding the persons who commit violations.

During the period when the use of fixed speed cameras was suspended in Latvia, road traffic safety did not improve, on the contrary, it deteriorated. In particular, in 2012 when speed cameras were in use the number of accidents involving casualties decreased by 3.6 % from April to September (comparing to the same period of time in 2011 when fixed speed cameras were not actually used). However, already in 2013 the number of accidents involving casualties increased by 5.3 %. Similar trends may also be observed in the number of fatalities. In particular, during the period when fixed speed cameras were used in summer months the number of fatalities decreased by 3.5 %, but when speed cameras were no longer used in 2013 it increased by 14.6 %.

The plan is implemented until 2018 to create a network of fixed speed measuring devices which contains 100 speed cameras in the entire Latvia in order to promote the improvement of traffic safety. The Cabinet Order No. 678 of 14 November 2016, On the Conceptual Report "On Operational Performance of the Fixed Speed Cameras Installed by the State Stock Company Road Traffic Safety Directorate, Proposals for Further Use of Technical Means (Photo or Video Equipment), and Financing of the Purchase, Installation and Ensuring of Performance of Speed Cameras" envisages to support the option of further introducing speed cameras contained in the conceptual report which provides for the introduction of 100 speed cameras in 4 stages within the following periods: stage 1 - 16 (implemented in 2015), stage 2 - 24 (implemented in 2016), stage 3 - 20 (in 2017), stage 4 - 40 (in 2018) by envisaging to cover expenditure only from part of the dividends to be disbursed by the RTSD to the State.

40 fixed speed cameras have been used for speed control in road traffic starting from 6 December 2016, and preparatory works are also carried out in locations where 20 more speed cameras will be potentially installed. Locations of fixed speed cameras have been selected as a result of cooperation between the MoT, the RTSD, the SP, the LSR, the LALRG and the TDoRCC.

The updated version of the map of fixed speed cameras is available on the RTSD's website at www.csdd.lv. Until November 2016, most of speed cameras have been installed in Riga Region, as Riga Region has the largest traffic volume and thus also more dangerous places. Speed cameras are located according to the specific methodology based on the number of road traffic accidents and the number of road casualties. Warning traffic signs are installed before each speed camera.

In developing a plan for the locations of speed cameras both the experience of other countries and the previous road traffic data and factors in Latvia were analysed and taken into account. Such factors included analysis of road traffic accidents (numbers of accidents, casualties and fatalities in a specific location), functional significance of a road section in traffic, threat to other traffic participants caused as a result of potential exceeding of the permitted speed, traffic volume and typical driving trends. It should be noted that installation of fixed speed cameras has been postponed in several necessary road sections until the next period, as road repairs or reconstructions works are planned in these places in the near future.

Foreign experience, however, shows that performance and placement of speed cameras should be balanced - fixed and mobile speed cameras should be used by turns, and the police should also patrol roads. It is important to ensure transparent introduction of speed cameras and careful consideration of their performance and locations. Speed cameras should serve as a tool which is understandable to the public and used in order to improve road traffic safety and ensure observance of the permitted driving speed.

Impact of the failure to use seat belts installed in vehicles on consequences of RTAs

Seat belts installed in vehicles are the simplest and cheapest technique to prevent or reduce injuries sustained from RTAs. It is important that currently almost all passenger cars are fitted with seat belts, it has also been mandatory to use seat belts for some time in all EU Member States. It should be noted that the EU legislation requires that both drivers and passengers fasten their seat belts if the seat is fitted with it. It is equally important not only to grasp and fasten the seat belt but also to do it correctly, as it is the only way to avoid life-threatening injuries in case of a RTA.

However, it should be taken into account that the failure to use seat belts is the second most common cause of fatal RTAs in the EU Member States (the second is the exceeding of the permitted driving speed, while the third is drunk driving). It is also significant that airbags installed in a vehicle may only fulfil their function (to reduce injuries from RTAs) together with seat belts, therefore it is crucial to always fasten seat belts, especially if a car is fitted with airbags.

After conducting a survey and carrying out a study11 in 2015 on the use of seat belts in Latvia, it was concluded that when sitting in the front seats of a car the majority or 81 % of drivers and passengers use seat belts, while when sitting at the back of a car only approximately one third (around 30 %) of passengers fasten their seat belts. It should be indicated that seat belts in the back seats are used far less often in Latvia (approximately 2.5 times) than in the rest of the EU. Although according to statistics, the overall situation of the use of seat belts in vehicles has improved over the last years in Latvia, this survey shows that 17 % of drivers still believe that it is not necessary to use seat belts at all.

The study has also concluded that the use of seat belts differs among various Latvian regions and cities, as approximately 58 % of traffic participants in Riga use seat belts in the back seats, while outside Riga the situation is different, for example, in Rēzekne only 14 % of the passengers sitting at the back fasten their seat belts, moreover, only half of all children are restrained in child car seats according to the RTR requirements.

Taking into account the statistics of child casualties and fatalities in RTAs (12 children died in 2015, and 7 children died in 2014), it should be remembered that child safety, provided he or she is a passenger, depends on additional factors which affect consequences of RTAs. In accordance with the RTR, children the height of which does not exceed 150 cm shall be located in a child seat or pad, which is installed in conformity with the instructions of its manufacturer, and shall be fastened with a seat belt.

It should be kept in mind that it is mandatory for taller children to use adult seat belts. It is also important for the safety of children that a child car seat is not located in the front seats where a child sits facing the driving direction, except for the case when airbag has been deactivated.

Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol or narcotic or other intoxicating substances

Although harsh penalties are imposed in Latvia for such road traffic violation, there are still vehicle drivers who participate in the road traffic under the influence of alcohol or narcotic substances. This fact is confirmed by the SP statistics of checks on road traffic detecting a number of vehicle drivers every day who drive while being under the influence of alcohol. RTAs involving casualties also occur under the influence of alcohol or narcotic substances, and the drivers responsible for such RTAs are punished in accordance with the Criminal Law.

Figure 7. Statistics of the percentage of the RTAs caused under the influence of alcohol in the total number of RTAs for the period from 2001 to 2015

Over the last three years 12 000 administrative violation reports were drawn up on Latvian roads for vehicle drivers who have sat behind the wheel under the influence of alcohol, narcotic or other intoxicating substances. Moreover, 10 % of the RTAs with fatal consequences in 2015 were caused by driving under the influence of alcohol or other intoxicating substances. 18 people lost their lives in these accidents. Also the number of casualties in RTAs caused by driving under the influence of alcohol was 280 in 2015 which in total accounts for 6 % of all RTA casualties. Overall, the number of fatalities in RTAs caused by driving under the influence of alcohol has decreased, yet it still significantly affects the total statistics of fatalities and casualties.

Driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotic substances increases the risk of RTA, as a driver is not ready to react quickly enough in a critical situation in order to take the right decision and perform a safe manoeuvre which could prevent a RTA. It should also be taken into account that driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotic substances increases the severity of consequences of RTAs. Such fact is also confirmed by statistics, as consequences of a RTA where one of the drivers or both drivers have been under the influence of alcohol or narcotic substances are often very serious and involve fatalities. In most cases this is caused by the fact that driving under the influence of alcohol (also narcotic substances) usually involves exceeding of the permitted speed and the failure to comply with other requirements of the RTR, and traffic safety is ignored.

RTAs involving casualties Fatalities

Figure 8. Statistics of the numbers of fatalities and casualties in RTAs caused under the influence of alcohol for the period from 2001 to 2015

In order to mitigate and prevent driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotic substances, it is necessary to change the public attitude towards the impact of alcohol and narcotic substances on road traffic safety. One of the ways to change the public attitude is to implement various campaigns, however, the importance of penalties should also be emphasised

Driver fatigue

A study12 was published in 2014 on the frequency of drowsiness among Latvian vehicle drivers which was conducted in several stages during the period of time from 2010 to September 2013 in several places in Latvia. Passing vehicle drivers were invited to participate in the study. Involvement of the persons to be examined took place on a voluntary basis. All data on respondents were recorded anonymously.

The major conclusions of the study:

A high risk of falling asleep (11.7 %) is quite common among Latvian vehicle drivers. Such results indicate that increased drowsiness of vehicle drivers is a serious problem which poses threat to road traffic safety in Latvia.

• A high risk of falling asleep has been established in the age group from 18 to 40 years more often than among other vehicle drivers.

• A high risk of falling asleep has been established among lorry drivers (20.5 %) more often than among drivers of passenger cars (11.2 %).

• The study has established significant differences in the frequency of high risk of falling asleep at different times of the day. During hours between 15:00 and 18:00 a high risk of falling asleep is 1.7 times more common among vehicle drivers than during hours between 9:00 and 15:00.

• Drowsiness as a common phenomenon among drivers is also confirmed by survey results. 63.5 % of drivers have experienced a significantly increased risk of falling asleep behind the wheel at least once over the last year, 22.5 % of drivers have experienced an increased risk of falling asleep at least once a month, while 6.9 % of drivers have experienced an increased risk of falling asleep once a week. Such cases were more common among men than women.

• 34.6 % of drivers have experienced a microsleep behind the wheel over the last year. Men (especially aged from 18 to 40 years) have experienced a microsleep behind the wheel significantly more often than women (especially aged from 18 to 40 years). Differences between younger and older drivers are not considerable.

• The study has not established a very close relationship between self-assessment of drowsiness of drivers and results of objective measurement of drowsiness which means that drivers are not able to assess their drowsiness themselves sufficiently precisely, and at least part of the drivers are not able to distinguish between drowsiness and fatigue.

• The most important factor established in the study which significantly reduces the frequency of the high risk of falling asleep is leave (for the employed) or study holidays (for students). The frequency of the risk of falling asleep reduces significantly during leave/study holidays (more than 7 times).

• Drivers who had not had enough sleep in the last night/week before the study were more common to experience drowsiness/microsleep behind the wheel over the previous year. This confirms the assumption that insufficient sleep is often not occasional but rather the lifestyle of a specific person - those who do not get enough sleep chronically fail to draw any conclusions (or are not able to change their lifestyle, habits, work or study schedule) and continue living without getting enough sleep.

• This study has not confirmed any positive impact of drinks containing caffeine on the reduction of the risk of falling asleep.

• Respondents have indicated excessive study load, stress, inability to remove themselves from work-related or personal problems, and excessive workload as the most common causes of insufficiently long and quality sleep.

• Shift work at different times significantly increases drowsiness in comparison to standard working hours. Respondents who work in shifts at different hours have experienced drowsiness behind the wheel more often than others over the last year.

• Workload presents a high risk of falling asleep (objectively) more often than study load.

• A microsleep behind the wheel has been more common over the last year among employed drivers than non-working drivers.

The following example of a RTA investigation scenario13 may also provide evidence of drowsiness behind the wheel and its importance in the assessment of the risks of road traffic safety: A RTA scenario - a professional lorry driver falls asleep behind the wheel and drives off the road with a speed of 70 km/h, further the lorry hits a road lighting column. The lorry driver dies as a result of the accident. In order to analyse this RTA attention should be paid to the following questions:

• Why did the lorry driver drive off the road? Because he fell asleep behind the wheel (the majority of the RTA investigations end with the establishment of this fact by indicating falling asleep behind the wheel as the cause of the accident).

• Why did the lorry driver fall asleep behind the wheel? Because he had agreed to work additional shift, even though he was clearly tired (he needed to earn more money).

• How could the lorry driver work additional shift? Because his workplace had not introduced the right system which controls employees, so they could be not overloaded.

• Why had his workplace failed to introduce an employee control system? Because it is not made compulsory in laws and regulations, and management of the company has no incentive to introduce it.

• Why was the road lighting column in the direct vicinity of the road? Because laws and regulations allow for such a solution.

• Why do laws and regulations allow for such a solution? Because the institutions responsible for road infrastructure lack a systematic approach to road design - on the basis of RTA investigation.

Why do the institutions responsible for road infrastructure lack a systematic approach to road design? Because higher public institutions are not willing to increase road design and construction costs in order to make them safer.

At the same time answer to the question "why did the lorry driver fall asleep behind the wheel?" might also be as follows: the lorry was not fitted with an alarm system which would alert the driver when he or she is tired and starts falling asleep behind the wheel. Further investigation would conclude that the manufacturer of the lorry did not have any reason to install an alarm system, as its seller (local dealer) had not sufficiently informed of such additional equipment, and also because the buyer of the lorry had not found economic justification for the purchase of such system together with the lorry. In addition, it would be concluded that the responsible public institutions did not find a need to make such systems compulsory for new lorries, as car manufacturers only install them as additional equipment at a certain price.

Diversion of vehicle drivers' attention from the road and use of mobile devices behind the wheel

Diversion of drivers' attention from the road is an increasing phenomenon over the last years, and it becomes one of the major factors of RTAs. Increasingly more different comfort and entertainment systems are installed in vehicles which may divert driver's attention from road. Drivers who use different mobile devices behind the wheel, such as mobile phones, navigation equipment and tablets, also face a high risk of RTAs. It is important to note that popularity of such devices will keep increasing in the near future, consequently the risk that such drivers become involved in RTAs will increase as well.

Taking into account that causes of the diversion of driver's attention may be very different, the following four major causes have been identified:

- visual diversion of attention (for example, when driver looks away from the road, looks at the view, passengers etc.),

- acoustic diversion of attention (for example, a phone call, music etc.),

- biomechanical diversion of attention (for example, when driver changes radio station etc.),

- cognitive14 diversion of attention (for example, daydreaming etc.).

Measures to address this issue are usually divided into the following five categories: ensuring of appropriate requirements in laws and regulations, and monitoring of their fulfilment, supplementing of driver training, implementation of different advertising campaigns, introduction of different measures and activities related to road infrastructure technologies which would help to reduce the diversion of attention (for example, rumble strips). It should be taken into account that implementation of such measures involve drivers, transport companies, road operators and managers, and manufacturers of vehicles.

The diversion of attention from the road is most common among drivers, however, pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists also face a high risk of RTA as a result of the diversion of attention from the road, as mobile devices become more widely used and also increasingly popular.

Impact of the mistakes made by traffic participants on the road traffic safety

People make mistakes, and it is only natural, and such mistakes are also made when participating in road traffic as a driver, a cyclist or a pedestrian. In order to identify the potential risks and increase the road traffic safety, it is important to be aware of what kind of mistakes people make. In most cases mistakes15 made in road traffic may be categorised as follows:

Misunderstanding. In this case action results from an unplanned activity - traffic signs, traffic configuration or action of another road traffic participant is misunderstood.

Negligence. Negligence results from the fact that at a specific moment a person has failed to pay enough attention to the road, has been thinking about something else, or has forgotten how to act in a specific situation (has forgotten what a certain traffic sign means, what the permitted driving speed is in a specific road section etc.).

Error. A person acts incorrectly, because he or she has taken an erroneous decision, or a person believes that he or she is acting right, although it is wrong.

Deliberate action. A person deliberately acts in contravention of the accepted procedures (exceeds the permitted speed, fails to observe the overtaking prohibition etc.).

Databases and their importance in the RTA risk assessment

The global practice has shown that the importance of different databases related to road traffic and road traffic safety and their mutual integrity have significantly increased over the last years. In order to ensure that the obtained statistical data on road traffic and road traffic safety are useful, it would be important to integrate the following statistical data15 into a unified system:

• the basic information (the population, socio-economic indicators, geographical indicators of a country etc.);

• the data on road infrastructure (length, technical condition of roads, road equipment, traffic signs, road categories etc.);

• the traffic data (annual daily/monthly/yearly mileage, traffic flows, as well as data on vulnerable road traffic participants);

• the data on RTAs (number of RTAs, fatalities, casualties etc.);

• the data on injuries sustained from RTAs (Maximum Abbreviated Injury scale - MAIS);

• the data on traffic participants (penalties, violations etc.);

• the data on losses from RTAs.

Similar databases usually consist of large volume of information, yet this information is often insufficiently structured and analysed. Analysis should be carried out by linking different factors from each individual database. It is important because this allows to further identify potential risks, model and then also prevent or mitigate them.

1.3.8. Existing road infrastructure

State motorway infrastructure

Although it is impossible to rebuild all roads, pavements, carriageways or cycle paths, as in such case costs would exceed any economic benefits, the road traffic safety may be improved by improving road traffic safety within the existing road network. In this case it is possible, for example, to install speed bumps on roads, plan merging of traffic, create roundabouts, as well as otherwise limit the possibility to exceed the permitted speed which constitutes the major risk factor. Table No. 2 shows how different features of road infrastructure impact speed.

Table 2. Features of road infrastructure and their impact on speed16

Feature of
road infrastructure
Accelerating effect
(wish to exceed speed)
Decelerating effect
(wish to reduce speed)
Straight road section Long straight road section Short straight road section
Speed limiters Not installed Installed
Road surroundings Wide and well visible road surroundings Narrow and not well visible road surroundings
Width of road Wide road Narrow road
Surface of road Flat surface of road Uneven surface of road

It should be indicated that State motorways undergo gradual reconstruction in all routes forming major connections, however, roads still have features which reduce traffic safety.

The most important problems which reduce road traffic safety on Latvian motorways are as follows:

1) Dangerous transverse profile of road which is not suitable to traffic volume

The transverse profile with extended paved shoulders is still present in the road sections with the highest traffic volume that creates precedents of dangerous overtaking which have been reported multiple times when conducting audits of the existing roads in road sections, such as A1 section from Baltezers to Skulte, several A7 sections Ķekava-Bauska. It is possible to create overtaking prohibitions with a marked rumble strip applied to the road surface in the dangerous road sections, however, this option is not used. It is also possible to transform roads without a median strip with a partly paved shoulder (NP14) into 2+1 roads, thus creating safe overtaking areas. In such case it would also be necessary to address the issue of parallel collector roads for farm and company transport where agricultural machinery may be transported over as well.

2) Infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists

It is necessary to create infrastructures for pedestrians and cyclists (by mainly separating both categories of road users):

- in all populated areas at least in sections where they are crossed by State motorways;

- on internal roads of major importance in a populated area;

- on State and local government roads in sections between cities, towns and villages in direct vicinity of them;

- in international and national cycle routes between populated areas.

Lack of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure between closely located populated areas, in particular between the large populated areas, means that pedestrian and cycle paths are necessary, so that cyclists would not have to ride in the common high intensity traffic flow with other vehicles. For example, in sections Rīga-Ķekava, Liepāja-Grobiņa, Rīga-Garciems, Ogre-Ikšķile etc. Distance of up to 10 km is such that people are willing to cover by bicycle when going to work, unless the local terrain is uneven.

3) Roundabouts

It is necessary to use roundabouts in populated areas and outside them even more extensively by respecting tasks of each specific place in the traffic at crossroads (the maximum capacity, speed reduction, reduction of the number of accidents resulting in serious consequences etc.).

4) Optical steering and self-explainability

Any road as a complex engineering structure should be approximate to the concept of a self-explanatory, forgiving road. Insufficient visual perception of road during the dark hours of the day (significantly worse than for the motorways of closest European countries). One of the most crucial factors of the safety of road is its visibility during the dark hours of the day. Road and its continuation should be easily perceived visually in the dark, so that it would not be necessary to carry out fast manoeuvres only because it is impossible to see the continuation of the road in the dark. Major problems:

- Lack of road markings - it should be particularly emphasised that side lines of the road that wear off during operation and become hardly visible are restored insufficiently.

- Insufficient width and reflectivity of road markings. Many major State motorways still have long markings which are 100 m in width.

- Insufficient density of delineator posts. On most of the major motorways of the closest States delineator posts are located every 50 m.

- Destruction of reflectors of delineator posts as a result of negligent maintenance of a road. A pole of blade of a lawn mower scrapes the surface of posts and destroys reflectors. As a result the road track is insufficiently visible in the dark.

- Guardrails are not always equipped with reflectors.

- Traffic signs are often (established during inspections) so old and cracked that individual segments of signs fail to reflect light and prevent from seeing the image of the sign in the dark.

5) Structure of the cross-section of road

Slope of road embankment, if being too steep (according to the Lund University, Sweden - steeper than 1:4, the LSR - 1:3), may lead to rollover of a car if it loses the controlled motion path and drives down the slope of the embankment. Major problems:

- Even in new projects roads are built with slopes of embankment 1:1.5 which is critically dangerous and causes rollover of a car by driving off the road. Rollover of a car increases severity of RTA consequences.

- Despite the requirements of the standard LVS 190-2, the steep slopes are not protected by using guardrails.

Any removal of unnecessary and dangerous objects from road areas near the road, selection of a solution of external slopes of embankments that does not lead to rollover of the vehicles which have driven off the road, prevention of the creation of embankments with a slope of less than 1:3 in new and reconstruction projects.

6) Direct connections of adjacent areas to motorways

Hierarchical subordination of connections does not allow to connect houses and other local roads to the major State motorways which carry out the function of the major connection (category AI). Despite this fact the density of local road and house connections is very high which poses significant threats to traffic, when drivers stop on the road outside populated areas in order to carry out a manoeuvre (especially make the left turn). It is necessary to address the issue of creation of parallel roads on a national scale - initially at least in the road sections where traffic volume exceeds a specific level (10 000 A/24 h).

7) Gravel roads

Transformation of gravel roads into hard surface roads which includes a set of plan and profile adjustments in line with the transport dynamics and safety.

8) Parking places

Areas appropriate for recreation have not been created near the roads. The existing areas which were created several decades ago are physically delimited by barriers, they are not being reconstructed, and it is prohibited to enter them. Provision of parking places on the national roads and roads of the trans-European transport network which would allow lorry drivers to observe the requirements for the division of working time and rest periods.

1.3.9. Impact of technical condition of the vehicle on the road traffic safety

Passive and active safety

The impact of passive and active safety solutions of new vehicles on the traffic safety is directly related to the age of the Latvian fleet and its ability to get renewed with younger cars which have a significantly higher level of passive and active safety. When studying deformation resulting from a road traffic accident between two vehicles out of which one has been manufactured approximately 20 years ago, while the other only a couple of years ago, the deformation of the newer vehicle is significantly smaller after collision - a life space of the driver and passengers has been preserved, while construction of older cars often fails to save the driver and passengers from severe injuries.

It should also be noted that different tools and solutions of active safety in new vehicles help to prevent collisions by focusing on mistakes of a driver and correcting them.

Automated and connected vehicle technologies might become one of the most important future technologies in the near future. It should be taken into account that the majority of road traffic accidents are caused as a result of incorrect action or erroneous decision of a driver. An automated vehicle reduces the impact of a mistake or an erroneous decision of a driver on the road traffic safety. It should be noted that the key benefit from automated and connected vehicles is their potential contribution to the improvement of road traffic safety; the use of such vehicles may reduce the number of road traffic accidents and save people's lives. Technologies used in these vehicles might make road transport safe and reliable. Development of sustainable EU transport system is very important, in particular to improve road traffic safety, however, as to the automated and connected road transport attention should be paid to the protection of data, confidentiality of data of users, and also compatibility with other traffic participants is especially crucial. In the case of an accident greater attention should be paid to other road traffic participants in order to improve the road traffic safety in general.

Introduction of automated vehicles is based on the Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The deployment of the ITS is regulated at EU level by the Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport (hereinafter - the Directive 2010/40/EU) which establishes a framework in support of the coordinated and coherent deployment and use of the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) within the EU, in particular across the borders between the Member States, and sets out the general conditions necessary for that purpose. At the same time the implementation of the Directive 2010/40/EU is voluntary, but its implementation has not been fully executed in Latvia.

Technical condition of vehicles

The technical condition of vehicles is controlled during technical inspection of vehicles. Technical inspection of vehicles is carried out in Latvia for all passenger cars, buses, lorries and their trailers which participate in road traffic and are registered in Latvia, as well as motorcycles. Technical inspection is not carried out for mopeds, snow motorcycles and small craft.

It should be noted that vehicles in Latvia are subject not only to high variations of temperature but also very aggressive environment, as carriageways are treated with anti-skid materials which affect technical condition of vehicles.

It is indicated in the impact assessment prepared by the European Commission with regard to the development and adoption of the Directive 2014/45/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 3 April 2014 on periodic roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers that insufficient technical condition of vehicles has been the cause of 3 to 19 % of road traffic accidents

Table 3. Statistical data on technical checks carried out on roads for the period from 2015 to 2016

2015
Lorries, trailers (semi-trailers), buses
The total number of checked lorries The number of checked foreign lorries The number of foreign lorries, % The number of checked lorries with evaluation 2 (serious deficiency or damage) The number of lorries with evaluation 2, % The number of checked lorries with evaluation 3 (dangerous deficiency or damage) The number of lorries with evaluation 3, % The total number of checked vehicles with serious or dangerous deficiencies, %
4488 1652 37 % 382 9 % 30 1 % 10 %
Passenger cars
The total number of checked passenger cars The number of checked vehicles with tyre failure The number of vehicles with tyre failure, % The number of checked vehicles with defects of lights The number of vehicles with defects of lights, % The total number of checked vehicles with tyre failure or defects of lights, %
4659 118 3 % 385 8 % 11 %
2016 (until 1 November)
Lorries, trailers (semi-trailers), buses
The total number of checked lorries The number of checked foreign lorries The number of foreign lorries, % The number of checked lorries with evaluation 2 (serious deficiency or damage) The number of lorries with evaluation 2, % The number of checked lorries with evaluation 3 (dangerous deficiency or damage) The number of lorries with evaluation 3, % The total number of checked vehicles with serious or dangerous deficiencies, %
4555 1592 35 % 451 10 % 32 1 % 11 %
Passenger cars
The total number of checked passenger cars The number of checked vehicles with tyre failure The number of vehicles with tyre failure, % The number of checked vehicles with defects of lights The number of vehicles with defects of lights, % The total number of checked vehicles with tyre failure or defects of lights, %
4600 188 4 % 432 9 % 13 %

The purpose of the technical inspection of vehicles is to ensure that vehicles are safe for participation in road traffic and do not cause damage to environment during their operation. If failures (defects) are not detected timely in the technical inspection of vehicles, it might intensify such failures and cause cascade of other failures additionally, i.e. one existing failure results in failures of other individual units of equipment, thus creating negative impact on the road traffic safety. It is important in the context of road traffic safety and its impact on the society that vehicles which are used in road traffic are in proper technical condition. For this purpose, it is necessary not only to draw on the minimum requirements established in EU law which allow Member States some discretion but also to take into account the local characteristics in order to adequately develop national laws and regulations by using the offered possibilities and thus achieving the maximum effect of traffic safety.

Some of the most important factors which directly affect a relationship between technical condition of vehicles and road traffic safety:

- During the initial inspection in 2015 serious deficiencies or damages were established in technical condition and equipment of 41 % of vehicles. Out of this number 17.5 % of vehicles had serious deficiencies or damages in suspension, 7.4 % - in the regulation of dipped-beam, 6.4 % - corrosion damage, 4.6 % - uneven operation of braking equipment;

- during the technical inspection of vehicles dangerous deficiencies or damages are established in approximately 13 vehicles on a daily basis, out of which braking equipment is unacceptably damaged in 8 vehicles, thus posing direct and clear threats to traffic safety and people's lives;

- Statistics of the technical condition of vehicles and their equipment inspected within the framework of the campaign "Night of technical inspection", which was organised by the RTSD, are significantly more negative, i.e. serious or dangerous deficiencies or damages were established in 80 % of vehicles. Such free campaign of diagnostics which did not have any legally binding consequences indicates the actual technical condition of vehicles in daily road traffic;

- during a three-year period which involved inspections of technical condition of passenger cars on roads and checks of technical condition of lights and tyres of passenger cars, deficiencies were established in 10 % of vehicles which did not allow them to participate in road traffic;

In 2015, a possibility was introduced to cancel a permit for a vehicle, which has been involved in a RTA, to participate in road traffic in accordance with the amendments to the Cabinet Regulation No. 583 of 13 October 2015, Procedures by which the State Police Cancels a Permit for a Vehicle Involved in a Road Traffic Accident to Participate in Road Traffic. In 2015, a total of 169 permits was cancelled, while in 2016 this number was 932.

1.4. Conclusions on the Level of Road Traffic Safety

National policy planning documents and studies of different countries refer to various models which could be employed to improve the road traffic safety. One of such is the Safe System17 approach which is mentioned in the study Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System.17

The Safe System17 approach is based on a holistic (comprehensive) and proactive behaviour pattern. The essence of the system is that each element of the system plays a very important role in the overall assessment, yet in the case of the failure of one element the system is not significantly damaged and continues working. According to this approach the main emphasis is put on complete prevention of fatal RTAs and accidents resulting in severe injuries. The Safe System includes control, education and informing of road traffic participants, safe road infrastructure, traffic flow and speed control, safe vehicles and appropriate response to RTAs.

The Safe System is based on the four following principles:

1. People make mistakes which lead to RTAs.

2. The human body has a limited physical ability to tolerate the overload which occurs at the moment of RTA.

3. A shared responsibility should be ensured among the institutions involved in the ensuring of road traffic safety - the institution responsible for safe road infrastructure, the institution responsible for technical condition of vehicles, the institution responsible for rescue operations after RTAs etc.

4. All parts of the system should be strengthened in a unified and coordinated manner, at the same time it should be ensured that the failure of one part does not cause significant risks to other parts.

In 2008, the International Transport Forum (ITF) published the report Towards Zero: Ambitious Road Safety Targets and the Safe System Approach (ITF/OECD, 2008). This report emphasised a significant need to change the existing national policy in road traffic safety. According to the new approach, any serious injury resulting from a RTA and any fatal RTAs are unacceptable, therefore it is necessary to progress towards future vision by completely preventing RTAs involving casualties and fatalities.

This approach requires that solutions involved in road traffic, as well as road infrastructure are completely safe - forgiving. This means that in this case human errors are and will remain acceptable, however, fatalities and casualties in RTAs are not acceptable. In order to create such a system, the approach must be complete and comprehensive, also responsibility must be shared among the involved institutions, as each of them fully assumes responsibility for its area. The aim of a safe road traffic system is to ensure that human errors, negligence or deliberate action do not lead to fatal or injurious consequences in road traffic.

Table 4. The Safe System approach and traditional approach18

Directions Traditional approach The Safe System approach
What is the problem? All RTAs must be prevented. RTAs leading to fatal consequences or severe injuries must be prevented.
What kind of aim is set? To reduce the number of fatalities and the number of casualties. To prevent fatal RTAs and RTAs involving severe injuries.
What are the major directions in the planning of measures? Active action after RTA.

Gradual approach to prevent the problem.

Active approach and risk modelling irrespective of RTA. Systematic approach to create a safe system.
What causes RTAs? Inappropriate action of those involved in RTAs. People make mistakes and sustain injuries from RTAs. System should be error-proof.
Who is responsible for RTA? Individual road traffic participant. All institutions involved in the ensuring of road traffic safety share responsibility.
How does the system work? System consists of individual measures. Each element fits in with the single system to achieve greater common effect. At the same time it is ensured in the system that if one element fails, the rest of elements keep ensuring operation of the system.

It is important to note that operation of the road traffic safety system should ensure that in the case of a human error possibility to sustain injuries in a RTA or die is reduced and prevented to the minimum. It is also crucial to take account of the principles established in links of the integrated safety chain (see Figure 9) - specific measures and also responsible institutions may be determined in each of them.

Figure 9. Integrated safety chain18

The Safe System road traffic safety model includes several elements which are closely interlinked. It should be indicated that speed and its impact are the most important risk which should be taken into account with regard to other elements (see Figure 10). A safe vehicle is considered a vehicle which has received at least a five-star rating in Euro NCAP19 crash tests, and is also fitted with electronic stability control, as well as other latest passive and active safety solutions in car industry.

A safe road is considered a road which corresponds to a four-star rating according to the Euro RAP20 rating criteria, while a safe road traffic participant uses a seat belt, observes the permitted driving speed, does not use any intoxicating substances before and during driving, is sensible and knows the RTR requirements.

Figure 10. Safe model of road traffic system21

In order to achieve a considerable improvement in road traffic safety it should be understood that it is important to create safe rather than safer roads and to ensure strong and sustainable management of road traffic safety. According to global practice, it is crucial to create a shared responsibility for road traffic safety by determining institutions responsible for specific lines of action. Taking into account increasing popularity of bicycles, as well as urban development, it is important to create traffic which is completely safe for vulnerable road traffic participants in cities. It should not be forgotten that it is essential to ensure complete data collection, analysis and studies on road traffic, as well as to follow the latest trends in data collection and analysis.21

According to several studies and global practice, the most important and major factors affecting road traffic safety are as follows: the human factor (traffic participant), technical condition of vehicle and its equipment, and environment (road infrastructure). The human factor, however, plays the most important role, while the impact of others is smaller.

It should be remembered that all three factors are closely interlinked, thus they should all be understood and taken into account in order to achieve the set objectives regarding improvement of the level of road traffic safety. However, one more factor should not be forgotten, as the action of rescue services after RTAs is also important - efficient operation of rescue services must be ensured.

In light of the statistics of RTAs, assessment contained in the Plan, as well as analysis of other factors related to road traffic safety, the following major problems of road traffic safety in Latvia have been identified22:

• Failure to observe important RTR which directly affect traffic safety - exceeding of the permitted driving speed, failure to observe priority traffic signs, failure to observe traffic light signals, drunk driving etc.

• Erratic driving speed of different vehicles in road traffic - execution of overtaking manoeuvres in dangerous situations.

• An in-depth research has not been carried out on the causes of severe RTAs during summer on dry and clean road surface - research of the causes of accidents.

• Failure to observe safety requirements for drivers and passengers - failure to use seat belts (especially in the back seats).

• A high percentage of pedestrians of the total number of fatalities and casualties in RTAs - lack of pavements, failure to use reflective elements, crossing of a carriageway at unauthorised places, insufficient visibility, insufficient lighting at stops, on pedestrian crossings, pedestrian crossings not corresponding to traffic safety requirements etc.

• A high percentage of cyclists of the total number of fatalities and casualties in RTAs - lack of cycle paths, visibility of bicycles and cyclists (failure to use reflective elements, lighting equipment, reflective vests), lack of RTR knowledge of cyclists, lack of mutual tolerance (between a driver and a cyclist).

• Common methodology has not been developed for identification of dangerous sections and places ("black spots") in populated areas.

• Exceeding of the permitted driving speed - insufficient number of fixed speed cameras, non-existence of average speed cameras, insufficient number of mobile speed cameras of the SP.

• Level of knowledge and attitude towards the RTR among children and youth - lack of unified curricula, attitude of parents towards RTR, as parents ignore them.

• Driver fatigue and diversion of attention from the road (smart devices etc.) - insufficient control of the observance of requirements, insufficient amount of fines.

• Insufficient perception of road markings, traffic signs - lack of horizontal road markings in many places, insufficient use of horizontal road markings (speed, lanes etc.).

• Safety at crossroads - non-existence of roundabouts, crossroads not corresponding to safety requirements, overtaking manoeuvre is not physically restricted.

• Attitude of drivers towards road traffic safety - aggressive driving, mutual intolerance, failure to use safety equipment (seat belts), inappropriate technical condition of vehicles (tyres, lighting equipment etc.).

• The average age of cars (13 years in Latvia) which is twice as high as the European average - 6 to 8 years in Europe (at the moment of manufacturing safety equipment, ecology of car etc. are not so efficient as that in newer cars).

• The poor technical condition of fleet - 45 % of cars fail to undergo technical inspection successfully at the first attempt.

1.5. Direct Action Results and Their Assessment

The direct action results to be achieved in 2020 have been identified in the Road Traffic Safety Plan for 2014-2016 in line with the target set by the European Commission, i.e. to reduce the numbers of fatalities and seriously injured persons in RTAs twice by 2020. In accordance with the Transport Development Guidelines for 2014-2020 the number of fatalities should be reduced by 50 % in comparison with 2010. It means that the number of fatalities should be annually reduced by 7-10 % by 2020 in comparison with 2010. By knowing the final objective, it was planned, with the help of linear interpolation method, for how many fatalities and casualties the numbers of fatalities and casualties should reduce every year in line with the direct action results to be achieved, as laid down in the Road Traffic Safety Programme for 2007-2013.

2. Objective and Lines of Action of the Plan

Objective: A 50 % reduction in the numbers of fatalities and casualties in road traffic accidents in 2020 in comparison with 2010

Measures to be taken by each competent institution to improve the road traffic safety are identified in the lines of action of the Plan.

Lines of action:

1. Preventive road traffic safety measures:

Research activities regarding road traffic safety in Latvia;

• Improvement of the overall technical condition of vehicles;

• Improvement of information exchange on RTAs;

• Preventive measures for control of road traffic participants;

• Amendments to laws and regulations in order to prevent violations in road traffic;

• Amendments to laws and regulations in order to improve procedures for the medical check-ups of drivers.

2. Education and informing of traffic participants:

Educational activities for traffic participants;

Informative campaigns on road traffic safety.

3. Introduction of solutions for traffic safety in the motorway and street network:

Improvement of State motorway infrastructure;

Measures for improvement of cycling and pedestrian infrastructure;

Improvement of infrastructure of motorways of towns, cities and local governments.

4. Response to road traffic accidents and mitigation and prevention of their consequences:

Provision of rescue services with the necessary equipment;

Improvement of information system for notification of RTAs;

Improvement of the process of settlement of losses.

3. Description of the Lines of Action

3.1. Preventive Road Traffic Safety Measures

Table 6. Lines of action and measures included in the Plan

Policy results and performance-based indicators Improved road traffic safety by achieving a 50 % reduction in the numbers of fatalities and casualties in road traffic accidents in 2020 in comparison with 2010.
Line of action 3.1. Preventive road traffic safety measures.
No. Measure Result of action Performance-based indicator Responsible institution Co-responsible institutions Deadline for execution Necessary financing (EUR) and its sources
3.1.1. Research activities on road traffic safety in Latvia
1. Carry out a comprehensive study on the risk factors affecting road traffic safety in Latvia, as well as inform the responsible institutions of study findings (seminars, conferences, thematic training). A comprehensive study has been carried out by identifying risks which increase a risk of becoming involved in a RTA and suffer injuries or die in a RTA in Latvia, also proposals will be made for significant reduction of the risks. The responsible institutions have been informed of the study findings. 1 study has been carried out on the risk factors affecting road traffic safety, 5 seminars have taken place with regard to the study. MoT RTSD, MoF (MIBoL), MoI (SP), MoES, MoJ (SFSB), MoH 31 December 2018 100 000, CCLI funds
3.1.2. Improvement of the overall technical condition of vehicles
2. Expand technical control of vehicles through inspections on roads. More extensive control of vehicles has been implemented with the help of technical inspections on roads for lorries, buses, taxis, passenger cars, motorcycles etc. 4300 vehicles have been inspected every year. RTSD SP 31 December 2020 Within the existing budget of the RTSD, additional financing is not necessary.
3. Improve technical control of vehicles in the annual technical inspection in compliance with the requirements of the EU Directive. Requirements for assessment of annual technical inspections have been harmonised according to the requirements of the EU Directive by introducing higher requirements for specific parameters. New Cabinet regulation has been drawn up regarding State technical inspection of vehicles and technical control of vehicles on roads. RTSD MoT 31 December 2017 Not necessary.
3.1.3. Improvement of information exchange on RTAs
4. Develop an information system for analysis of locations of RTAs and violations (CAIS). The CAIS information system has been developed which ensures that research institutions have access to the data of the MoI on RTAs. Information regarding locations of RTAs, administrative violations and crimes in road traffic is available online free of charge and without any authorisation to any interested party on the basis of specific selection criteria. ICoMoI SP 31 December 2020

(the estimated period for development is 14 months from the receipt of financing)

140 000, CCLI funds or State budget
5. Improve information exchange among insurers, the MIBoL, public institutions and law enforcement institutions in case of criminal proceedings. Amendments have been made to the relevant laws and regulations (the CCLI Law, Criminal Procedure Law, Cabinet Regulations Regarding the Criminal Procedure Information System etc.) in order to introduce electronic information exchange online among insurers, the MIBoL, public institutions and law enforcement institutions in criminal proceedings. Electronic information exchange has been introduced online among insurers, the MIBoL, public institutions and law enforcement institutions on circumstances of RTAs, victims and responsible persons, as well as decisions taken in criminal proceedings in order to ensure payout of insurance compensation to victims without waiting for a final ruling in criminal proceedings. MoF MoI (SP), Prosecutor General's Office, MIBoL 31 December 2020 To be specified after assessment.
3.1.4. Preventive measures for control of road traffic participants
6. Purchase and install fixed technical means (photo or video equipment). Monitoring of road traffic participants has been supplemented with fixed speed cameras. 60 fixed speed cameras have been purchased and installed (20 in 2017, 40 in 2018). MoT (RTSD) MoI (SP) RTSD dividends
31 December 2017 1 440 878
31 December 2018 2 881 757
7. Purchase portable measuring devices for control of breath alcohol concentration. Control of drivers who operate vehicles under the influence of alcoholic beverages has been ensured. 130 portable measuring devices for control of breath alcohol concentration has been purchased (30 in 2017, 50 in 2018, 50 in 2020). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2017 27 000
31 December 2018 43 000
31 December 2020 43 000
Total: 113 000
8. Purchase mouthpieces of portable measuring devices for control of breath alcohol concentration. Control of drivers who operate vehicles under the influence of alcoholic beverages has been ensured. Each year 300 000 mouthpieces of portable measuring devices for control of breath alcohol concentration have been purchased. MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2017 40 000
31 December 2018 40 000
31 December 2019 40 000
31 December 2020 40 000
  Total: 160 000
9. Purchase multifunctional drug-testing devices. Control of drivers who operate vehicles under the influence of narcotic substances has been ensured. 6 multifunctional drug-testing devices have been purchased (2 in 2018, 2 in 2019, 2 in 2020). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2018 50 000
31 December 2019 50 000
31 December 2020 50 000
Total: 150 000
10. Purchase detection devices for devices (speed camera detectors etc.) which may detect signals emitted by measuring devices for speed control of vehicles (speed cameras). Reinforced control of the permitted driving speed at the same time creating feeling in drivers that it is impossible to avoid fines. 63 devices (speed camera detectors etc.) which may detect signals emitted by measuring devices for speed control of vehicles (speed cameras) have been purchased (21 in 2018, 21 in 2019, 21 in 2020). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2018 36 000 (CCLI funds)
31 December 2019 36 000
31 December 2020 36 000
  Total: 108 000
11. Ensure purchase of technical equipment for road traffic monitoring - control of carriage by road and preparation of the place of RTA (traffic police sticks, whistles, lamps, video lamps, searchlights, photo cameras, video cameras, drones etc.). Road traffic monitoring, as well as fulfilment of tasks specified in EU law and laws and regulations of Latvia regarding control of carriage by road have been ensured. Technical equipment such as traffic police sticks, whistles, lamps, video lamps, searchlights, photo cameras, video cameras, drones etc. have been purchased (it is not possible to specify the number and type of the necessary technical equipment for each year, as its purchase and amount depend on the need by assessing the specific situation of road traffic safety). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2017 59 500
31 December 2018 40 000
31 December 2019 40 000
31 December 2020 30 000
Total: 179 500
12. Ensure purchase of the necessary measuring devices for road traffic monitoring - control of carriage by road and preparation of the place of RTA (tyre tread depth gauges, measuring rods, measuring tapes, measuring wheels, meters to measure light transmittance of car windows etc.). Road traffic monitoring, as well as fulfilment of tasks specified in EU law and laws and regulations of Latvia regarding control of carriage by road have been ensured. Measuring instruments have been purchased (it is not possible to specify the number and type of the necessary technical equipment for each year, as its purchase and amount depend on the need by assessing the specific situation of road traffic safety). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2017 11 990 (CCLI funds)
31 December 2019 30 000
31 December 2020 30 000
  Total: 71 990
13. Ensure purchase of portable scales and their equipment for road transport. Fulfilment of tasks specified in EU law and laws and regulations of Latvia regarding control of carriage by road has been ensured. 3 pieces of portable scales and their equipment for road transport have been purchased (1 in 2018, 1 in 2019, 1 in 2020). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2018 25 000
31 December 2019 25 000
31 December 2020 25 000
Total: 75 000
14. Prior to using average speed cameras for control of road traffic participants, explore the need to amend and, if necessary, prepare amendments to laws and regulations, as well as make proposals for the most appropriate financing model of average speed cameras. One or several most appropriate financing models have been prepared for the purchase of average speed cameras and ensuring of their operation, compliance of laws and regulations with the use of average speed cameras for control of road traffic participants has been ensured. One or several financing models have been prepared, amendments have been introduced to laws and regulations. MoI (SP) MoT (RTSD) 31 December 2018 Not necessary.
15. Prior to using automated devices, which record failure to observe traffic light signals, for control of road traffic participants, explore the need to amend and, if necessary, prepare amendments to laws and regulations, as well as make proposals for the most appropriate financing model of automated devices which record failure to observe traffic light signals. One or several most appropriate financing models have been prepared for the purchase of automated devices, which record failure to observe traffic light signals, and ensuring of their operation, compliance of laws and regulations with the use of devices, which record failure to observe traffic light signals, for control of road traffic participants has been ensured. One or several financing models have been prepared, amendments have been introduced to laws and regulations. MoI (SP) MoT (RTSD) 31 December 2018 Not necessary.
16. Ensure introduction of technical means which record failure to observe the prohibiting traffic light signal. Automated control of the observance of traffic light signals at dangerous crossroads has been ensured. Technical means which record failure to observe the prohibiting traffic light signal have been installed (their number will be specified after assessment). MoI (SP) MoT (LSR),

TDoRCC

To be specified after assessment.
31 December 2020
   
17. Ensure purchase of devices which allow automatic number-plate recognition. A possibility has been ensured to automatically establish whether a vehicle is wanted, whether it has been insured and has passed technical inspection, as well as some other important information for road traffic monitoring. 3 devices for automatic number-plate recognition have been purchased (1 in 2018, 1 in 2019, 1 in 2020). MoI (SP) MoT, LSR State budget or CCLI funds
31 December 2018 50 000
31 December 2019 50 000
31 December 2020 50 000
  Total: 150 000
18. Ensure purchase of bicycles (without a motor or with a 250 W electric motor) for the SP. In conducting road traffic monitoring in populated areas a possibility has been ensured to control whether other traffic participants pose threats to cyclists. 200 bicycles have been purchased which are used in the work of the State Police for control of road traffic participants. MoI (SP) MoT 31 December 2020 Amount and source of financing will be specified after assessment.
19. Ensure purchase of 3D rulers for the SP to ensure the process of elimination and investigation of consequences of RTAs. Quality of RTA preparation has been significantly improved by using the latest technologies. 5 3D rulers have been purchased (1 in 2017, 1 in 2018, 1 in 2019, 2 in 2020). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2017 100 000 in 2017 (CCLI funds)
31 December 2018 100 000 in 2018
31 December 2019 100 000 in 2019
31 December 2020 200 000 in 2020
Total: 500 000
20. Ensure purchase of thermal night vision cameras for the SP for control of road traffic participants. A possibility has been ensured to find persons (drivers) who after causing a RTA or committing a violation of the RTR in the dark hours of the day hide behind natural or artificial covers when running away from police, thus trying to avoid the liability provided for in the law. In addition, such devices could be used in frontier area in order to find the persons who, after illegal crossing of the border, continue travelling in a cargo compartment of a vehicle, van etc. 8 thermal night vision cameras have been purchased. MoI (SP) MoT 31 December 2017 28 000 in 2017 (CCLI funds)
21. Ensure purchase of individual compact video cameras for the SP for control of road traffic participants. Video recording of different violations of the RTR has been ensured to provide extra proof, including video recordings have been made in conflict situations or situations when a person tries to corrupt (bribe) a police officer. 300 individual compact video cameras have been purchased (100 in 2018, 100 in 2019, 100 in 2020). MoI (SP) MoT CCLI or State budget funds
31 December 2018 60 000
31 December 2019 60 000
31 December 2020 60 000
  Total: 180 000
22. Purchase special equipment in order to ensure fulfilment of tasks of the SBG regarding increased road traffic safety. Structural units of the SBG which fulfil tasks of the SBG on State motorways have been provided with quality special equipment. The following equipment has been purchased:

400 traffic police sticks;

200 lamps; 30 searchlights with stands.

MoI (SBG) MoT CCLI funds
31 December 2017 8200
31 December 2018 8200
31 December 2019 4800
31 December 2020 8200
  Total: 29 400
23. Purchase video recorders for recording of road traffic violations committed by a person who crosses the border illegally in order to record initial circumstances of RTA. Video recorders which allow to record road traffic violations committed by a person who crosses the border illegally have been purchased in order to record initial circumstances of RTA. 100 video recorders have been purchased, including additional equipment necessary for data processing. MoI (SBG) MoT CCLI funds:
31 December 2017 3000
31 December 2019 17 000
  Total: 20 000
3.1.5. Amendments to laws and regulations in order to prevent violations in road traffic
24. Explore the need to prepare amendments to the Cabinet Regulation No. 551 of 21 June 2004, Regulations Regarding Application of the Demerit Point System. A possibility has been considered to introduce a differentiated demerit point system for individual violations in road traffic (a system of penalties based on risk assessment), as well as the number of demerit points has been increased for individual violations and violations in carriage by road in order to motivate traffic participants to observe requirements of the RTR. Amendments have been adopted to the Cabinet Regulation No. 551 of 21 June 2004, Regulations Regarding Application of the Demerit Point System. MoT (RTSD) MoI (SP) 31 December 2018 Not necessary.
25. Explore the need to prepare amendments to the Latvian Administrative Violations Code by reviewing amounts of fines and considering a possibility to determine differentiated amount of fines (a system of penalties based on risk assessment) in road traffic. A possibility has been considered to introduce a differentiated system of fine amounts for individual violations in road traffic (a system of penalties based on risk assessment), as well as amounts of fines have been increased for violations in road traffic (fines have been increased for deliberate violations or violations which pose threat to other traffic participants: driving under the influence of alcohol or other intoxicating substances (especially if it occurs repeatedly) and causing of a severe RTA (in cases when a person has been previously punished for driving under the influence of alcohol or other intoxicating substances), use of inappropriate lighting equipment, use of inappropriate tyres, dismantled parts of braking systems, transport of unsecured cargo, failure to give way, failure to observe safe distance and interval, exceeding of the permitted speed, use of telephones, notebooks, tablets and smart devices etc.) by motivating traffic participants to observe requirements of the RTR. Amendments have been made to the Latvian Administrative Violations Code. MoT (RTSD) MoI (SP) 31 December 2017 Not necessary.
26. Make amendments to the Latvian Administrative Violations Code by reviewing amounts of fines and considering a possibility to determine a differentiated amount of fines (a system of penalties based on risk assessment) in carriage by road. A possibility has been considered to introduce a differentiated demerit point system for individual violations in carriage by road (a system of penalties based on risk assessment), as well as amounts of fines have been increased for violations in carriage by road in order to motivate traffic participants to observe requirements of the RTR. Amendments have been made to the Latvian Administrative Violations Code. MoT (RTSD) MoI (SP) 31 December 2020 Not necessary.
27. Consider the most appropriate solution for the possibility to make amendments to the Compulsory Civil Liability Insurance (CCLI) of Owners of Motor Vehicles Law, the RTL, and the Latvian Administrative Violations Code (LAVC) in order to provide a possibility to record CCLI validity of all vehicles in the register of vehicles and their drivers, and influence a possibility of such vehicles to participate in road traffic without the CCLI. Amendments have been made to the CCLI Law, the Road Traffic Law (RTL) and the Latvian Administrative Violations Code. The most appropriate solution has been considered and introduced which provides a possibility to record CCLI validity of all vehicles in the register of vehicles and their drivers, and influence a possibility of such vehicles to participate in road traffic without the CCLI. MoF, MIBoL SP, ICoMoI, MoT, RTSD 31 December 2020 Not necessary.
28. Consider the need to make amendments to laws and regulations in order to facilitate conclusion of CCLI contracts directly from insurers. The need has been considered and amendments have been made to the CCLI Law, the Activities of Insurance and Reinsurance Intermediaries Law etc. Traffic participants (owners and eligible users of vehicles) have been provided with a possibility to obtain information online in the CCLI information system on the possibilities to conclude CCLI contracts. MIBoL MoE, MoF, CRPC 31 December 2018 Not necessary.
3.1.6. Amendments to laws and regulations in order to improve procedures for the medical check-ups of drivers.
29. Develop (consider the need/make amendments) amendments to laws and regulations which stipulate the process of medical check-up of drivers by improving the requirements specified in regulations, as well as introducing additional check-ups. Amendments have been introduced to the Cabinet Regulation Regarding Health Check-ups of Vehicle Drivers and Persons Who Want to Obtain Qualification of Vehicle Drivers, as well as Procedures for Covering Expenditure of Early Health Check-Up by determining stricter health check-ups of drivers in order to transpose requirements of the Commission Directive (EU) 2016/1106 of 7 July 2016 amending Directive 2006/126/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on driving licences. Amendments have been made to laws and regulations which stipulate the process of health check-ups of drivers. MoT RTSD 31 December 2018 Not necessary.

3.2. Education and Informing of Traffic Participants

Policy results and performance-based indicators Improved road traffic safety by achieving a 50 % reduction in the numbers of fatalities and casualties in road traffic accidents in 2020 in comparison with 2010.
Line of action 3.2. Education and informing of traffic participants
No. Measure Action result Performance-based indicator Responsible institution Co-responsible institutions Deadline for execution Necessary financing (EUR) and its sources
3.2.1. Educational activities for traffic participants
1. Ensure educational activities for pre-school and primary school pupils regarding issues of road traffic safety. Educational activities have been implemented for pre-school and primary school pupils. 4 activities have been implemented within the framework of the NCE Safety Week. MoES

(NCE)

RTSD, MoT, SP 31 December 2020 State budget funds, within the existing funds.
2. Conduct diagnostics of knowledge and skills of pupils of classes 10-12 regarding issues of road traffic safety. Educational activities have been implemented for pupils of classes 10-12. 1 diagnostic test has been implemented and recommendations have been developed for acquisition of the issues of road traffic safety in an educational institution. MoES

(NCE)

RTSD, MoT, SP 31 December 2020 CCLI funds

14 000

3. Ensure seminars for improvement of professional competence of teachers and dissemination of good practice of teachers regarding acquisition of the issues of road traffic safety in curriculum. Seminars have been organised for professional development of teachers regarding acquisition of the issues of road traffic safety

included in the general curriculum.

5 activities have been organised. MoES

(NCE)

MoT, RTSD, SP 31 December 2020 CCLI funds

5000

4. Ensure that the concept of human security, which includes the issues of road traffic safety, is included in the general curriculum. Promote development of a harmonious, creative, socially active and responsible personality. The relevant activities have been implemented (the number of activities depends on demand). NCE MoT, RTSD, SP 31 December 2020 Within the bounds of the financing for the specific support objective (SSO) 8.3.1. "To develop competence-based content of general education".
3.2.2. Informative campaigns for road traffic safety
5. Create preventive and instructional materials necessary for promotion of road traffic safety (inducement prizes - pens, notepads etc., short film, game for training classes etc.). Materials have been prepared in order to ensure implementation of preventive measures in road traffic safety. Prizes and materials have been prepared in order to ensure participation of the SP in 1650 (each year) activities/classes on road traffic safety or related topics for approximate audience of 33 000 children in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. MoI (SP) MoT CCLI funds.
31 December 2017 75 500 (CCLI funds)
31 December 2018 100 000
31 December 2019 100 000
31 December 2020 100 000
  Total: 375 500
6. Purchase materials necessary for preventive measures within the framework of the promotion of road traffic safety (masks of Rūdis the Cat and Bruno the Beaver, costumes, reflectors, reflective vests and elements, bicycle lamps, tents etc.). Materials have been prepared in order to ensure implementation of preventive measures in road traffic safety. Prizes and materials have been prepared in order to ensure participation of the SP in 1650 (each year) activities/classes on road traffic safety or related topics for approximate audience of 33 000 children in 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. MoI (SP) MoT CCLI funds.
31 December 2017 84 500 (CCLI funds)
31 December 2018 60 000
31 December 2019 60 000
31 December 2020 60 000
  Total: 264 500
7. Ensure implementation of campaigns against drunk driving. Campaigns have been implemented in order to change the way the society thinks of the influence of alcohol on driving. 2 campaigns have been implemented on drunk driving. RTSD MoT, MoI (SP) 2017-2020 70 000

CCLI/RTSD budget/private financing

8. Ensure implementation of a campaign for use of safety equipment - seat belts, child car seats, helmets, reflective elements etc. Campaign has been implemented in order to change the way the society thinks of the importance of the use of safety equipment in road traffic safety. One campaign has been implemented for the use of safety equipment in vehicles. RTSD MoT, MoI (SP) 2017-2020 40 000

CCLI/RTSD budget/private financing

9. Ensure campaigns for exceeding of the permitted driving speed, observance of safe distance and other RTR norms. Campaign has been implemented in order to explain to the society the issues of the impact of increased speed and reduced distance on consequences of RTAs. One campaign has been implemented for observance of norms of road traffic regulations. RTSD MoT, MoI (SP), LSR 2017-2020 50 000

CCLI/RTSD budget/private financing

10. Ensure implementation of a campaign for safety of vulnerable traffic participants (pedestrians, cyclists, motorcycle riders). Campaign has been implemented in order to explain to the society safety of vulnerable traffic participants. One campaign has been implemented for safety of vulnerable traffic participants. RTSD MoT, MoI (SP) 2017-2020 50 000

CCLI/RTSD budget/private financing

11. Ensure implementation of a campaign for danger of the use of mobile devices during driving or any other topical theme depending on the concerns. Campaign has been implemented in order to change the way the society thinks of the impact of the use of mobile devices on road traffic safety during driving or any other topical campaign. One campaign has been implemented on a topical theme of road traffic safety. RTSD MoT, MoI (SP) 2017-2020 40 000

CCLI/RTSD budget/private financing

12. Implement the following informative campaign: Educating the public in the action after RTA. Campaign has been implemented in order to change the way the society thinks of adequate action after RTA. 3 video clips have been developed regarding the action after a road traffic accident, video clips and campaigns in social networks reminding to first dial 112 and only then take photographs; informative posters in the RTSD and other institutions, informative booklets, children's colouring books regarding 112, air fresheners reminding to dial 112 (they may, for example, be distributed to anyone who passes a technical inspection of vehicle at the RTSD), car clock regarding 112 and action after accident, as well as other representative materials. MoI (SFRS) MoT 2017-2020 CCLI budget
2017 15 000
Video 15 000
Colouring book 10 000
Air fresheners with 112 logo 10 000
Stickers, posters etc.
2018 15 000
Video 10 000
Air fresheners with 112 logo 10 000
Stickers, posters etc.
2019 15 000
Video 10 000
Air fresheners with 112 logo 10 000
Stickers, posters etc.
2020 10 000
Air fresheners with 112 logo 10 000
Stickers, posters etc.
Total for the period: 140 000
13 Implementation of preventive measures for the improvement of road traffic safety. Purchase of light reflectors, objects with light reflective elements for handing out on the border and frontier area. 10 000 pieces of light reflective elements have been purchased.

Objects with light reflective elements have been handed out to persons who participated in the public preventive measures organised by the territorial units of the SBG.

10 000 pieces of light reflective elements have been purchased.

(2500 pcs in 2017;

2500 pcs in 2018;

2500 pcs in 2019;

2500 pcs in 2020)

MoI (SBG) MoT CCLI funds.
31 December 2017 5000
31 December 2018 5000
31 December 2019 5000
31 December 2020 5000
  Total: 20 000

3.3. Introduction of Solutions for Traffic Safety in the Motorway and Street Network

Policy results and performance-based indicators Increased level of road traffic safety on motorways and streets has been ensured by introducing new and improving the existing solutions for road traffic safety.
Line of action 3.3. Introduction of solutions for traffic safety in the motorway and street network
No. Measure Action result Performance-based indicator Responsible institution Co-responsible institutions Deadline for execution Necessary financing (EUR) and its sources
3.3.1. Improvement of State motorway infrastructure
1. Conduct initial research for introduction of rumble strips on the P80 (E22) motorway Tīnūži-Koknese. Initial research has been conducted and rumble strips have been introduced in specific places in order to reduce the failure of drivers to observe horizontal road markings. Research has been conducted and rumble strips have been introduced (their number will be specified as a result of research). LSR MoT, RTSD 31 December 2017 Additional financing is not necessary.
2. Ensure introduction of informative markings regarding the minimum distance. Informative markings regarding the minimum distance have been installed in order to reduce the failure to observe distance. Informative markings regarding the minimum distance have been installed in dangerous road sections. LSR MoT, RTSD 31 December 2020 To be specified after initial assessment.
3. Ensure informative support in order to promote creation of safe parking places for lorries within the TEN-T road network. In ensuring informative support the creation of such parking places has been promoted and information has been provided to entrepreneurs regarding the need to create such parking places and a business opportunity. More detailed information regarding safe parking places within the TEN-T road network and parking places close to the motorways has been posted and updated on a regular basis on the website of the State stock company "Latvian State Roads" at www.lvceli.lv. LSR MoT, RTSD 31 December 2018 Not necessary.
3.3.2. Measures for improvement of cycling and pedestrian infrastructure
4. Create common cyclist and pedestrian paths within the State motorway network. Cyclist and pedestrian paths have been created outside densely populated areas where pedestrian and cycling traffic is not so intensive, thus separating cyclists and pedestrians from a carriageway. Cyclist and pedestrian paths have been created for 17 km (5 km in 2017, 4 km in 2018, 5 km in 2019, 3 km in 2020) within the State motorway network. MoT LSR State budget
31 December 2017 2 900 000
31 December 2018 1 000 000
31 December 2019 1 100 000
31 December 2020 800 000
  Total: 5 800 000
3.3.3. Improvement of infrastructure of motorways of towns, cities and local governments
5. Develop criteria for identification of "black spots" and dangerous places in populated areas. Assessment of traffic safety has been ensured in dangerous sections and places in populated areas. Cabinet Regulation has been developed for the criteria for identification of "black spots" and dangerous places in populated areas. LSR, RTSD MoT, MoEPRD, LALRG 31 December 2018 Not necessary.

3.4. Response to Road Traffic Accidents and Mitigation and Prevention of Their Consequences

Policy results and performance-based indicators The system for the use of technical means of the State Fire and Rescue Service has been supplemented and training has been ensured in cooperation with the involved institutions.
Line of action 3.4. Response to road traffic accidents and mitigation and prevention of their consequences
No. Measure Action result Performance-based indicator Responsible institution Co-responsible institutions Deadline for execution Necessary financing (EUR) and its sources
3.4.1. Provision of rescue services with the necessary equipment
1. Enlarge and strengthen facilities of the SFRS for the performance of rescue operations and arrangement of the driving part of the road in case of a RTA. Hydraulic and electrohydraulic kits of rescue tools, mechanical instruments, medical sets, immobilisation boards, flow sealant, covers, absorbents, special blankets, first-aid kits and other equipment have been purchased for the performance of rescue operations and arrangement of the driving part of the road to eliminate consequences of a RTA. It is necessary to purchase 799 to 1000 pieces of specialised equipment* every year to provide the necessary facilities of the SFRS necessary to carry out rescue operations and arrange the driving part of the road in case of a RTA. MoI (SFRS) MoT CCLI
31 December 2017 150 000
31 December 2018 150 000
31 December 2019 150 000
31 December 2020 150 000
  Total for the period: 600 000
2. Purchase video recorders with camera equipment for recording of initial circumstances of RTA. Video recorders which allow to record initial circumstances of RTA and hand over materials to the SP have been purchased. 200 video recorders have been purchased for recording of initial circumstances of RTA.

Registration of video recorders in order to ensure that the recorded information has legal force.

MoI (SFRS) MoT CCLI
31 December 2018 28 000
   
3.4.2. Improvement of information system for notification of RTAs
3. Certification of eCall technical solution. eCall service which corresponds to the EU requirements has been introduced. eCall technical solution has been certified to ensure faster response to RTAs. MoI (ICoMoI) SFRS 31 December 2017 150 000, CCLI funds
3.4.3. Improvement of the process of settlement of losses
4. Improvement of the process for claiming and administering CCLI losses in order to ensure faster and more efficient compensation for losses caused to victims as a result of a RTA. Online information exchange procedures of the Criminal procedure information system have been integrated into the CCLI information system. Changes have been made in the process of loss administration (in the MIBoL and insurance company systems) by ensuring faster assessment of and compensation for the caused losses. Time period from the submission of an insurable event to the payout of insurance compensation to victims has been reduced. MIBoL MoF CCLI funds
31 December 2020 50 000
   

4. Planning of the Financing for the Measures Included in the Plan, Impact Assessment on the State and Local Government Budgets

Table 7. Planning of the financing for the measures included in the Plan, impact assessment on the State and local government budgets

Line of action 2017
(EUR)
2018
(EUR)
2019
(EUR)
2020
(EUR)
Total
(EUR)
Allocated financing, its source and
code and name of the
budget programme
(sub-programme)
23
Necessary
additional financing and its source
Allocated financing, its source and
code and name of the
budget programme
(sub-programme)
10
Necessary
additional financing and its source
Allocated financing, its source and
code and name of the
budget programme
(sub-programme)10
Necessary
additional
financing and its source
Allocated financing, its source and
code and name of the
budget programme
(sub-programme)10
Necessary
additional financing and its source
 
3.1. Preventive road traffic safety measures  
3.1.1.

1. Carry out a comprehensive study on the risk factors affecting road traffic safety in Latvia.

  50 000, CCLI funds24 50 000, CCLI funds22   100 000, CCLI funds
3.1.3.

4. Develop an information system for analysis of locations of RTAs and violations (CAIS).

        140 000, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "Unified communication and information system of the Ministry of the Interior")

140 000, CCLI funds or State budget

(06.01.00 "Unified communication and information system of the Ministry of the Interior")

3.1.4.

6. Purchase and install fixed technical means (photo or video equipment) without stopping vehicles.

1 440 878 2 881 757           4 322 635
RTSD dividends25 RTSD dividends24 RTSD dividends24
     
     
3.1.4.

7. Purchase portable measuring devices for control of breath alcohol concentration.

  27 000, CCLI funds or State budget

(06.01.00 "State Police")

43 000, CCLI funds or State budget

(06.01.00 "State Police")

  43 000, CCLI funds or State budget

(06.01.00 "State Police")

113 000, CCLI funds or State budget

(06.01.00 "State Police")

3.1.4.

8. Purchase mouthpieces of portable measuring devices for control of breath alcohol concentration.

  40 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 40 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")   40 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 40 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 160 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

9. Purchase multifunctional drug-testing devices.

    50 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")   50 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 50 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 150 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

10. Purchase detection devices for devices (speed camera detectors etc.) which may detect signals emitted by measuring devices for speed control of vehicles (speed cameras).

    36 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")   36 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 36 000, CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police") 108 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

11. Ensure purchase of technical equipment for road traffic monitoring - control of carriage by road and preparation of the place of RTA (traffic police sticks, whistles, lamps, video lamps, searchlights, photo cameras, video cameras, drones etc.).

  59 500, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 40 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")   40 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 30 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 179 500, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

12. Ensure purchase of the necessary measuring devices for road traffic monitoring - control of carriage by road and preparation of the place of RTA (tyre tread depth gauges, measuring rods, measuring tapes, measuring wheels, meters to measure light transmittance of car windows etc.).

  11 990, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")     30 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 30 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 71 990, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

13. Ensure purchase of portable scales and their equipment for road transport.

    25 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")   25 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 25 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 75 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

16. Ensure purchase of technical means which record failure to observe the prohibiting traffic light signals.

        Amount and source of financing will be specified after assessment.
3.1.4.

17. Ensure purchase of devices which allow automatic number-plate recognition.

    50 000, State budget or CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police")   50 000, State budget or CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police") 50 000, State budget or CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police") 150 000, State budget or CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

18. Ensure purchase of bicycles (without a motor or with a 250 W electric motor) for the State Police.

        Amount and source of financing will be specified after assessment.
3.1.4.

19. Ensure purchase of 3D rulers for the SP to ensure the process of elimination and investigation of consequences of RTAs.

  100 000, CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police") 100 000, CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police")   100 000, CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police") 200 000, CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police") 500 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

20. Ensure purchase of thermal night vision cameras for the SP for control of road traffic participants.

  28 000, CCLI funds (06.01.00 "State Police")     28 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

21. Ensure purchase of individual compact video cameras for the SP for control of road traffic participants.

    60 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")   60 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 60 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police") 180 000, CCLI funds or State budget (06.01.00 "State Police")
3.1.4.

22. Purchase special equipment in order to ensure fulfilment of tasks of the SBG regarding increased road traffic safety.

  8200

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

8200,

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

  4800,

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

8200,

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

29 400,

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

3.1.4.

23. Purchase video recorders for recording of road traffic violations committed by a person who crosses the border illegally in order to record initial circumstances of RTA.

  3000,

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

    17 000,

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

20 000,

CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

3.2. Education and informing of traffic participants  
3.2.1.

1. Ensure educational activities for pre-school and primary school pupils regarding issues of road traffic safety.

42.02.00

"Ensuring of curriculum and assessment"

    42.02.00

"Ensuring of curriculum and assessment"

Additional financing is not necessary.
3.2.1.

2. Conduct diagnostics of knowledge and skills of pupils of classes 10-12 regarding issues of road traffic safety.

    14 000, CCLI

funds

  14 000, CCLI

funds

3.2.1.

3. Ensure seminars for improvement of professional competence of teachers and dissemination of good practice of teachers regarding acquisition of the issues of road traffic safety in curriculum.

    2 000, CCLI

funds

  3 000, CCLI

funds

5 000, CCLI

funds

3.2.1.

4. Ensure that the concept of human security, which includes the issues of road traffic safety, is included in the general curriculum.

Within the bounds of the financing for the SSO 8.3.1. "To develop competence-based content of general education".   Within the bounds of the financing for the SSO 8.3.1. "To develop competence-based content of general education".   Within the bounds of the financing for the SSO 8.3.1. "To develop competence-based content of general education". Within the bounds of the financing for the SSO 8.3.1. "To develop competence-based content of general education". Within the bounds of the financing for the SSO 8.3.1. "To develop competence-based content of general education".
3.2.2.

5. Create preventive and instructional materials necessary for promotion of road traffic safety (inducement prizes - pens, notepads etc., short film, game for training classes etc.).

  75 500, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

100 000, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

  100 000, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

100 000, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

375 500, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

3.2.2.

6. Purchase materials necessary for preventive measures within the framework of the promotion of road traffic safety (masks of Rūdis the Cat and Bruno the Beaver, costumes, reflectors, reflective vests and elements, bicycle lamps, tents etc.).

  84 500, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

60 000, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

  60 000, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

60 000, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

264 500, CCLI funds

(06.01.00 "State Police")

3.2.2.

7. Ensure implementation of campaigns against drunk driving.

  35 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds 35 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds   70 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds
3.2.2.

8. Ensure implementation of a campaign for use of safety equipment - seat belts, child car seats, helmets, reflective elements etc.

        40 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds 40 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds
3.2.2.

9. Ensure campaigns for exceeding of the permitted driving speed, observance of safe distance and other RTR norms.

  50 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds     50 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds
3.2.2.

10. Ensure implementation of a campaign for safety of vulnerable traffic participants (pedestrians, cyclists, motorcycle riders).

    50 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds   50 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds
3.2.2.

11. Ensure implementation of a campaign for danger of the use of mobile devices during driving or any other topical theme depending on the concerns.

        40 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds 40 000, CCLI/RTSD/private funds
3.2.2.

12. Implement the following informative campaign: Educating the public in the action after RTA.

  50 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

35 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

  35 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

20 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

140 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

3.2.2.

13. Implementation of preventive measures for the improvement of road traffic safety. Purchase of light reflectors, objects with light reflective elements for handing out on the border and frontier area.

  5000, CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

5000, CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

  5000, CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

5000, CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

20,000, CCLI funds

(10.00.00. "Operation of the State Border Guard")

3.3. Introduction of solutions for traffic safety in the motorway and street network          
3.3.1.

2. Conduct initial research for introduction of rumble strips on the P80 (E22) motorway Tīnūži-Koknese.

        Additional financing is not necessary.
3.3.1.

4. Ensure introduction of informative markings regarding the minimum distance.

  To be specified after assessment. To be specified after assessment.   To be specified after assessment.
3.3.2.

4. Create common cyclist and pedestrian paths within the State motorway network.

2 900 000,
State budget

23.06.00. Management, maintenance and reconstruction of State motorways)

  1 000 000,
State budget

(23.06.00. Management, maintenance and reconstruction of State motorways)

  1 100 000, State budget

(23.06.00. Management, maintenance and reconstruction of State motorways)

800 000,
State budget

(23.06.00. Management, maintenance and reconstruction of State motorways)

5 800 000,
State budget

(23.06.00. Management, maintenance and reconstruction of State motorways)

3.4. Response to road traffic accidents and mitigation and prevention of their consequences  
3.4.1.

1. Enlarge and strengthen facilities of the SFRS for the performance of rescue operations and arrangement of the driving part of the road in case of a RTA.

  150 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

150 000, CCLI funds

07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

  150 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

150 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

600 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

3.4.1.

2. Purchase video recorders with camera equipment for recording of initial circumstances of RTA.

  28 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

    28 000, CCLI funds

(07.00.00. "Fire safety, rescue and civil protection")

3.4.2.

3. Certification of eCall technical solution.

    150 000, CCLI funds

(02.00.00 "Unified communication and information system of the Ministry of the Interior")

  150 000, CCLI funds

(02.00.00 "Unified communication and information system of the Ministry of the Interior")

3.4.3.

4. Improvement of the process for claiming and administering CCLI losses in order to insure faster and more efficient compensation for losses caused to victims as a result of a RTA.

    50 000, CCLI funds26   50 000, CCLI funds23
Impact assessment of the Plan on the State and local government budgets27 (EUR)
Task Measure Code and name of the
budget programme
(sub-programme)
Financing planned in the Law on Medium-term Budget Framework Necessary additional financing Year of implementation of the measure
(if implementation of the measure has a fixed period)
2017 2018 2019 2020 2017 2018 2019 2020 for the subsequent period until the completion of the measure
(if implementation of the measure has a fixed period)
annually from now on
(if implementation of the solution (option) does not have a fixed period)
Total financing for implementation of the Plan,                          
including                          
Ministry of Transport                          
Ministry of the Interior                          
Local government budgets                          
   
Task 1  
  3.1.4.

17. Ensure purchase of devices which allow automatic number-plate recognition.

                       
    06.01.00
"State Police"
x x x x x 50 000 50 000 50 000 x x 2020
  Local government budgets x x x x x x x x x x x x
Task 2  
  3.3.2.

4. Create common cyclist and pedestrian paths within the State motorway network.

                       
    23.06.00.

Management, maintenance and reconstruction of State motorways

2 900 000 1 000 000 1 100 000 800 000 x x x x x x 2020
  Local government budgets x x x x x x x x x x x x
Distribution of the State budget financing between ministries (EUR)
  2017 2018 2019 2020 Total
Allocated Additional Allocated Additional Allocated Additional Allocated Additional
Ministry of Transport 2 900 000 x 1 000 000 x 1 100 000 x 800 000 x 5 800 000
Ministry of the Interior x x x 50 000 x 50 000 x 50 000 150 000
Ministry of Health x x x x x x x x 0
Ministry of Education and Science x x x x x x x x 0
Total 2 900 000   1 000 000 50 000 1 100 000 50 000 800 000 50 000 5 950 000
Total financing of the Plan
State budget28, amount (EUR) 5 950 000
CCLI budget29, amount (EUR) 3 901 890
RTSD dividends, amount (EUR)30 4 322 635
TOTAL (EUR) 14 174 525

1 Zero-vision - a vision of road traffic safety in future road transport systems. It is mainly related to several factors which should be taken into account in the long-term for the improvement of road traffic safety. The main aim of the vision is to completely prevent fatalities and serious injuries resulting from RTAs. The White Paper also envisages such objective by aiming to move close to zero fatalities in road transport by 2050. In line with this objective, the EU aims at halving road fatalities by 2020. It is also important to ensure that the EU is a world leader in safety and security in all modes of transport.

2 ITF (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282108055-en

3 Source of information: European Commission.

4 Source of information: 10th Annual Road Safety Performance Index (PIN) Report, issued by the European Transport Safety Council.

5 The population estimated on the basis of the final results of the 2011 population census has been used in the calculations regarding the data for the period from 2008 to 2013.

6 Statistics of the State Police - 187, statistics of the RTSD - 188.

7 These statistics assume that a child is a person aged under 15 years.

8 Provisional data for 2016 is available on 2 February 2017.

9 GPS - global positioning system.

10 Cabinet Regulation No. 74 of 11 February 2003, Requirements for Personal Protective Equipment, Procedures for Conformity Assessment and Market Supervision Thereof, and Council Directive 89/686/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to personal protective equipment.

11 Survey and study carried out within the framework of the campaign "Life belt" organised by the RTSD in 2015.

12 Study by L. Blumfelds: Frequency of Drowsiness among Latvian Vehicle Drivers, results and conclusions (2014).

13 ITF (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282108055-en

14 Cognitive - something related to cognition (recognition and understanding); something based on cognition (recognition and understanding). Source: http://www.vardnica.lv/.

15 ITF (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282108055-en

16 ITF (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282108055-en

17 ITF (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282108055-en

18 ITF (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282108055-en

19 The European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP), based in Brussels (Belgium) and founded in 1997.

20 European Road Assessment Programme (EuroRAP), an international non-profit organisation registered in Belgium.

21 ITF (2016), Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift to a Safe System, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789282108055-en

22 Arrangement is not made in order of priority - impact of all factors should be taken into account in order to improve the road traffic safety.

23 Code and name of a State budget programme (sub-programme) should be indicated for the measures which are financed from the State budget.

24 Code and name of the budget sub-programme will be specified during preparation of a study task.

25 Detailed calculation of the financing planned for implementation of the measure is available in the conceptual report "On Operational Performance of the Fixed Speed Cameras Installed by the State Stock Company Road Traffic Safety Directorate, Proposals for Further Use of Technical Means (Photo or Video Equipment), and Financing of the Purchase, Installation and Ensuring of Performance of Speed Cameras" (approved by the Cabinet Order No. 678 of 14 November 2016).

26 Budget plan of the MIBoL.

27 The table includes measures for which it is planned to allocate financing as a priority from the State or local government budgets, instead of an alternative source of financing (CCLI funds).

28 Where several sources of financing are indicated for measures, a priority source of financing is taken into account.

29 Pursuant to Section 57 of the Compulsory Civil Liability Insurance of Owners of Motor Vehicles Law, the Road Traffic Safety Council shall decide on the utilisation of the money (Sub-paragraph 2.10 of the Cabinet Regulation No. 530 of 23 September 2003, By-law of the Road Traffic Safety Council).

30 Detailed calculation of the financing planned for implementation of the measure is available in the conceptual report "On Operational Performance of the Fixed Speed Cameras Installed by the State Stock Company Road Traffic Safety Directorate, Proposals for Further Use of Technical Means (Photo or Video Equipment), and Financing of the Purchase, Installation and Ensuring of Performance of Speed Cameras" (approved by the Cabinet Order No. 678 of 14 November 2016).

Minister for Transport Uldis Augulis

 


Translation © 2018 Valsts valodas centrs (State Language Centre) 3

 
Document information
Status:
In force
in force
Issuer: Cabinet of Ministers Type: order Document number: 180Adoption: 04.04.2017.Entry into force: 04.04.2017.Publication: Latvijas Vēstnesis, 72, 07.04.2017. OP number: 2017/72.4
Language:
Related documents
  • Annotation / draft legal act
  • Policy planning document
  • Other related documents
289986
04.04.2017
85
0
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
  • Draugiem.lv
 
0
Latvijas Vestnesis, the official publisher
ensures legislative acts systematization
function on this site.
All Likumi.lv content is intended for information purposes.
About Likumi.lv
News archive
Useful links
Contacts
For feedback
Terms of service
Privacy policy
Cookies
RSS logo
Latvijas Vēstnesis "Everyone has the right to know about his or her rights."
Article 90 of the Constitution of the Republic of Latvia
© Official publisher "Latvijas Vēstnesis"
ISO 9001:2008 (quality management system)
ISO 27001:2013 (information security) Kvalitātes balva