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DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION POLICY GUIDELINES FOR 2016-2020

Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Riga, 2016

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abbreviations Used

Explanation of Concepts and Terms Used

SUMMARY

1. Objective of the Development Cooperation Policy

2. Linkage with International Planning Documents, Planning Documents of the EU and Latvia

3. Policy Results and Performance-based Indicators Thereof

4. Development Cooperation Priorities of Latvia

4.1. (Bilateral and Multilateral) Priority Sectors of Development Cooperation of Latvia

4.2. Priority Partner Countries and Sectors of Latvia in the Bilateral Development Cooperation of the MoFA

5. Fundamental Principles of the Development Cooperation Policy

6. Courses of Action and Tasks for the Achievement of Policy Objectives

7. Indicative Assessment of the Impact on the State and Local Government Budget

Abbreviations Used

MoD Ministry of Defence
UN United Nations Organization
ACP African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States
MoFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs
CRS++ OECD DAC Official Development Assistance Reporting System
EDF European Development Fund
MoE Ministry of Economics
EU European Union
MoF Ministry of Finance
GENE Global Education Network Europe
SDGs UN Sustainable Development Goals
MoI Ministry of the Interior
MoES Ministry of Education and Science
MoC Ministry of Culture
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
LPDC Association "Latvian Platform for Development Cooperation"
LDCs Least Developed Countries
LLDCs Landlocked Developing Countries
MoW Ministry of Welfare
LALRG Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments
NDP2020 National Development Plan of Latvia for 2014-2020
GNI Gross National Income
CSOs Civil Society Organisations
ODA Official Development Assistance
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OECD DAC OECD Development Assistance Committee
WBG World Bank Group
CSCC Cross-Sectoral Coordination Centre
PCSD Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development
IDA WBG International Development Association (IDA)
MoT Ministry of Transport
MDGs UN Millennium Development Goals
MoJ Ministry of Justice
MEPRD Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development
SC State Chancellery
MoH Ministry of Health
MoA Ministry of Agriculture

Explanation of Concepts and Terms Used

Activity programme - an aggregate of several international assistance activities with a joint goal.

Instrument of approval - procedure by which the allocation of funding for the implementation of an activity of international assistance is approved or by which an implementing entity of a development cooperation project or a civilian expert is selected.

Development goals - the planned impact which contributes to physical, financial, institutional, social, environmental development, or provides other benefits for the society, community or groups of persons via single or several development interventions.

Development cooperation - provision of assistance to developing countries in order to promote long-term social and economic development of such countries and their societies.1

Development cooperation project - a non-commercial activity or set of activities with defined implementation results, implementers, and term of execution.

Developing country - countries and territories that are included in the OECD DAC List of Official Development Aid Recipients (DAC List of ODA Recipients2). This list is subdivided in the following categories: least developed countries; other low income countries; lower middle income countries; upper middle income countries.3

Multilateral assistance - provision of assistance to recipient countries by making financial contributions to international organisations. International organisations use the funding received according to their priorities or the priorities laid down by the donor country.

Decentralised cooperation - development cooperation with the objective to promote the development of local communities implemented at the local or regional level upon the cooperation of players of the local and regional level, for example, local governments, representatives of the civil society.

2030 Agenda - the Sustainable Development Goals adopted at the UN level in 2015 which the UN member states undertake to achieve by 2030. The main task of the Sustainable Development Goals is to eradicate poverty in the world and promote sustainable development in its three dimensions - economic, social, and environmental.

Effectiveness - the extent to which the goal of development cooperation activity has been achieved or is planned to be achieved, taking into account its relative importance.

Global education - active learning process which, based on the principles of solidarity, equality, inclusion, and cooperation, raises the public awareness of development processes in the world and facilitates participation of individuals and organisations in addressing of current local and global issues.

Grant - a payment to the implementer of a development cooperation project for the implementation of a project which has been submitted thereby to a grant project tender and which has been approved for funding by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Humanitarian aid - aid the objective of which is to save human lives, to relieve their suffering, and to provide protection in crisis situations in developing countries arisen as a result of human-caused conflicts or under the influence of natural disasters or climate changes.

Sustainable development - development that meets the needs of today without endangering the ability to meet the needs of future generations. Sustainable development is characterised by three interrelated dimensions - economic, social, and environmental.

Consultative Council - Consultative Council for Development Cooperation Policy issues is an advisory body established to strengthen the bilateral development cooperation of Latvia, to raise the public awareness of the development cooperation policy, and to provide support for its implementation, and also to promote active participation of Latvia in the shaping and implementation of the European Union (hereinafter - the EU) and global development cooperation policy.

Joint (trilateral or multilateral) international assistance (development cooperation) activity - a development cooperation project or a programme of activities in which separate activities of the project or programme are implemented by two or several funders one of which is representing the Republic of Latvia.

Joint programming - joint action of the EU and its Member States in the sector of development cooperation according to the development strategy of the partner country. Joint programming is based on effective distribution of tasks, including by determining the sector in which each donor will operate, and indicative granting of multiannual funding. The process is promoted by the European Commission (hereinafter - the EC) and the European External Action Service (hereinafter - the EEAS). The joint strategy is developed at the level of partner countries by a EU delegation and employees of Member States in this country in order to ensure the best possible action according to the needs. Such approach allows close cooperation with the government of partner countries, the civil society, private sector, and other stakeholders.

Corporate social responsibility - the responsibility of entrepreneurs for their impact on the society. Enterprises may become socially responsible by following the law, as well as by integrating social, environmental, ethical, consumer and human rights issues in their strategy and entrepreneurship.

Official Development Assistance - resource flows to countries and territories on the DAC List of ODA Recipients and to multilateral agencies which i) are undertaken by institutions of a public person, including the State and local governments, or their subordinate institutions, and where ii) each transaction a) is carried out with the main objective of promoting economic development and welfare of developing countries, and it b) essentially is a concession and includes at least 25 % of the elements of the grant (calculated based on a 10 % discount rate).

Policy coherence for sustainable development - the analytical concept of policy implementation in order to systematically include the economic, social, environmental, governance dimension of sustainable development in all stages of policy development and to ensure that such action policies are mutually supportive and at least do not harm the welfare and sustainable development of future generations and societies of other countries. The EU particularly emphasises the impact assessment of migration, security, environmental, trade, and food harmlessness policies on developing countries in the context of developing countries.

Efficiency - measurement of how economically the resources (funds, expertise, time, etc.) are converted into results.

Recipient country (partner country) - a country receiving international assistance.

International mission - an activity in the implementation of which a civil expert participates and which is implemented upon an invitation of international organisations to participate in a mission led thereby or upon a bilateral or multilateral agreement of the countries.

International assistance activity - development cooperation project, voluntary contribution, or international mission.

Least developed countries - a group of 48 countries which according to the UN are the least developed, taking into account their weak human resources and institutional capacity, fragile economy, and lack of national financial resources.

SUMMARY

The Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines for 2016-2020 (hereinafter - the Guidelines) are a policy planning document which determines the objective, results, priority sectors, fundamental principles, and priority countries of the development cooperation policy bilaterally and multilaterally implemented by the public administration of Latvia and at the same time the course of action and tasks for the achievement of the policy objective. The Guidelines provide an opportunity for the stakeholders involved in development cooperation to plan their activities according to the national development cooperation policy of Latvia. Furthermore, the Guidelines outline the principles of the humanitarian aid actions.

The previous Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines were in effect from 2011 until 2015. In this period of time the geopolitical context and global challenges have significantly changed the social, economic, and political reality of the world. Regardless of significant achievements in poverty reduction in the world, the number of riots, crises and disasters of food security caused by climate change, and new pandemics keeps increasing, and also there is an increase in political instability, social inequality, instability of the financial and capital markets, and migration flows. All of these global challenges have an increasing impact on the economic growth, security, and welfare of inhabitants of Latvia.

There are more than 60 million people in the world - refugees and internally displaced persons who have been forced to become migrants due to conflicts, violence and violations of human rights. This is the largest number of persons displaced since the Second World War. The fundamental causes of migration are addressed with development cooperation policy instruments by improving the skills and employment of inhabitants, promoting stability and development of institutions, opportunities for young persons, strengthening education and the civil society. Also, in strengthening the capacity of the public administration to combat corruption, non-traditional security threats, illegal financial flows and criminal groups, development cooperation contributes to addressing of peace and security issues and eradication of terrorism.

The Guidelines strengthen the role of Latvia as a bilateral donor, thus implementing the external policy interests of Latvia. The main directions and priorities of the foreign policy of Latvia are determined in the annual report of the Minister for Foreign Affairs to the Saeima on the activities carried out and planned in the foreign policy of the State.

The Guidelines are implemented in accordance with the National Development Plan for 2014-2020 (hereinafter - the NDP2020), the State Defence Concept, the State Security Concept, and also deepen the objectives and principles laid down in the Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines of Latvia for 2011-2015.

The Guidelines include the international commitments of Latvia as a donor country, particularly the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (hereinafter - the 2030 Agenda), Addis Ababa Action Agenda on the Financing for Development, decisions and recommendations of the EU and OECD. The strengthening of the development cooperation policy is also closely related to the realisation of the interests of Latvia in international security formats.

The objective of the development cooperation policy of Latvia is to contribute to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in developing countries, particularly in priority partner countries of Latvia, by promoting sustainable development and eradication of poverty, rule of law, and good governance.

In line with the development cooperation Latvia makes voluntary contributions to international organisations for the funding of humanitarian aid with the objective of saving human lives and providing assistance to the victims of human-caused conflicts, natural disasters, or impact of climate changes in developing countries according to the international principles for the provision of humanitarian aid. Taking into account the increasing number of protracted crises and conflicts, it is important to strengthen the humanitarian and development nexus.

Latvia undertakes to continue gradual increase of ODA up to 0.17 % of GNI in the time period from 2016 to 2020, striving to achieve 0.33 % from GNI until 2030 which is the time frame for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. In order to ensure effective provision of assistance, Latvia provides aid to the LDCs via multilateral development cooperation instruments. Taking into account that until 2015 the amount of bilateral ODA of Latvia has formed on average 10 % of the total ODA amount in order to ensure stability, peace, and security for the foreign policy of Latvia in priority regions, it is particularly important to increase the funding for the bilateral development cooperation.

In implementing development cooperation both bilaterally and multilaterally Latvia is guided by the following principles - the main responsibility of partner countries over their national development; co-ordination and partnership; sustainability of results and predictability of aid; transparency and policy coherence for sustainable development. One of the principles is the implementation of horizontal issues - good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, gender equality, and environmental sustainability - in all activities of development cooperation.

The main development cooperation sectors of Latvia in all formats of development cooperation are the development and capacity building of public administration, the development of entrepreneurship and strengthening of export capacity, management and reforms of national security bodies, promotion of democratic participation, development of the civil society, and education.

In bilateral development cooperation Latvia particularly emphasises the aid to the EU Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries based on the foreign policy priorities of Latvia, requests of partner countries, comparative advantages of Latvian expertise and donor coordination principles for effective provision of aid. These Guidelines determine the main sectors of activities of the bilateral development cooperation funding managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter - the MoFA).

In the Guidelines for the time period 2016‑2020 the following courses of action are determined for the achievement of the development cooperation policy objective:

1. to provide maximum support for the sustainable development of the EU Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries using instruments of the bilateral development cooperation funding managed by the MoFA;

2. to strengthen the implementation of the development cooperation priorities of Latvia within the scope of multilateral cooperation, particularly within the scope of the EU, UN, World Bank group, and OECD, thus promoting the coherence of the development cooperation policy of Latvia in all formats;

3. to strengthen the competence, coordination and sustainable activities of the developers and implementers of the development cooperation policy of Latvia;

4. to strengthen the transparency of the development cooperation of Latvia and its conformity with the international reporting standards;

5. to raise the public awareness of the importance of development cooperation, participation, and support for the implementation of the policy;

6. to implement a comprehensive and coordinated approach of Latvia for the support of sustainable development of partner countries.

For the implementation of the Guidelines the MoFA draws up the Development Cooperation Policy Plans which include measures for the achievement of the objective laid down in the Guidelines, the performance results, and their result-based indicators. In planning the development cooperation implemented by Latvia, where possible, synergies with security, humanitarian aid, trade, and migration policies and instruments of such policies are promoted.

Special attention was paid to involvement of public representatives and experts in the process of drafting the Guidelines. During the time period from 29 December 2015 to 29 January 2016 the MoFA invited residents of Latvia to fill in a questionnaire regarding subsequent priorities of the development cooperation policy of Latvia. The results of the survey were published on the website of the MoFA. Furthermore, before drafting the Guidelines the MoFA organised thematic meetings of expert working groups regarding the process of selecting the priorities and effectiveness of assistance, efficiency, reporting mechanisms, coordination of the development cooperation policy and strengthening of the capacity of project implementers; policy coherence for development/climate changes; involvement of the private sector; raising public awareness, and global education. The following associations and institutions responded to the invitation of the MoFA to join working groups - "Latvian Platform for Development Cooperation" (hereinafter - the LPDC), "Latvian Rural Forum", "Education Initiative Centre", "Latvian Green Movement", "Homo ecos", resource centre for women "Marta", "Humana People to People in Latvia", "Education Development Centre", "Green Liberty" , Latvian Association of University Lecturers for Cooperation in Education, "Civitta Latvija" Ltd., "CPM Consulting" Ltd., Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments (hereinafter - the LALRG), Latvian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Faculty of Social Sciences and the Practice and Global Partnership Centre of the Faculty of Education, Psychology and Art of the University of Latvia, UNESCO Latvian National Commission, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Welfare, Food and Veterinary Service, State Chancellery, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development (hereinafter - the MEPRD), Ministry of Agriculture, etc.

The opinions expressed alongside with the regular consultations with the civil society organisations, particularly LPDC, with social partners, and also the private and the academic sector were taken into account upon drafting the wording of the Guidelines. During the process of drafting the Guidelines consultations with experts of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (hereinafter - the OECD DAC) took place. During the time period from 17 May to 31 May 2016 the draft Guidelines were released for public consultation. On 7 July 2016 consultation on the draft Guidelines was organised within the scope of the expanded format of the Consultative Council, and before the meeting the participants were invited to submit written proposals. In total comments from 16 institutions were received: from associations LPDC, "Latvian Green Movement", Latvian Association of University Lecturers for Cooperation in Education, "Green Liberty" -, from the LALRG, "CPM Consulting" Ltd., Practice and Global Partnership Centre of the Faculty of Education, Psychology and Art of the University of Latvia, UNESCO Latvian National Commission, Ministry of Economics, Ministry of Welfare, Cross-Sectoral Coordination Centre, Food and Veterinary Service, Social Integration Fund, Ministry of Justice, State Chancellery, the MEPRD, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture.

All proposals received were evaluated and taken into account completely or as a result of compromise after discussions in the Consultative Council and also bilateral consultations. The following aspects were emphasised as particularly important for the development cooperation - closer coordination and strengthening of synergies of bilateral development cooperation (implemented by the MoFA and line ministries), support for the existing geographical priorities, need to promote the cooperation of different stakeholders (CSOs, public administration, private sector), and also to ensure support for development cooperation activities in long-term, as well as for the involvement of local governments in development cooperation. It is equally important to promote the involvement of project implementers of Latvia in large-scale projects, particularly in EuropeAid and Twinning projects. In global education issues attention was paid to a greater linkage with the responsible line ministries. During the discussions several specific ideas regarding the activities which could be included in future Development Cooperation Policy Plans, for example, the updating of expert list, strengthening of evaluation systems, were put forward. These proposals are included in Annex 2 to the Guidelines as indicative activities which will be important to achieve the objective defined in the Guidelines until 2020.

1. Objective of the Development Cooperation Policy

The objective of the development cooperation policy of Latvia is to contribute to implementation of the 2030 Agenda in countries, particularly in priority partner countries of Latvia, by promoting sustainable development and eradication of poverty, rule of law, and good governance.

In line with the development cooperation Latvia makes voluntary contributions to international organisations for the funding of humanitarian aid with the objective of saving human lives and providing assistance to the victims of human-caused conflicts, natural disasters, or impact of climate changes in developing countries according to the international principles for the provision of humanitarian aid.

Taking into account the increasing number of protracted crises and conflicts in the world and increasing migration flows, it is important to strengthen the humanitarian and development nexus. In order to promote the addressing of causes for conflicts and radicalisation of the society, Latvia, to the extent possible, implements the objectives of the development cooperation policy according to the objectives of security, migration, and trade policies and promotes synergies between different instruments of such policies.

Latvia undertakes to continue gradual increase of ODA up to 0.17 % of GNI in the time period from 2016 to 2020, striving to achieve 0.33 % from GNI until 2030 which is the time frame for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. In order to ensure effective provision of assistance, Latvia provides aid to the LDCs via multilateral development cooperation instruments. Taking into account that until 2015 the amount of bilateral ODA of Latvia has formed on average 10 % of the total ODA amount in order to ensure stability, peace, and security for the foreign policy of Latvia in priority regions, it is particularly important to increase the funding for the bilateral development cooperation.

2. Linkage with International Planning Documents, Planning Documents of the EU and Latvia

The development cooperation policy of Latvia is based on the UN 2030 Agenda which was approved on 25 September 2015 and the 17 sustainable development goals (hereinafter - the SDGs) included therein (complete text of these goals can be seen in Annex 1).

The Guidelines have been created according to the planning documents in the field of development cooperation adopted at the European level. The European Consensus on Development, 2006, adopted by the EU Council, the European Parliament, and the European Commission (hereinafter - the EC) in 2005 prescribes the action of the EC and EU Member States in the field of development cooperation. The Agenda for Change approved by the EU Council Conclusions in 2012 prescribes that the EU aid must be mainly directed for two priorities: 1) good governance, including human rights and democracy, and 2) inclusive and sustainable growth. The Agenda for Change also prescribes the focusing of the EU aid on a lesser number of sectors, provision of assistance to the least developed countries, joint programming of aid, and raising of private funding for the development goals.

The funding commitments of the development cooperation of Latvia arise from the funding commitments approved within the scope of the EU.4 According to these commitments the EU and its Member States must dedicate in total 0.7 % from the GNI, including by directing 0.15-0.20 % from the GNI to LDCs, to development cooperation by 2030. These funding objectives of the EU arise from the Addis Ababa Action Agenda adopted by the UN in July 2015.

Accordingly by 2030 Latvia must strive to dedicate 0.33 % from the GNI to development cooperation and also to direct 0.15-0.20 % from the ODA/GNI to LDCs.

New substantive elements are anticipated in the EU development cooperation policy, and its mechanisms for implementation and reporting may change in order to reflect the 2030 Agenda and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. After entry into effect of these documents the changes necessary in the development cooperation policy of Latvia will be reflected in the development cooperation policy plans of Latvia drafted by the MoFA.

In planning the support to partner countries, Latvia will continue to take into account the principles of sustainable development, adaptation to and mitigation of climate change according to the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in 2015 (hereinafter - the Paris Agreement).

Latvia plans its development cooperation policy in close connection with the EU Council Conclusions in the field of development cooperation, including the role and involvement of the private sector, 5local and regional governments6 in development cooperation, and the importance of gender equality issues.7

The Guidelines have been drawn up and will be implemented on the basis of the OECD DAC Recommendations, guidelines, and good practice compendia,8 OECD recommendations and declarations on inclusion of environmental and climate issues in development cooperation,9 on policy coherence for development,10 and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005).

The development cooperation policy as one of priority fields of the foreign policy of Latvia is reflected in the annual report of the Minister for Foreign Affairs to the Saeima on the actions carried out and planned in the foreign policy of the State.

The Guidelines are implemented according to the medium-term development planning document "National Development Plan of Latvia for 2014-2020" and its priority "Human Securitability"11 which lays down the following action - tender for development cooperation and global education projects and co-funding of projects for CSOs.

The Guidelines are implemented according to Paragraph 37 of the State Defence Concept (2012) which determines the resolution of Latvia to share the experience accumulated in democracy, Euro-Atlantic integration, reforms of security and defence sector in order to strengthen international security.

The Guidelines also provide a contribution to implementation of the State Security Concept (2015), strengthening the external dimension of national security of Latvia. Strengthening of stability, territorial integrity, democracy, and European values of Eastern partnership countries, particularly Ukraine, is the priority of bilateral development cooperation of Latvia. Similarly the Guidelines, particularly in multilateral formats and via contributions to international organisations, justify the contribution of Latvia to promoting the stability of the Middle Eastern region, addressing the migration issues, and reducing the threat of terrorism.

3. Policy Results and Performance-based Indicators Thereof

1. Latvia promotes good governance, inclusive economic growth and security in priority regions according to the needs of partner countries12

Performance-based indicator

2015
(base)

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

1.1. % of the bilateral ODA managed by the MoFA which has been utilised for the development and capacity building of public administration, including for anti-corruption

62 %

       

65 %

1.2. % of the bilateral ODA managed by the MoFA which supports the development of entrepreneurship and strengthens export capacity

14 %

       

18 %

1.3. % of the bilateral ODA managed by the MoFA the main objective of which is gender equality

0 %

       

8 %

1.4. % of the bilateral ODA managed by the MoFA the main objective of which is to support the strengthening of the justice and interior system, including customs and border structures

6 %

       

10 %

1.5. Ratio of the funding of other donors raised for the development cooperation projects implemented by Latvia and the ODA managed by the MoFA (excluding administrative costs and global education), %

425 %

       

500 %

1.6. Co-funding granted by the MoFA to the EuropeAid development cooperation and global education projects implemented by the civil society organisations and local governments of Latvia, % from the total amount of the project funding

5 %

       

10 %

1.7. % of the bilateral ODA managed by the MoFA in which the civil society of the partner country is involved

76 %

       

80 %

Linkage: the 2030 Agenda; Addis Ababa Action Agenda (2015); Busan Declaration (2011); Accra Agenda for Action (2008); Paris Declaration (2005); Rome Declaration (2003); development assistance principles, provisions, and guidelines adopted within the scope of the OECD DAC, particularly OECD Principles for Evaluation of Development Assistance (1991); OECD Quality Standards for Development Evaluation (2010); OECD DAC Recommendation on Anti-Corruption Proposals for Bilateral Aid Procurement (1996); Council Conclusion on Gender in Development (2015); EU Agenda for Change (2011); State Defence Concept; Paris Agreement (2015); OECD Reference Guide on Evaluation of External Experts; European Consensus on Development (2006); EU Gender Action Plan (2015); Council Conclusions on a stronger role of the private sector in development cooperation: An action oriented perspective (2014); Council Conclusions on local authorities in development (2013); EU Strategy on Aid for Trade: Enhancing EU support for trade-related needs in developing countries (2007).

2. In fulfilling international commitments, Latvia strives to increase the amount of ODA funding up to 0.33 % from GNI by 2030

Performance-based indicator

2015
(base)

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2.1. ODA amount from GNI

0.09 %

0.09 %

0.1 %

0.12 %

0.14 %

0.17 %

2.2. Bilateral development cooperation funding of Latvia, thousands of euros

0.566

0.592

1.092

1.592

2.092

2.592

Linkage: the 2030 Agenda; Addis Ababa Action Agenda (2015); Council Conclusions on a New Global Partnership for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development after 2015 (2015); Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development (2002); Doha Declaration (2008); Busan Declaration (2011); Accra Agenda for Action (2008); Paris Declaration (2005); Rome Declaration (2003); UN Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the Decade 2011-2020 (Istanbul Consensus 2011); European Consensus on Development (2006); European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid (2007); OECD DAC Recommendation on Anti-Corruption Proposals for Bilateral Aid Procurement (1996).

3. Increasing support of the Latvian society for the implementation of the development cooperation policy

Performance-based indicator

2015
(base)

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

3.1. Percentage of the society which considers that it is important to help developing countries

67 %

       

73 %

3.2. Percentage of the society which is informed about the Sustainable Development Goals

34 %

       

40 %

Linkage: the National Development Plan for 2014-2020; Education Development Guidelines 2014-2020; Regulations regarding State pre-school education guidelines (2012); Regulations Regarding the State Standard in Basic Education, the Subjects of Study Standards in Basic Education and Model Basic Educational Programmes (2014); Regulations Regarding the State General Secondary Education Standard, Subject Standards and Sample Education programmes (2013); Guidelines on National Identity, Civil Society and Integration Policy 2012-2018.

4. Development Cooperation Priorities of Latvia

Development cooperation is implemented in multilateral and bilateral formats. Multilateral format includes activities and contributions of Latvia to international institutions, initiatives, and trust funds. Based on the total contributions made and the importance of organisations in development cooperation, the EU, UN, World Bank group, and OECD are the multilateral formats of particular importance to Latvia. Latvia is actively involved in the policy development of such international organisations. For its part, the bilateral format includes the budget item "Development Cooperation Projects and International Assistance" of the MoFA and the funding dedicated by other public institutions for the bilateral development cooperation, and also the development and humanitarian aid provided by Latvia on an ad hoc basis. Regardless of the laid down priority sectors, Latvia implements the development cooperation according to the fundamental principles defined in Section 5.

4.1. (Bilateral and Multilateral) Priority Sectors of Development Cooperation of Latvia

It is important for Latvia to act in a coordinated manner in bilateral and multilateral development cooperation, by promoting involvement and coordinated action of all stakeholders, including the protection of the interests of Latvia and partner countries in all formats. Therefore, on the basis of existing activities of the public administration institutions, the Guidelines determine the development cooperation policy priorities of Latvia at large (in bilateral and multilateral format), particularly emphasising the following sectors13:

1) Development and strengthening of capacity of public administration, including combating corruption; support for the development and administrative management of public administration action policy (including the development of public services, access thereto, and e-governance solutions); support for decentralisation process and strengthening of local/regional administration; support for the financial management of public administration; support for the strengthening of judicial and interior system (including management and reforms of customs and border structures);

2) Development of entrepreneurship and strengthening of export capacity, including support for the introduction of trade-related legal framework in practice; strengthening the assistance services for entrepreneurs and capacity of institutions; development of small and medium-sized enterprises;

3) Prevention and solving of conflicts, peace and security, including management and reforms of State security structures in order to improve democratic administration and civil supervision, and participation in international peace-keeping, civil and election observation missions;

4) Promotion of democratic participation and development of the civil society, including strengthening the freedom of speech and information; promotion of gender equality and opportunities for women;

5) Education, including the development and administrative management of education policy, support for the improvement of education quality, including conformity with the requirements of the labour market, and monitoring, particularly in the field of vocational training.

6) Raising public awareness of development cooperation.

4.2. Priority Partner Countries and Sectors of Latvia in the Bilateral Development Cooperation of the MoFA

The EU Eastern Partnership and Central Asia regions have been determined as a priority in the development cooperation policy of Latvia. Likewise the countries in which the military contingent of Latvia or civil experts dispatched by the State14 are located are determined as a priority for the implementation of activities, providing an opportunity to strengthen the development and security nexus. In order to promote the effectiveness of bilaterally provided aid, within the scope of the budget programme "Development Cooperation Projects and International Assistance" of the MoFA particular attention is paid to a limited number of countries, based on requests of partner countries, foreign policy priorities of Latvia, the highest added value of the aid provided by Latvia, and visibility of results. According to the situation analysis at the time when the Guidelines were approved, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine were determined as priority countries in the Eastern Partnership region and Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan - in Central Asia.

In order to promote effective use of the aid of Latvia and coordinated action with other donors, not more than three sectors of involvement are laid down for each priority partner country of Latvia within the scope of the bilateral funding managed by the MoFA. These sectors have been selected on the basis of consultations with partner countries and in compliance with the national strategies of such countries, the expertise of Latvia as the implementer of development cooperation and comparative advantages in relation to other donors, and also taking into account the current activities of donors in the particular sector (particularly the joint EU development cooperation programming process and the opinion provided by embassies of Latvia).

In the provision of technical assistance bilaterally and through the EU initiatives, Latvia supports partner countries, for example, by ensuring corresponding learning opportunities to citizens of such countries and also by offering its consultants and experts.

Taking into account that development cooperation is being planned and provided in a changing political, economic, and social environment, the MoFA, when developing the Development Cooperation Policy Plans for the Implementation of the Guidelines, specifies priority countries and the sectors of involvement therein, if necessary.

Priority Sectors in the Eastern Partnership Countries

Georgia

- Development and strengthening of capacity of public administration - combating corruption; support for the development and administrative management of public administration policy; promotion of democratic participation in decision-making; strengthening of judicial and interior system, particularly the management and reforms of border security structures;

- Support for the development of entrepreneurship, development of small and medium-sized enterprises, particularly in the field of agriculture, including acquisition of funding.

Moldova

- Development and strengthening of capacity of public administration - support for the development and administrative management of public administration policy; promotion of democratic participation in decision-making, management and reforms of border security structures;

- Support for the decentralisation process and strengthening of local/regional administration;

- Support for the development of entrepreneurship and strengthening of export capacity.

Ukraine

- Development and strengthening of capacity of public administration - combating corruption; support for the development and administrative management of public administration policy; promotion of democratic participation in decision-making;

- Support for the decentralisation process and strengthening of local/regional administration;

- Support for the strengthening of export capacity and introduction of trade-related legal framework in practice in the field of agriculture.

In the EU Eastern Partnership countries - Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, development cooperation is based on the transfer of best practice of Latvia in the implementation of EU standards. In the Eastern Partnership countries priorities are the strengthening of territorial integrity of these countries and promotion of integration of the society.

Priority Sectors in Central Asia Countries (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)

- Support for the strengthening of judicial and interior system, particularly management and reforms of border security structures.

- Development and strengthening of capacity of public administration - support for the development and administrative management of public administration policy; combating corruption.

- Development of agriculture, including support for the ministries of agriculture, agricultural reforms, and development of entrepreneurship.

- Promotion of democratic participation and development of the civil society, including promotion of gender equality and opportunities for women.

- Education, including the development and administrative management of education policy, support for the improvement of education quality, including conformity with the requirements of the labour market, and monitoring, particularly in the field of vocational training.

5. Fundamental Principles of the Development Cooperation Policy

In order to ensure the sustainability of the results of development cooperation, achievement of policy objectives and fulfilment of international commitments, the development cooperation policy of Latvia is implemented according to the following fundamental principles arising from planning, implementation and evaluation practices of international development cooperation, particularly for the 2030 Agenda, Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, decisions and recommendations of the EU and OECD.

Main responsibility of partner countries for their national development.Latvia is guided by the principle that the main responsibility for the internal development processes of the State lies with the partner countries themselves. Accordingly Latvia provides aid in a comprehensive manner, based on the needs of the partner country and the priorities laid down in its national development strategy. Latvia undertakes to involve the institutions of the partner country as much as possible, to use the existing systems of partner countries and to comply with their regulatory enactments and commitments, including by promoting the implementation of activities through the embassies of Latvia. Latvia pays special attention to the provision of technical cooperation for the strengthening of the knowledge and capacity of partner country representatives in order to promote the ability of countries themselves to plan and implement their national development.

Horizontal principles of development cooperation Latvia emphasises the implementation and promotion of human rights as the leading horizontal principle for the planning and implementation of the development cooperation policy, including by implementing human rights based approach. In the development cooperation and in foreign policy Latvia emphasises in general the integration of democracy, good governance, gender equality, environmental sustainability and climate issues. These horizontal principles are implemented through all activities funded by Latvia regardless of the sector.

Partnership and cooperation. It is important to ensure coordinated action of all stakeholders by working in partnership for sustainable development at all levels. Latvia particularly emphasises the importance of the EU joint development cooperation planning processes and triangular cooperation, as well as the principles for the sustainable development of global partnership included in the 2030 Agenda and Addis Ababa Action Agenda. Latvia also recognises the added value from activities jointly implemented by several stakeholders - public and private sector, civil society experts, local governments, and researchers, etc. Latvia emphasises the need to promote the catalytic role of official development assistance (ODA) by attracting other financial resources, particularly private funding and resources of philanthropists. Latvia notes the role of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation and its principles in the implementation of quality development cooperation.

Sustainability of results and predictability of aid. The aid provided must be predictable, creating long-term cooperation at different levels. Aid of Latvia is provided for the achievement of a specific objective, by evaluating where the needs are the greatest, the contribution and visibility of Latvia is the most sustainable. Long-term multiplicative impact and also the sustainability of results is evaluated in planning and implementation of projects.

Transparency. Latvia distributes the funding for development cooperation in accordance with the national laws and regulations,15 OECD DAC principles, by taking into account the 2011 Busan Agreement, and the 2015 Addis Ababa Action Agenda. Latvia strives to achieve that all implementers of the development cooperation policy and stakeholders of the policy sectors related thereto act transparently and inform the society about the results and mutual benefits of development cooperation. The MoFA publishes decisions, evaluation of activities, and statistics, and also divides the funding and performs evaluation thereof according to specific public and transparent criteria. Corruption is not permissible in the development cooperation projects financed by Latvia, and the position of Latvia in general is that the funding for development cooperation is granted and utilised responsibly, openly, and honestly according to the principles of good governance.

Policy coherence for sustainable development (PCSD), the Development cooperation policy is only one part of the means for implementation of the 2030 Agenda. It is necessary to ensure coherence in planning of national and sectoral policy of Latvia with the 2030 Agenda. For the provision of sustainable development in partner countries Latvia particularly emphasises responsible and co-ordinated implementation of the security, migration and trade policies. In order to ensure policy coherence, involvement of decision-makers and responsible line ministries and their understanding of the development cooperation and importance of corresponding sectoral policy for sustainable development.

Fundamental principles for provision of humanitarian aid

In providing humanitarian aid Latvia is guided by the principles for the provision of good humanitarian aid defined in the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid (2007)16 - humanity, neutrality, impartiality, and independence. Humanitarian aid is provided on the basis of an appropriate assessment of needs and according to the needs of the country which has suffered in a disaster or conflict, by following the gender equality principles in provision of aid.

Latvia is moving towards the most effective and operational approach to the provision of humanitarian aid. It is planned to direct the funding, as much as possible, to national and local organisations17, in situations when it is not possible - using international organisations in order to provide assistance to human beings in crisis as close as possible according to the principles for provision of humanitarian aid. In individual cases financial aid is provided directly to the recipient countries.

Latvia emphasises the need to strengthen the link between the instruments of humanitarian aid and development cooperation, ensuring transition from crisis situations to planning of sustainable development.

6. Courses of Action and Tasks for the Achievement of Policy Objectives

1. To provide support for sustainable development of the EU Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries via the funding instruments of bilateral development cooperation managed by the MoFA

No.

Task

Deadline (year)

Responsible institution

Co-responsible institutions

Linkage with the policy result and result-based indicator

1.

To ensure the linkage of activities funded by bilateral development cooperation of Latvia with activities and funding of other donors, by expanding the sustainability and visibility of the aid provided by Latvia

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries18

1.5, 1.7, 2.1, 2.2

2.

To ensure the implementation of activities with involvement of different stakeholders (public administration, civil society, private sector, etc.)

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 2.1, 2.2

3.

To promote the involvement of Latvian experts in civil, advisory and other missions in developing countries

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries

1.1, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2

4.

To implement grant project tenders according to the needs of partner countries, by dedicating 50 % of the resources of the grant project tender to the projects implemented by the CSOs sector

Permanently

MoFA

 

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 2.2


2. To strengthen the implementation of the development cooperation priorities of Latvia within the scope of multilateral cooperation, particularly within the scope of the EU, UN, WBG, and OECD, thus promoting the coherence of the development cooperation policy of Latvia in all formats

No.

Task

Deadline (year)

Responsible institution

Co-responsible institutions

Linkage with the policy result and result-based indicator

1.

To increase the involvement of public administration institutions of Latvia and CSOs in formulation of the position of Latvia regarding current issues of the international development cooperation policy agenda, particularly the sectors referred to in Section 4.1

Permanently

MoFA

CSOs, line ministries

2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2

2.

To ensure inclusion of the priorities referred to in Section 4 of Latvia in the EU development cooperation policy, including in the joint programming process and implementation of activities in priority partner countries of Latvia

Permanently

MoFA

MEPRD

1.5, 2.1, 2.2

3.

To ensure the involvement of Latvia in its priority issues in the 2nd Committee of the UN General Assembly (macro-economic and sustainable development issues), including regarding issues of gender equality, rule of law, and good governance, information society, development cooperation with the Eastern Europe and Central Asia countries, strengthening of the UN Development System according to the 2030 Agenda

Permanently

MoFA

CSCC, MEPRD

2.1, 2.2

4.

To ensure the participation of Latvia in meetings of the OECD DAC working groups and full takeover of the corresponding standards in order to become a DAC member

Permanently

MoFA

 

2.1, 2.2

5.

To implement a joint and comprehensive approach to the use of multilateral development cooperation instruments, including with the International Development Association of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development of the WBG according to the development cooperation priorities of Latvia

Permanently

MoF, MoFA

Line ministries

1.5, 2.1, 2.2

6.

To strengthen the involvement of Latvia in humanitarian aid processes and activities according to the international standards and needs of partner countries, by ensuring a comprehensive and coordinated approach of Latvia to addressing crises in different formats and levels

Permanently

MoFA, MoI

Corresponding CSOs, MoD

2.1, 2.2


3. To strengthen the sustainability and also the competence and coordination of the activities of developers and implementers of the development cooperation policy of Latvia

No.

Task

Deadline (year)

Responsible institution

Co-responsible institutions

Linkage with the policy result and result-based indicator

1.

To ensure coherence of bilateral development cooperation activities of Latvia (MoFA and sectoral ministries) according to the development cooperation policy priorities of Latvia defined in Section 4

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 2.1, 2.2

2.

To strengthen the competence of project developers of Latvia, their mutual cooperation and improvement of the quality of operation, particularly the ability participate in EuropeAid, Twinning and other large-scale multiannual projects, including as leading partners

Permanently

MoFA, MoF

Line ministries, CSOs

1.5, 1.7, 2.1, 2.2

3.

To involve the private sector in the achieving of the development cooperation goals, including by promoting involvement of entrepreneurs in project tenders of international financial institutions (for example, the European Investment Bank) in developing countries and by developing new national funding mechanisms to the extent possible

Permanently

MoF, MoFA, MoE

Line ministries, ECL

1.5, 2.1, 2.2

4.

To strengthen the competency of the Consultative Council in the achievement of development cooperation goals

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries, CSOs

1.5, 2.2, 3.2

5.

To ensure the capacity and competence of the MoFA, including diplomatic representations of Latvia, to ensure the planning, implementation, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation of development cooperation policy of Latvia in a transparent, qualitative and responsible manner, including by providing the necessary informative and political support to the implementers of development cooperation activities of Latvia

Permanently

MoFA

 

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2


4. To strengthen the transparency and conformity of the development cooperation of Latvia with the international reporting standards

No.

Task

Deadline (year)

Responsible institution

Co-responsible institutions

Linkage with the policy result and result-based indicator

1.

To improve the assessment of the needs of partner countries, by determining the priorities and aid instruments of Latvia in a transparent manner based on the results

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries

1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 2.2

2.

To introduce multiannual (at least 2-3 years) programming approach in the implementation and planning of development cooperation activities in order to ensure the predictability of the funding and also the effectiveness and efficiency of its utilisation in long-term, as well as the flexibility in re-distribution of the funding when necessary

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries

1.5, 2.1, 2.2

3.

When providing aid of Latvia, to systematically evaluate, prevent, and manage risks in all stages of assistance provision, particularly regarding corruption

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries

2.1, 2.2

4.

To ensure permanent and transparent monitoring of development cooperation policy projects and evaluation of the impact of results

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries

2.1, 2.2

5.

To ensure complete transition of Latvia to the OECD CRS++ reporting system

2019

MoFA

Line ministries

2.1, 2.2


5. To raise the public awareness of the importance of development cooperation, participation, and support for the implementation of the policy

No.

Task

Deadline (year)

Responsible institution

Co-responsible institutions

Linkage with the policy result and result-based indicator

1.

To integrate the aspects of sustainable development and global education in education among all age groups

Permanently

MoES, MoC,

MoFA, UNESCO Latvian National Commission, CSOs

1.7, 3.1, 3.2

2.

To ensure public access to the most current data and information regarding the development cooperation policy (bilateral and multilateral) of Latvia, its results, implementers and their experience, by cooperating with other donors, CSOs, and academic sector

Permanently

MoFA

Line ministries, CSOs

1.7, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2


6. To implement a comprehensive and coordinated approach of Latvia to promote sustainable development in the world

No.

Task

Deadline (year)

Responsible institution

Co-responsible institutions

Linkage with the policy result and result-based indicator

1.

During the medium-term evaluation process of the NDP to examine the result-based indicators of the 2030 Agenda related to development cooperation and to provide recommendations regarding their inclusion in the NDP2020 and the next planning period

2017

MoFA

Line ministries, CSCC

3.1, 3.2

2.

To strengthen the links between the development cooperation and economic policy of Latvia and its implementation instruments, particularly by promoting the implementation of the principles of corporate social responsibility in partner countries

Permanently

MoFA

MoE, CSOs

1.2, 1.5, 1.7

3.

To strengthen the coherence of the development cooperation and security policy and implementation instruments thereof, particularly in the Eastern Partnership and Central Asia regions

Permanently

MoFA, MoD, MoI

 

1.1, 1.5, 2.2, 3.1

4.

To ensure the consolidation of national coordination mechanisms between the line ministries and all stakeholders for the implementation of policy coherence for sustainable development (PCSD) in Latvia  

CSCC, MoFA

Line ministries

2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1

7. Indicative Assessment of the Impact on the State and Local Government Budget

Summary on the funding necessary for the implementation of the tasks included in the Guidelines

EUR

Task

Planned funding

Necessary additional funding

2016

2017

2018

2017

2018

2019

2020

Funding in total

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

Law on the Medium-Term Budget Framework, in total

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

including*:              
implementation of the core functions of the State

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

For information              
Division by budget departments              
11. Ministry of Foreign Affairs

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

Course of action 1 - to provide support for sustainable development of the EU Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries via the funding instruments of bilateral development cooperation managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Funding in total

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

Law on the Medium-Term Budget Framework, in total

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

including*:              
implementation of the core functions of the State

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

For information              
Division by budget departments              
11. Ministry of Foreign Affairs

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

Task 1 - to ensure the linkage of activities funded by bilateral development cooperation of Latvia with activities and funding of other donors, by expanding the sustainability and visibility of the aid provided by Latvia
Funding in total

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

Law on the Medium-Term Budget Framework, in total

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

including*:              
implementation of the core functions of the State

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

For information              
Division by budget departments              
11. Ministry of Foreign Affairs

451,400

463,813

463,813

500,000

1,000,000

1,500,000

2,000,000

Task 2 - to ensure the implementation of activities with involvement of different stakeholders (public administration, civil society, private sector, etc.)
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 3 - to promote the involvement of Latvian experts in civil, advisory and other missions in developing countries
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 4 - to implement grant project tenders according to the needs of partner countries, by dedicating 50 % of the resources of the grant project tender to the projects implemented by the CSOs
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Course of action 2 - 2. To strengthen the implementation of the development cooperation priorities of Latvia within the scope of multilateral cooperation, particularly within the scope of the EU, UN, WBG, and OECD, thus promoting the coherence of the development cooperation policy of Latvia in all formats
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 1 - to actively co-operate with public administration institutions of Latvia and CSOs in formulation of positions of Latvia on the current issues of the international development cooperation policy agenda
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 2 - to ensure inclusion of the priorities of Latvia in the EU development cooperation policy, including in the joint programming process and implementation of activities in priority partner countries of Latvia
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 3 - to ensure the involvement of Latvia in its priority issues in the 2nd Committee of the UN General Assembly (macro-economic and sustainable development issues), including regarding issues of gender equality, rule of law, and good governance, information society, development cooperation with the Eastern Europe and Central Asia countries, strengthening of the UN Development System according to the 2030 Agenda.
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 4 - to ensure the participation of Latvia in meetings of the OECD DAC working groups and full takeover of the corresponding standards in order to become a DAC member
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 5 - to implement a joint and comprehensive approach to the use of multilateral development cooperation instruments, including with the International Development Association of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development of the WBG according to the development cooperation priorities of Latvia.
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 6 - to strengthen the involvement of Latvia in humanitarian aid processes and activities according to the international standards and needs of partner countries, by ensuring a comprehensive and coordinated approach of Latvia to addressing crises in different formats and levels
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Course of action 3 - 3. To strengthen the sustainability and also the competence and coordination of the activities of developers and implementers of the development cooperation policy of Latvia
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 1 - to ensure coherence of bilateral development cooperation of Latvia (MoFA and line ministries)
Funding

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 2 - to strengthen the competence of project developers of Latvia, their mutual cooperation and improvement of the quality of operation, particularly the ability to participate in EuropeAid, Twinning and other large-scale multiannual projects, including as leading partners
Funding

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 3 - to involve the private sector in the achieving of the development cooperation goals, including by promoting involvement of entrepreneurs in project tenders of international financial institutions (for example, the European Investment Bank) in developing countries and by developing new national funding mechanisms to the extent possible
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 4 - to strengthen the competency of the Consultative Council in the achievement of development cooperation goals
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 5 to ensure the capacity and competence of the MoFA, including diplomatic representations of Latvia, to ensure the planning, implementation, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation of development cooperation policy of Latvia in a transparent, qualitative and responsible manner, including by providing the necessary informative and political support to the implementers of development cooperation activities of Latvia
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Course of action 4 - to strengthen the transparency and conformity of the development cooperation of Latvia with the international reporting standards
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 1 - to improve the assessment of the needs of partner countries, by determining the priorities and aid instruments of Latvia in a transparent manner based on the results
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 2 - to introduce a multiannual programming approach in order to ensure the predictability of funding and effectiveness of its utilisation in long-term, and also the flexibility in re-division of funding when necessary
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 3 - when providing aid of Latvia, to systematically evaluate, prevent, and manage risks in all stages of assistance provision, particularly regarding the corruption
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 4 - to ensure permanent and transparent monitoring of development cooperation policy projects and evaluation of the impact of results
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 5 - to ensure complete transition of Latvia to the OECD CRS++ reporting system
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Course of action 5 - to raise the public awareness of the importance of development cooperation, participation, and support for the implementation of policy
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 1 - to integrate the aspects of sustainable development and global education in education among all age groups
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 2 - to ensure public access to the most current data and information regarding the development cooperation policy (bilateral and multilateral) of Latvia, its results, implementers and their experience, by cooperating with other donors, CSOs, and academic sector
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Course of action 6 - to implement a comprehensive and coordinated approach of Latvia to promote sustainable development in the world
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 1 - during the medium-term evaluation process of the NDP to examine the result-based indicators of the 2030 Agenda related to development cooperation and to provide recommendations regarding their inclusion in the NDP2020 and the next planning period
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 2 - to strengthen the links between the development cooperation and economic policy of Latvia particularly by promoting the implementation of the principles of corporate social responsibility in partner countries
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 3 - to strengthen the coherence of the development cooperation and security policy instruments, particularly in the Eastern Partnership and Central Asia region
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Task 4 - to ensure the consolidation of national coordination mechanisms between the line ministries and all stakeholders for the implementation of policy coherence for sustainable development (PCSD) in Latvia
Funding in total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0



1 In accordance with the International Assistance Law (2008). At the same time in practice Latvia applies a set of definitions of international organisations, particularly OECD. The role of development cooperation is to promote the opportunities for developing countries to participate in global economy and to strengthen the ability of people of such countries to pull themselves out of poverty and to fully participate in the society. In the implementation of development cooperation sustainable development must be promoted in all three of its dimensions - social, economic, and environmental. The planned impact of development cooperation is physical, institutional, social, environmental or other positive contribution to the society, community or a group of persons of the partner country via single or several development cooperation instruments. Development cooperation instruments strengthen the ability of the country or territory to use their human, financial, and natural resources capital in a sustainable, effective, and efficient manner.

2 This list is regularly updated and available on the website: http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/daclist.htm.

3 UN maintains and regularly updates the list of least developed countries (http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/cdp/ldc/ldc_list.pdf). Together with the least developed countries the ODA recipients are subdivided in the following groups based on the GNI per capita of these countries: other low-income countries (GNI per capita is less than or equal to USD 1,045 ), lower middle-income countries (USD 1,046-4,125 per capita), and upper middle income-countries (USD 4,126-12,745 per capita).

4 In accordance with the EU Council Conclusions on a New Global Partnership for Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Development after 2015. (26 May 2015)

5 The EU Council Conclusions on a stronger role of the private sector in development cooperation of 12 December 2014.

6 The EU Council Conclusions on local authorities in development of 22 July 2013

7 The EU Council Conclusions on the Gender Action Plan 2016-2020 of 26 October 2015.

8 For example, guidelines of the OECD DAC peer reviews, including Peer Review Manual 2015-2016 (2014); OECD DAC Recommendation on Anti-Corruption Proposals for Bilateral Aid Procurement (1996); OECD Development Strategy (2012).

9 Recommendation of the OECD Council concerning an Environmental Checklist for Possible Use by High-Level Decision-Makers in Bilateral and Multilateral Development Assistance Institutions (1989); Recommendation of the Council on Measures Required to Facilitate the Environmental Assessment of Development Assistance Projects and Programmes (1986); Recommendation of the Council on Environmental Assessment of Development Assistance Projects and Programmes; Declaration on Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Co-operation (2006).

10 Recommendation of the Council on Good Institutional Practices in Promoting Policy Coherence for Development (2010); Declaration on Policy Cohesion for Development (2008).

11 Paragraph 339 of the NDP2020 and justification document of the indicative financial framework of the priorities, courses of action and tasks of the NDP2020.

12 The performance-based indicators determined in this section in percentage are not cumulative and do not form a sum of 100 % in total because they comprise performance-based indicators on sectors, cooperation methods and sources of funding.

13 The sectors have been named on the basis of the list of codes of target fields of the OECD DAC (Creditor Reporting System or CRS++)

14 Based on 2016 - Afghanistan, Georgia, Iraq, Mali, and Ukraine.

15 Development cooperation of Latvia is planned and implemented in accordance with the Development Planning System Law, the International Assistance Law, and the Procedures for Receipt and Provision of Humanitarian Aid, Procedures for Implementation of Grant Project Tenders, Procedures for Implementation of Delegated Cooperation, By-laws of the Consultative Council for Development Cooperation Policy, Regulations Regarding Maximum Remuneration, Daily Allowance for a Person Involved in Implementation of the Development Cooperation Project, and Amount of Hotel (Accommodation) Expenses.

16 The report jointly approved by the Council, Commission and Parliament in 2007, European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid, which outlines the actions of the EU in the field of humanitarian aid according to the principles which have been jointly defined by the donor countries, CSOs, UN agencies, International Red Cross, Red Crescent in provision of humanitarian aid in 2003.

17 According to the results of the World Humanitarian Summit the UN member states are invited to increase the funding to national and local organisations in situations of humanitarian crises.

18 Hereinafter the public administration institutions which implement the development cooperation activities from the funds of the State consolidated joint budget according to the ODA definition.

Acting for the Minister for Foreign Affairs -
Minister for the Interior R. Kozlovskis

Visa: acting for the State Secretary -
Deputy State Secretary, administrative director A. Vanaga

 

Annex No. 2

Characterisation of the Current Situation in the Field of Development Cooperation Policy in Latvia

Table of Contents

I. Context of the Latvian and Global Development Cooperation *

1.1. Growth of the Latvian Development Cooperation Policy *

1.2. Basic Principles and Objectives of the Latvian Development Cooperation Policy *

II. Priority Partner Countries and Sectors of the Bilateral Development Cooperation *

2.1. Priority Countries *

2.2. Priority Sectors *

III. Multilateral Development Cooperation *

3.1. The UN System *

3.2. European Union *

3.3. Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development *

3.4. World Bank Group *

IV. Humanitarian Aid *

V. Raising Public Awareness and Global Education *

5.1. Co-funding Tenders *

5.2. The European Year for Development Implemented in 2015 *

5.3. The Work of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Public Awareness *

VI. Strengthening Capacity of Implementers of the Development Cooperation *

6.1. Involvement of the Implementers of Development Cooperation Projects of Latvia *

6.2. Strengthening Capacity of Civil Society Organisations and Local Governments *

6.3. Involvement of the Private Sector in Development Cooperation *

6.4. Strengthening Capacity of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Diplomatic Missions *

VII. Amount of the Funding for Development Cooperation of Latvia *

7.1. Funding Commitments *

7.2. Multilateral Format *

7.3. Bilateral Format *

VIII. Transparency and Results-Based Planning and Evaluation of the Development Cooperation Policy of Latvia *

8.1. Institutional Framework *

8.2. Planning of Activities *

8.3. Monitoring of Activities *

8.4. Evaluation of Activities *

IX. Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development *

9.1. Implementation of the Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development in Latvia *

9.2. Trade and Responsible Consumption and Production *

9.3. Linkage of the Development Cooperation Policy with Security Issues *

I. Context of the Latvian and Global Development Cooperation

Since adoption of the previous guidelines in 2011, the geopolitical context and global challenges have significantly changed the social, economic, and political reality of the world. Development regions have experienced significant growth, investments and private funding flows have considerably increased in developing countries, demographic trends have changed. At the same time the world faces a difficult migration crisis. Increasing urbanisation and digitalisation may be observed.

Unrests and political instability, food insecurity and disasters caused by climate change, new global pandemics, instability of the financial and capital markets and illegal migration negatively affect the world's poorest countries most directly.

As a result of globalisation, these trends also affect economic growth, security and welfare of inhabitants of the developed countries, including Latvia. In 2015, the UN Development Cooperation Framework - Millennium Development Goals - adopted in 2000 was completed. Since 1990 a significant progress has been made in achievement of these goals - the number of persons suffering from hunger in the world has halved, more than 90 % of children in developing countries start primary school, gender discrimination has been eradicated in primary, secondary and vocational education, the number of new persons infected with the HIV virus has decreased by approximately 40 %. At the same time advancement towards achievement of several goals has been slow - there are still 57 million children in developing countries who do not attend school, only half of the women of working age have a paid job, 16,000 children under the age of five years die every day, mainly from avoidable causes of death. Only half of the pregnant women has access to pre-natal health services, and the global carbon emissions in the world have increased by more than 50 per cent. The number of conflicts has increased significantly as well, and more than 60 million people in the world have been forced to leave their homes due to war, conflicts or persecution.

In order to jointly address these challenges three important global agreements were reached in 2015 at the UN level - Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (hereinafter - the 2030 Agenda) and the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (hereinafter - the Paris Agreement).

These agreements indicate global ambitions from all states, institutions and the private sector, as well as confirm that the development cooperation has a central role in addressing the root causes of the global challenges of the 21st century, such as poverty, war, weak institutions, climate change, by taking into account the principles of justice, solidarity and responsibility in globalisation processes.

The 2030 Agenda constitutes the most significant global agreement in the development cooperation policy by replacing the previous UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The 2030 Agenda contains 17 thematic goals and 169 targets which all the UN Member States commit to reach by 2030 (for the list of goals, see Annex 1). These goals reflect social, economic, political and environmental changes which have occurred in the world since adoption of the MDGs in 2010. First, the world has become more interconnected globally, therefore the new goals, unlike the MDGs, refer not only to developing countries but also to the developed ones; they should be introduced by all countries in the world, including Latvia. Second, the major goal of cooperation is no longer only poverty eradication but also sustainable development. This means that the policy goals of each state and the results to be achieved should be evaluated from the perspective of economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. Third, achievement of results requires action at all levels - municipal, national, regional and international. Fourth, it is important for implementation of changes to involve a wide range of players, including the private sector, civil society, philanthropy etc. Fifth, the new Sustainable Development Goals substantively cover much wider policy areas, for example, good governance and rule of law, sustainable economic growth, inequalities within states, sustainable consumption and production, sustainable urban planning have been included as separate goals. Finally, the new framework recognises that development cooperation is only one of the instruments for poverty eradication and promotion of sustainable development. It is equally important to mobilise different financial resources, develop technologies, strengthen capacity of developing countries, promote trade and address systemic issues (policy coherence, multilateral partnerships, data availability and monitoring), as well as develop a global partnership (cooperation between all stakeholders).

Consequently, the Guidelines are adopted in a new global situation and based on a new approach to development cooperation.

1.1. Growth of the Latvian Development Cooperation Policy

During implementation of the previous guidelines from 2011 to 2015, global development cooperation policy developed and Latvia became more integrated in the global donor community.

Latvia has actively engaged in the formulation of the EU and the UN development cooperation policy, for example, the UN negotiations on the 2030 Agenda, including the preparatory talks on resources and financing for implementation of the said goals for the Conference on Financing for Development held in Addis Ababa. In 2015, the European Year for Development was implemented at the EU level for the first time, within the framework of which the Latvian society was informed of the development cooperation projects implemented by the EU and Latvia. As to the cooperation in the context of the Latvian EU Presidency, Latvia paid special attention to the issues of gender equality, good governance, rule of law and information society, as well as provision of support to the EU Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries.

Over the last years the visibility of Latvia has also increased in bilateral development cooperation formats. After the years of economic crisis grant project tenders were restored in 2013, and Latvia became increasingly engaged in joint projects with other donors. More intensive activity of CSOs may be observed in issues related to raising of public awareness and global education.

Since the start of the OECD accession process in 2013 Latvia has become involved in structures of the OECD Development Assistance Committee and gradually transposes the highest international standards for provision of development cooperation. Development of the Guidelines for 2016-2020 is one of the steps in order for Latvia to fully integrate in the community of providers of development cooperation and provide valuable and sustainable support to partner countries.

1.2. Basic Principles and Objectives of the Latvian Development Cooperation Policy

The previous guidelines emphasised the following eight basic principles, approved globally and at the EU level, according to which the Latvian Development Cooperation Policy was implemented: 1) achievement of the MDGs, especially aspects of human rights and human security; 2) efficiency of assistance; 3) international commitments of financing for development; 4) commitments on the development cooperation principles, policy coherence for development, efficiency of assistance, division of labour, aid for trade and support to strengthening of democracy approved in the EU Foreign Affairs Council conclusions; 5) OECD guidelines for development cooperation; 6) comprehensive approach to development processes in partner countries and provision of support according to the needs of partner countries; 7) ownership of partner countries over their development processes; 8) horizontal priorities of the development cooperation policy specified in the EU Consensus on Development.

These basic principles were followed when developing annual plans of the Latvian development cooperation policy, implementing grant project tenders and planning cooperation with other donors in priority partner countries, as well as engaging in formulation of the EU and UN positions on global issues and priorities of the development cooperation policy.

Objectives of the previous guidelines were as follows:

1) strengthening the role of Latvia as bilateral donor, thus implementing the external policy interests of Latvia;

2) raising of public awareness and support to the development cooperation objectives and policy;

3) increasing role of Latvia in achievement of international development objectives and carrying out of international commitments.

These objectives continued achievement of the Latvian development cooperation objectives approved in 2006 by focusing on strengthening the capacity of Latvia as a donor country.

The development cooperation policy was reflected in priorities of the Latvian government, including declarations and action plans of the governments led by Valdis Dombrovskis and Laimdota Straujuma. Representatives of the Latvian government have emphasised in the UN, EU and other international formats support to the reform process of the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries, by especially advocating provision of support to Ukraine in its European integration efforts.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 20201

- Implementation of the development cooperation policy is part of the obligations of Latvia as a EU Member State. Development cooperation plays a central role in the EU external policy. The Guidelines continue the work that Latvia has started in this policy area and fully reflect Latvia's strategy and involvement in addressing of global issues.

- At the same time after more than ten years of strengthening of capacity and increasing of funding it is necessary for Latvia to focus on implementation of the development cooperation activities. The policy planning should be based on foreign policy priorities of Latvia, sustainability of results in the areas of Latvian expertise, compliance with the needs of partner countries, and visibility of the aid provided by Latvia.

- Development cooperation policy is an important instrument of foreign policy which is closely related to the security policy and external economic policy pursued by the State. Provision of aid to the Latvian partner countries improve bilateral relations. Promotion of private sector development and strengthening of public administration also develop trade relations and open up new opportunities for Latvian entrepreneurs.

- Promoting the involvement of Latvian implementers and experts also directly benefits to the Latvian economy. For example, in 2015, over EUR 2 million were attracted as co-financing to development cooperation projects via the funding of the MoFA. Part of this funding returns to the Latvian economy by ensuring remuneration for experts and organising training.

- The willingness and capacity of Latvia to actively engage in addressing of global development issues in multilateral formats is a way of increasing prestige and visibility of Latvia in international organisations. Introduction of the new development cooperation policy framework will remain high on the UN agenda for a long time. This is an opportunity to, for example, promote positive outcome of candidature for the UN Security Council. A quality development cooperation is also an important yardstick for member countries within the context of the OECD.

- Currently the development cooperation only appears in the indicative funding table of the major Latvian medium-term planning document - the National Development Plan of Latvia for 2014-2020 (NDP 2020) - and just in relation to the objective regarding promotion of mutual cooperation of citizens. It is important to include the development cooperation issues in the long-term planning documents of Latvia during the medium-term assessment of the NDP 2020 in order to promote coherence of internal and external dimensions of the Latvian development, and plan involvement in regions of strategic importance within the context of foreign policy of the State, especially the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries.

II. Priority Partner Countries and Sectors of the Bilateral Development Cooperation

Since the increase in the bilateral funding of the MoFA in 2012 the planning and implementation of the bilateral development cooperation policy activities have been renewed. From 2012 to 2015, the development cooperation capacity of Latvia developed, priority partner countries were established, i.e. the Eastern Partnership countries of the European Neighbourhood Policy (Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine) and Central Asian countries (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), as well as the countries in which Latvia's military contingent or civil experts dispatched by the State are located. Areas of expertise have become visible and cooperation projects with other donors have gradually developed.

Depending on availability of the funding and priorities, specific priority partner countries and sectors of involvement were identified in the annual Development Cooperation Policy Plan during this period.

2012

· Moldova was defined as a priority country when starting to implement a project in judicial (probation) sector together with the USAID (implemented by the Ministry of Justice), as well as participating in a EU joint programming project in regional development (implemented by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development - the MEPRD).

· Co-funding was also provided to a project implemented by the Ministry of Transport in order to support Afghanistan in the area of civil aviation and railway training.

· Support was provided as a result of the co-funding tender to implement a project in Kyrgyzstan in the area of social protection and health.

· Out of the public administration institutions the most extensive development cooperation was implemented by the Ministry of the Interior (within the framework of its budget) which became involved in multilateral EU activities in the areas of migration and security.

2013

· The projects started in 2012 supporting Moldova and Afghanistan were continued.

· Two projects were funded as a result of the grant project tender for support to the partner countries - Azerbaijan in the area of social security and health, as well as Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in the area of civic participation and gender equality.

· Support was provided as a result of the co-funding tender to a project in Azerbaijan in the area of social protection and health. Co-funding was also provided to a regional project in the area of energy efficiency to support Belarus, Ukraine and Russia.

· As to the activities implemented by the public administration institutions, mention should be made of the Ministry of the Interior (support to refugees), the MEPRD (organising seminars, advising Moldova, Kazakhstan and Kosovo on good governance), as well as the Ministry of Defence which implemented activities in Georgia in the area of good governance and security.

2014

· The projects started in 2012 supporting Moldova and Afghanistan were continued.

· The training programme of the Riga Graduate School of Law was launched for representatives of public administration and civil society of the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries.

· Seven projects were supported as a result of the grant project tender for support to Moldova (regional development, regional reforms and decentralisation, entrepreneurship), Georgia (employment and good governance), Belarus (economic development) and Uzbekistan (engineering).

· Technical assistance projects providing support to Ukraine (in the areas of regional development, anti-corruption, implementation of EU standards and promotion of export capacity) were funded from additional allocated funds.

· Support was provided to Moldova (in the area of food safety) and Georgia (in the area of social security).

· Funding was allocated to the State Border Guard for implementation of the Border Management Programme in Central Asia (BOMCA) funded by the European Commission.

· The Ministry of Welfare was most active in development cooperation by implementing good governance projects in several Eastern Partnership countries, including within the framework of EU Twinning and TAIEX. Activities were also implemented by the Ministry of Finance (provision of advice on good governance), the MEPRD (transfer of experience in implementation of territorial reforms, spatial development planning), as well as the Ministry of Justice (strengthening of capacity of the public administration institutions), the Ministry of Defence (provision of humanitarian aid to the victims of Ukraine conflict), and the Ministry of Transport (advice on railway development).

2015

· Projects supporting Moldova (in the area of regional development) and Afghanistan were continued.

· Support to the training programme of the Riga Graduate School of Law was continued for representatives of public administration and CSOs of the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries by attracting co-funding of other donors.

· Ten projects were funded as a result of the grant project tender for support to Ukraine (in the areas of regional development, civic participation, agriculture, anti-corruption), three projects supporting Moldova (in promotion of regional development and entrepreneurship, territorial reforms, border security), and one project supporting Georgia (in the area of border security).

· In addition, the following measures were implemented to support Ukraine - a project in the area of European integration with the participation of Ukrainian Vice Ministers; scholarships were granted to Ukrainian students for studies at the University of Latvia.

· A visit of an expert of the Ministry of Agriculture to Uzbekistan was funded in order to present the experience of Latvia in the area of growing and exporting of organic fruits and vegetables.

· Development of a home page was co-funded within the framework of an informative campaign regarding integration of Moldova in the European Union.

· A project of the Baltic Centre for Media Excellence was funded for training of journalists from the Eastern Partnership countries in Latvia.

· In 2015, cooperation was started with the UN Development Programme (UNDP) in Uzbekistan by implementing a training visit in Latvia for representatives of Uzbekistan in the area of social security.

· Projects were implemented by a wide range of public institutions, mostly by the MEPRD (in the area of good governance and regional development by organising consultations and discussions), the Ministry of Welfare (in social security issues), the Ministry of Transport (transfer of experience by providing advice and participating in forums on good governance), the Ministry of Education and Science (transfer of experience in reforms implemented in higher and vocational education).

2.1. Priority Countries

From 2011 to 2015, the funding for development cooperation coordinated by the MoFA was primarily provided to the Eastern Partnership countries - Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia, as well as separate projects were implemented to support Belarus and Azerbaijan. Moldova was a priority partner country from 2012 to 2013, while support to Ukraine was significantly increased in 2014 and 2015 following the Russian military invasion of this country.

A comparatively smaller amount of funding was provided for support to the Central Asian countries - Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In 2015, participation of Latvian experts was successfully started in the UNDP cooperation project in Uzbekistan.

A project supporting Afghanistan was implemented in the abovementioned period.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- According to the international principles of aid efficiency, it is important to focus on a small number of partner countries in long-term provision of development assistance. Thus the visibility and amount of assistance provided by Latvian experts increase, consequently it is possible to deepen activities, improve their quality and promote specialisation of Latvia as a donor country.

- Latvia should continue providing support to the EU Eastern Partnership countries (Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) and Central Asian countries (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), as democratic and sustainable development of these countries is directly related to security and economic development of Latvia. It is important that successful cooperation has already been established with these countries, there are new project concepts, and Latvian expertise is requested in the said countries.

2.2. Priority Sectors

In 2011 with the commencement of the EU joint development cooperation programming process, the EU approach to planning and provision of support in partner countries became more targeted by identifying three priority sectors in a partner country, as well as multiannual approach to provision of support. Member States are also invited to narrow and deepen cooperation sectors as much as possible. Latvia follows the EU joint programming process in priority countries by planning its support accordingly.

Latvia observes the principle of donor specialisation by, first of all, limiting the priority sectors in grant project tenders, and, secondly, implementing long-term development projects with other donors to the extent possible.

From 2011 to 2015, Latvia developed its expertise and the areas have become visible which have attracted a special demand from partner countries for support provided by Latvia:

- Good governance and rule of law;

- Regional development, decentralization of finances and territorial cooperation;

- Support to the development of democratic and civic society;

- Economic development - improvement of the investment climate and strengthening of the export capacity, as well as introduction of international standards in export-oriented sectors;

- Social protection and employment;

- Development of the agricultural sector.

Latvia offers its reform experience by, for example, providing representatives of the public administration and citizens of partner countries with training in a partner country or Latvia, as well as offering its consultants, advisers and other experts. The Eastern Partnership countries highly appreciate the Latvian experience of European integration and support to implementation of European Union standards.

According to the principles of good practice of the provision of aid, one of the key aspects is sustainable partnership, predictability of cooperation, and multiannual planning. Such approach "facilitates identification of needs and helps to implement activities in a more targeted and efficient way. As the project implementers themselves state, such cooperation projects also improve the capacity of Latvian partners."2 The number of institutions successfully providing support over several years keeps increasing by gradually moving from the project approach to the programme approach to the provision of support to development cooperation. For example, the long-term training programme in good governance implemented by the Riga Graduate School of Law and intended for representatives of the Eastern Partnership and Central Asia; participation of the Latvian Border Guard in the Border Management Programme in Central Asia (BOMCA) supported by the European Commission etc.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- It is necessary for the public administration institutions involved in development cooperation to plan their activities regarding each defined priority country in a form of multiannual activity programmes according to the foreign policy priorities of Latvia, EU joint programming processes, priority sectors of development cooperation of Latvia, and EU joint programming priorities.

- It is necessary to focus more on ensuring that the process of introducing reforms is implemented. Involvement of the public administration in large-scale projects in the area of technical assistance should be promoted, especially in Twinning3 projects. This will not only increase visibility of Latvia as a donor but also add value to prestige of the Latvian institutions in international formats.

- Specialisation and visibility of Latvia as a donor should be strengthened in order to enlarge the possibilities to implement joint activities and attract Latvian experts to projects of other donors. Latvia should also promote and lobby its national experts more strategically for their involvement in international missions and institutions of partner countries. It would be necessary for promotion of synergies between these experts and foreign policy to restore a single list specifying the Latvian experts already involved in different international institutions and areas of their expertise.

III. Multilateral Development Cooperation

Latvia contributes to the promotion of global development by participating with its funding in development cooperation programmes and projects implemented by international organisations, as well as making contributions to international institutions intended to cover development cooperation programmes and projects. Involvement in international organisations enables Latvia to influence global processes and decision-making, promote visibility of the State, as well as develop synergies with activities of international institutions. Enhancing of expert capacity and promotion of the visibility of Latvia in international formats, as well as planning of development assistance voluntary contributions to international organisations would also promote election of Latvia to the most significant UN structures, such as the UN Economic and Social Council and the UN Security Council.

Mandatory contributions are made according to the membership of Latvia in a specific organisation, while voluntary contributions are prioritised in light of 1) the compliance of an international institution with objectives of the development cooperation policy of Latvia; and 2) functions and efficiency of an international institution in provision of development assistance, allocation and use of resources and achieved results.

Indicative activities in multilateral development cooperation from 2016 to 2020

- During implementation of the Guidelines maximum encouragement should be given to promoting coherence between Latvia's priorities in international institutions and the priorities and projects of bilateral development cooperation.

- It is especially important to promote involvement of Latvian experts in international institutions and encourage involvement of such experts in the bilateral development cooperation of Latvia. Participation of sectoral experts from Latvia in meetings and events organised by international institutions and their understanding of global processes are particularly necessary to promote implementation of the 2030 Agenda in Latvia.

- It is necessary to raise public awareness and understanding of all parties involved in development cooperation of international priority issues, such as the linkage between migration and development cooperation policy. It is required in this context to continue the previous initiatives in terms of increasing public awareness of results of the development cooperation policy.

3.1. The UN System

In 2015, Latvia had high visibility in the UN structures thanks to the Presidency in the Council of the EU, as well as management of the review regarding the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). It would be preferable to maintain this position. Latvia has identified the following priorities in the UN General Assembly's Second Committee (macroeconomic and sustainable development issues): strengthening of the UN Development System in compliance with the 2030 Agenda; issues of women equality, rule of law and good governance, issues of information society, development cooperation with the EU's Eastern neighbours and Central Asian countries.

From 2011 to 2015, in addition to regular contributions to the UN budget, Latvia also made several voluntary contributions to UN structures and various assistance funds, including for Syria and Ukraine.

From 2011 to 2013, Latvia was elected to and actively participated in the UN Economic and Social Council which is the main body to promote international development cooperation and set priority action at the UN. During the participation of Latvia the Council covered global issues, such as eradication of poverty, development cooperation, climate change, and achievement of the MDGs.

From 2013 to 2015, Latvia was actively engaged in the Executive Board of the UN-Women, the UN Entity for Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women, by especially emphasising promotion of larger representation of women and girls in technologies, science, mathematics and engineering. In 2013, Latvia held the Presidency of the Executive Board.

From 2014 to 2015, Latvia actively participated in the UN negotiations on the 2030 Agenda which was adopted at the Summit on Sustainable Development in New York on 25-27 September 2015. Latvia was also actively engaged in the preparatory talks of the Conference on Financing for Development held in Addis Ababa (3-16 July 2015) on the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, which constituted a set of means of implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

Latvia spoke in the debate on the 2030 Agenda in sessions of the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals, as well as in the subsequent intergovernmental negotiations. Latvia emphasised in the negotiations the promotion of gender equality, strengthening of rule of law and enhancing of effective, responsible and transparent public administration at all levels by inviting to define specific and measurable objectives under each of these aims. Latvia stressed the freedom of expression and assembly, access to independent information and media, inclusive and transparent decision-taking, including involvement of the civil society and private sector in decision-taking processes and use of modern information and communication technologies and e-government solutions, as well as the fight against impunity. Latvia also noted the importance of inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and infrastructure development in the new framework, and made proposals in discussions on sustainable use of marine and forest resources.

The MoFA already started development of Latvian positions for these international negotiations in autumn 2013. CSOs, public institutions and experts, such as the Employers' Confederation of Latvia, the Latvian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments, and member organisations of the Latvian Platform for Development Cooperation (LPDC), were actively involved in the development and coordination of the Latvian positions.

Latvia also actively participated in the development of priority resolutions at the UN General Assembly's (GA) Second Committee, for example, at the 70th session of the GA Second Committee Latvia conducted negotiations on behalf of the EU on resolution "Development cooperation with middle-income countries". Also due to the active involvement of Latvia, language regarding gender equality was integrated in this resolution for the first time.

At the 70th session of the GA Latvia, together with the United Arab Emirates, had a co-leading role in review process of implementation of the UN WSIS decisions. Latvia organised a series of meetings of Member States and stakeholders, and prepared a number of final draft documents. Drivers of the WSIS review process made an utmost effort to ensure transparency and openness of the negotiation process, involvement of all parties, as well as hearing and reflection of opinions.

The final document of the process was adopted at a high-level meeting on 15-16 December in New York. This document paid special attention to the issues of development and bridging of the digital divide, technology transfer and capacity building activities, attracting of investments for friendly environment, and development of pro-competitive legal framework. Human rights and cyber security were highlighted as separate chapters in the final document reflecting the crucial role of these issues throughout the negotiations. A significant decision in the final document is the extension of the Internet Governance Forum mandate for another 10 years.

During the implementation period of the Guidelines the UN system will have the following priority directions: implementation of the 2030 Agenda, commitment to address the issues of climate change, peacekeeping and strengthening of conflict prevention measures. The linkage of the instruments for development, security and humanitarian aid becomes increasingly important in order to address the issues of violent extremism and migration.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- Latvia will pursue involvement in its priority issues in the UN formats, including discussions on gender equality, rule of law and good governance, information society, development cooperation with the Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries, strengthening of the UN Development System according to the 2030 Agenda.

3.2. European Union

It is important for Latvia to participate in the EU decision-taking process, as the majority of the international contributions of Latvia constitute contributions to the EU. EU is also the most significant player in development cooperation, as the EU and its Member States are jointly the largest provider of Official Development Assistance (ODA) funding in the world. The main priorities of Latvia in the area of development cooperation in the EU framework are good governance and rule of law, including inclusive and transparent decision-taking, gender equality, role of development cooperation in addressing of the fundamental causes of migration, involvement of the private sector in development cooperation, as well as policy coherence for sustainable development. Geographically, Latvia emphasises cooperation with middle-income countries and the need for support to countries in fragile and crisis situations.

In the first half of 2015 during the Latvian Presidency in the EU Council the most active stage of the UN intergovernmental negotiations on the 2030 Agenda took place in New York. In order to ensure coordinated and common EU involvement in this process, the Latvian Presidency ensured approval of the EU positions at the Working Party on Development Cooperation of the EU Council in Brussels which served as a basis for participation of EU and Member States in these negotiations. The EU position on funding of sustainable development objectives and the relevant implementation tools was also prepared and approved under the Latvian Presidency by reaching a consensus of Member States on the development funding commitments of EU and Member States for the following 15 years, i.e. until 2030. The approved position formed a basis for EU participation in the Third International Conference on Financing for Development held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

During the Latvian Presidency one of the thematic priorities in development cooperation was gender equality. The EU Council Conclusions on gender equality and development cooperation were approved under the Latvian Presidency. The work begun by Latvia was continued by the Luxembourg and Dutch Presidencies approving the new EU Gender Action Plan 2016-2020 and maintaining discussions on sexual and reproductive health and rights. On 2 March 2015, the Latvian Presidency organised an international conference "Women's Economic Empowerment and Sustainable Development - the Synthesis for Success" in Riga. Its conclusions and the formulated practical proposals for women's economic empowerment in developing countries constituted a contribution to the UN intergovernmental negotiations on the 2030 Agenda.

Similarly, Latvia emphasises coherence of the bilateral and multilateral development in EU format by stressing that support to partner countries is especially important in all stages of development, also after these countries no longer belong to the group of least developed countries (LDCs) in terms of GDP indicators. In this context Latvia shared its good practice by providing support to the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries. For example, on 4 June 2015, within the framework of the European Development Days the MoFA, in cooperation with the Resource Centre for Women "Marta", organised an interactive session in Brussels on promotion of gender equality in Central Asia.

By making contributions to the EU budget, Latvia provides support to the least developed countries, as well as ensures support to fragile countries and countries in crisis situations. Since the start of regular contributions to the 10th European Development Fund (hereinafter - the EDF) in 2011, Latvia has acceded to the partnership agreement between the African, Caribbean and Pacific States (ACP States) and European Community (the Cotonou Agreement). By making contributions to the EDF the financial contribution of Latvia has significantly increased to the support of developing countries, and the possibilities of Latvia to become involved in the EU policy-making with the ACP countries have improved.

During the implementation period of the Guidelines the EU will have the following priority directions: implementation of the 2030 Agenda; issues of climate change; addressing of the fundamental causes of migration; ensuring of good governance, peace and security; ensuring of gender equality. The linkage of the instruments for development, security and humanitarian aid becomes increasingly important in order to address the migration issues. It is envisaged in this period to review the main strategy documents regarding the EU development cooperation.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- Latvia should continue emphasising the previous priorities (good governance and rule of law, including inclusive and transparent decision-taking, gender equality, role of development cooperation in addressing of the fundamental causes of migration, involvement of the private sector in development cooperation, as well as policy coherence for sustainable development), developing their visibility, as well as promoting implementation of the needs of partner countries in the EU common policy.

- The work of the Latvian diplomatic service will be especially important in order to facilitate representation of the interests of Latvia in the issues related to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, for example, the review process of strategy documents of the EU development policy; mid-term review of instruments for the EU's multi-annual budget 2014-2020; development of the EU's multi-annual budget after 2020; discussions on the future of the Cotonou Agreement after 2020 etc.

3.3. Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

The OECD Development Assistance Committee (OECD DAC) is a leading forum in the planning and promotion of efficiency and transparency of development cooperation policy. Since 2013 Latvia has participated in meetings of the OECD DAC and working groups as an invited country. The issues of planning, monitoring and evaluation of policy are discussed in these formats. Experts learn methodology, analyse the development cooperation policy implemented by the DAC countries, possible improvements according to the latest political, social and economic processes around the world. High-level representatives of Latvia regularly participate in the DAC meetings which allows Latvia to share its good practice and increases visibility of Latvia as a donor. For example, in May 2015, the State Secretary of the MoFA participated in the OECD Ukraine Day in Paris where he informed of the support provided by Latvia to Ukraine bilaterally and in cooperation with the OECD.4

Latvia has voluntarily reported annual funding for development cooperation to the OECD DAC once a year already since 2002.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- Participation in the OECD DAC allows Latvia to not only improve the quality of development cooperation but also become involved in the design of development financing policy and promote the image of Latvia as a responsible and reliable development cooperation provider. The aim of Latvia is to more actively engage in the work of the DAC from 2016 to 2020 by transposing the necessary DAC standards in order to become a DAC country in the medium term.

3.4. World Bank Group

The World Bank Group (WBG) is the largest institutional investor in the world. Its primary aims are eradication of poverty and promotion of economic growth of developing countries. The WBG consists of the following five closely intertwined institutions:

· the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD);

· the International Development Association (IDA);

· the International Finance Corporation (IFC);

· the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA);

· the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

As a result of the contributions to the 15th replenishment of IDA funds Latvia has become a full donor country since 2012. The WBG's Group of Nordic and Baltic Countries which also includes Latvia has especially emphasised gender equality, sustainable economic growth, support to the least developed countries and countries in fragile situations among the IDA priorities.

From the funds used in the first year of the 17th period of replenishment of funds (from 1 July 2014 to 30 June 2015) the largest share (51 %) was channelled to African countries, while 3 % - to the regions of Europe and Central Asia.

Financial resources were channelled to the following areas:

- 31 % to the infrastructure, including water supply, waste water, flood protection, transport infrastructure, energy and mines, as well as information and communications;

- 38 % to the development of the private sector which envisages support to manufacturing, commercial and financial institutions, as well as includes the said infrastructure;

- 30 % to the social support, i.e. education, health care and other social services;

- 20 % to the strengthening of legislation and public administration;

- 12 % to the agriculture, fishery and forestry.

On 19 May 2014, the World Bank and Latvia signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the Baltic Knowledge Initiative which provided for involvement of Latvian experts in the projects implemented by the World Bank within the framework of short-term missions. The database of the Latvian experts contains more than 180 CVs of Latvian experts from different Latvian institutions. An expert from the Ministry of Agriculture has participated in the World Bank's mission regarding the absorption of EU funds in Croatia under this initiative.5

Such cooperation promotes visibility of Latvia as a country supporting development cooperation, as well as provides the public administration officials with possibilities to acquire a valuable experience enabling them to fulfil their professional potential in projects in less developed countries.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- In light of the financial contributions made by Latvia to the WBG, and possibilities provided by financial instruments of the WBG institutions, it is necessary to raise awareness of the Latvian entrepreneurs of possibilities to engage in projects in developing countries implemented by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other multilateral development banks and institutions.

IV. Humanitarian Aid

The purpose of the humanitarian aid is to save human lives and alleviate suffering in crisis situations in third countries following natural or man-made disasters. Latvia has not dedicated a separate budget line to the provision of humanitarian aid. Latvia provides humanitarian aid in accordance with the procedures laid down in the Cabinet Regulation No. 659 of 30 June 2009 "Procedures for the Receipt and Provision of Humanitarian Assistance" and the Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines for the Time Period from 2011 to 2015.

Humanitarian aid is provided by Latvia on the basis of an appropriate evaluation of needs and according to the needs of the country which has suffered in a disaster or conflict, by following the fundamental international principles for provision of humanitarian aid contained in the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid (2007):6

- Humanity - humanitarian aid must be provided in order to alleviate human suffering by paying particular attention to the most vulnerable.

- Neutrality - humanitarian aid must not favour any side involved in a conflict.

- Impartiality - humanitarian aid must be provided without discrimination and solely on the basis of need.

- Independence - humanitarian aid is not connected with any political, economic or military objectives.

Since 2011, the amount of the humanitarian aid provided by Latvia has increased almost tenfold - from EUR 50,000 in 2011 to EUR 480,715 in 2015. The humanitarian aid from Latvia, i.e. funds or material assistance - medicines, clothing, essential goods and hygiene packages - is mostly provided under the Cabinet decision by allocating funding from the budget programme "Emergency Financial Resources". In order to ensure the highest possible quality and taking into account that amount of the Latvian funding is limited, it has mainly been directed through international organisations - UN agencies or the Red Cross - thus ensuring fast and efficient use of resources. In individual cases financial aid is provided directly to the beneficiary countries.

The humanitarian aid provided by Latvia is coordinated by the MoFA, in individual cases also involving other line ministries, public institutions and local government authorities. Civil society organisations, such as the Latvian Red Cross, the LPDC, Association "ADRA Latvija", have also become involved in fund-raising campaigns for crisis-affected countries and sending of humanitarian aid.

By providing assistance to the crisis-affected countries, Latvia draws on analysis of the situation conducted by the EC, the UN and other international organisations, and their gathered data. From 2011 to 2015, Latvia mainly provided its humanitarian aid according to the needs of an affected country by making voluntary contributions to international organisations, or in individual cases, upon request of a beneficiary country, by delivering aid directly to the beneficiary country providing it with the essential goods through the civil protection mechanism.

The following contributions were made to the relevant institutions in the reporting period:

- Turkish Red Crescent Society by supporting recovery after the earthquake in Turkey;

- UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) by providing improved health care, sanitation, and ensuring hygiene and drinking water for children who have suffered the earthquake in Nepal;

- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Central Emergency Response Fund (OCHA CERF) by supporting recovery after the typhoon Hayan in the Philippines;

- Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) by providing humanitarian aid to civilians in the protracted Syrian crisis, and support to the internally displaced persons in Iraq and the Gaza Strip;

- UN Ebola Response Fund by providing support for the fight with the deadly Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

In addition, over the last two years the largest amount of the Latvian humanitarian aid was provided to the victims of the Ukrainian crisis by ensuring treatment in Latvia for the injured, providing support to the internally displaced persons, making contributions to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNCHR), organising and sending humanitarian aid (generators and blankets) and essential goods to the regions affected by the Ukrainian crisis, as well as several local governments ensured participation of the children affected by the conflict in recreational camps and events in Latvia.

Humanitarian needs are growing around the world, as both the scope of man-made disasters and disastrous effects of climate change have increased. The number of the internally displaced persons and refugees has exceed 60 million people in the world which is the highest number since the Second World War.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- During implementation of the Guidelines it is necessary for the provision of humanitarian aid to promote a stronger linkage and coordination between the MoFA and other involved public institutions and local government authorities, as well as civil society organisations.

- In light of the steadily increasing number of crises and the unstable global situation, consideration should be given to the need and possibilities to provide for planned funds for emergency crisis situations. It would be necessary in the long term to develop need-based programmes for the provision of humanitarian aid which are coordinated with other policy instruments, such as development cooperation and civil protection mechanism7.

- Humanitarian aid should be provided quickly and efficiently, therefore it would be necessary to facilitate the decision-taking process regarding allocation of the Latvian funding for humanitarian aid.

- During implementation of the Guidelines it would be necessary to establish a working group with sectoral specialists, planners and implementers of humanitarian aid and disaster risk prevention, and start working on strategic humanitarian programming for the duration of the Guidelines. At the same time it is also important to strengthen the knowledge and practical skills of local organisations and experts in provision of humanitarian aid by attracting experts in the relevant field from international and local organisations. It would be necessary to ensure participation of experts in the training in provision of humanitarian aid, as well as seek possibilities to actively engage in international aid organisations by raising capacity and knowledge for successful involvement in planning and provision of humanitarian aid.

V. Raising Public Awareness and Global Education

The Guidelines for 2011-2015 have defined raising public awareness and support to the development cooperation objectives and policy as one of the objectives of the development cooperation policy, also including the issues of global education. In order to achieve this objective, first, co-funding tenders were organised to provide support to the CSOs that had acquired funding from the EC and other international donors; second, in 2015, activities within the framework of the European Year for Development were carried out; third, the MoFA informed the public of development cooperation results and policy developments. It is important to continue the work that has been started by especially raising the public awareness of the results of development cooperation achieved by Latvia and EU, the importance of the development cooperation policy and mutual benefits from allocation of funding to less developed countries.

Regardless of the increasing extent of awareness raising activities, the Eurobarometer public opinion survey on EU development cooperation conducted in 2015 showed that the Latvian respondents of all Europeans were the least likely to consider it important to help people in developing countries (67 % in comparison to the EU average of 89 %). It is ten percentage points lower than in 2014 which is the biggest drop in comparison to all other EU Member States.

In the EU context respondents from Latvia are also among those that are the least likely to agree to the statement that eradication of poverty in developing countries should be one of the main EU priorities (48 %), as well as those that are the least likely to consider that eradication of poverty in developing countries should be one of the main priorities of the Latvian Government (20 %) which is also a decrease by seven percentage points in comparison to 2014. At the same time more than half of the Latvian respondents (56 %) are of the opinion that aid should be increased.

Respondents from Latvia are also among those that are the least likely to agree to the statement that aid to developing countries is an efficient way to prevent illegal migration (57 %).

Latvian respondents have heard about the objectives of sustainable development slightly less frequently than Europeans in general (34 % in comparison to 36 %) but are more aware of the fact that 2015 was the European Year for Development than the European average (27 % in comparison to the EU average of 18 %).

5.1. Co-funding Tenders

Since 20128 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has provided co-funding to the projects implemented by the CSOs that have acquired support from the EC and other international donors. In 2012, co-funding was allocated to five public awareness projects of the CSOs (amount of the co-funding was EUR 14,694). In 2013, co-funding was allocated to six projects (amount of the co-funding was EUR 14,535). Also in 2014 support was provided to six public awareness projects (amount of the co-funding was EUR 25,813). In 2015, both public awareness projects submitted for the tender were supported (available amount of the co-funding was EUR 25,813, the requested and used amount was EUR 17,792). Since the initiation of the tender, projects have been implemented by organisations, such as the LALRG, the association "Education Development Centre", the association "Latvian Green Movement", the LPDC. With the help of the projects, measures were implemented for raising awareness among the CSOs, employees of local governments, citizens, pupils, and students. For the purpose of promotion of the Latvian civil society and education, the role of local governments and CSOs was strengthened in the area of development by spreading good practice through study visits, international seminars on participation of citizens etc. A seminar was also organised within the framework of the projects for journalists of Latvian regions, and also public awareness campaigns were conducted in the Vērmanes Garden and Riga Stradiņš University in Riga. Such projects draw the public attention to the broad spectrum of development cooperation issues finding the most comprehensible way for each part of the public.

So far the largest and the most significant project implemented in global education in Latvia was the project "Global Dimension in Social Sciences Subjects" which was implemented by the association "Education and Development Centre" in cooperation with the partners in the United Kingdom and Estonia. The three-year project was started in 2013, and its core funding was provided by the EU. The purpose of the project was to establish a network of professional teachers who are competent in global education in the entire Latvia and specialise in the issues of global education and ensure the update of these topics both at local and national level. The project actively involved 21 Latvian schools, and developed a programme and materials for different target groups, as well as ensured publicity.

Such projects are important to sustainability of development cooperation, as their main target audience is youth - the future professionals working in different social areas.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- Global education and public awareness projects should definitely be continued and supported in the future. The responsible sectoral ministries (such as the Ministry of Education and Science, the MEPRD), as well as a budget increase have an important role to play in order to ensure the necessary co-funding for implementation of such activities in Latvia.

- As the projects are closely related to education policy, it is necessary to institutionalise the issues of global education in the education system of Latvia. One of such possibilities is involvement of higher education institutions that are open to different cooperation projects.

- It is important to facilitate involvement of researchers and raise awareness of the issues of development cooperation among university teachers.

5.2. The European Year for Development Implemented in 2015

The year of 2015, which was the European Year for Development, was the first thematic year of EU devoted to the field related to the EU foreign policy. The purpose of the European Year for Development was to educate the public about the results achieved by the EU and Latvia in development cooperation, promote direct public involvement, critical thinking and active interest in the development cooperation policy and its implementation, increase understanding of mutual benefits, encourage shared responsibility, solidarity and possibilities in an increasingly interconnected world, as well as achieve greater understanding of the policy coherence for development.

An amount of EUR 125,000 (EUR 100,000 from the EC funding, EUR 25,000 as the MoFA co-funding) was envisaged for implementation of the project European Year for Development in Latvia. The main project implementer or beneficiary was the LPDC. The MoFA monitored the quality of process by providing conceptual ideas, as well as expert, informative and logistical support. Activities were carried out in a decentralised manner - they were mainly implemented by the LPDC members, other civil society organisations, representatives of the private sector, and research institutes.

In order to raise public awareness of the issues of development cooperation, large-scale seminars, discussions, lecture cycles, workshops and forums were organised for different audiences. For the purpose of involvement of audience, research paper competitions and other activities were carried out in order to raise public awareness and understanding of the importance of development cooperation in Latvia, EU and globally, as well as in order for each member of society to realise his or her importance and impact on the global sustainable development. In this context, an indispensable contribution was made by representatives of local governments and CSOs, goodwill ambassadors and civil society activists.

Youth and pupils were especially approached within the framework of the European Year for Development. The large number of applications for competitions, enthusiastic and creative answers indicate increasing understanding of and support to development cooperation.

In the context of the European Year for Development, the MoFA, together with its partners, paid special attention to the involvement of the private sector in development cooperation. For example, in order to make the Latvian entrepreneurs understand their role in development cooperation better, the MoFA, together with the Institute for Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility, organised informative seminars on fair trade and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the largest Latvian cities. During the seminar researchers presented the sustainability indices methodology, and experts from the Latvian Chamber of Commerce and Industry informed of fair business and its benefits. Participants were also informed of the role of entrepreneurs and their possibilities of involvement in development cooperation.

A morning discussion cycle under the name "How does the development cooperation affect business opportunities in Latvia" was organised for entrepreneurs. Its purpose was to promote the understanding in the private sector of Latvia of the linkage with the international environment and opportunities for involvement in addressing of global challenges. Discussions were held on responsibility of entrepreneurs for impact on a developing country, environmental sustainability, economy (global supply chains), social aspects, and development of society. Experts in the relevant field, i.e. Andris Piebalgs, the former European Commissioner for Development, experts from international environmental consultancy firms and the MoFA, as well as entrepreneurs themselves participated in the discussions sharing their experience in the implementation of fair trade principles in practice.

In 2015, the MoFA presented the Fair Trade Award for the first time in the context of the sustainability index. The purpose of this newly established annual tradition is to highlight companies working in Latvia that follow the OECD and the corporate social responsibility principles in the external trade and production. The first such award was received by Cemex, a producer of construction materials. New sustainability index figures reflecting the external dimension of the CSR and the issues of development cooperation were developed within the framework of cooperation between the MoFA, the Institute for Corporate Sustainability and Responsibility, and the Latvian Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

At the end of 2014, the MoFA, in cooperation with the association "apPasaule", issued a call for student competition entitled "Discover Africa for me!". The purpose of the competition was to promote the interest of students in development cooperation, their understanding of diversity of the African continent, and support which Latvia provides through the EU development cooperation instruments, especially the European Development Fund. While travelling around 13 African countries Mārtiņš Sils and Andžs Ūbelis informed social media of the course of their trip on a regular basis.

In the context of the European Year for Development and the Latvian Presidency in the EU Council, representatives of the LPDC went to Latvian regions throughout the year in order to bring development cooperation to the attention of citizens, by demonstrating films and organising discussions on development cooperation in more than 160 places in Latvia. The film "With a Thought About a Better World" ("Ar domu par labāku pasauli") by S. Semjonovs, as well as other films about development cooperation were presented within the framework of the film month. Discussions followed the films. For the purpose of communication of activities of the European Year for Development, publicity materials were developed and distributed in events for different target groups. Media activities of the European Year for Development were carried out by professional public relations specialists.

For the purpose of involvement of youth, the Latvian and Luxembourg Presidencies in the EU Council held a video competition "Shining Stars of Europe". The award ceremony for this competition took place in Luxembourg in the context of the closing event of the European Year for Development. The event was also attended by the Director of the LPDC, and two young people from Latvia whose videos were among the best in Europe. The closing event of the European Year for Development was also organised in Latvia for the purpose of demonstrating diversity of the events which had taken place in the context of the Year, and inform and educate different target groups. The event included presentations, discussions, watching of films and meetings with the Ambassadors of the Year.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- The European Year for Development was a unique opportunity to explain the results achieved in development cooperation to the Latvian society. The provision of information related to the Latvian and EU achievements should be continued even more intensively. Priorities still constitute higher public awareness of development cooperation and raising of prestige of this policy area in society.

- Many of the activities initiated in the context of the European Year for Development, such as the Fair Trade Award and restoration of sustainability index figures, were intended as long-term measures already in their development process. It is necessary to maintain this approach by moving from one-off communication activities to a set of common activities of development cooperation by involving the responsible ministries, civil society organisations, research institutes etc.

5.3. The Work of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on Public Awareness

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs regularly provides informative support related to the issues of development cooperation in the activities organised by the CSOs, the private sector, and the public administration institutions. Meetings of the Consultative Council for Development Cooperation Policy were also held on an annual basis. The MoFA regularly publishes and updates information on its website regarding the development cooperation activities carried out in the previous year, including fact sheets of the approved projects, information regarding use of the MoFA budget for the development cooperation. The MoFA informs the public via press releases which are sent to the media and published on its website, as well as regularly posts on social networks, for example, by using its Twitter account @Arlietas in Latvian and @Latvian_MFA in English. Facebook, Draugiem.lv, Flickr.com and Youtube.com are also used for communication with the public. According to the statistics, the public support and understanding could be greater, therefore it would be necessary to consider using additional information channels.

While preparing for the European Year for Development, the MoFA also expanded its information activities. For example, in 2014, work was started on a newsletter on the development cooperation policy of Latvia and recent trends in the global development. Since the commencement of the activities related to the European Year for Development, Twitter account @Attist_sadarb has been created with the help of which information is regularly posted regarding the recent trends in development cooperation in Latvia and around the world.

The MoFA also supports studies on the issues of development cooperation, and promotes discussions among researchers and practitioners on the evaluation and future of the policy. For example, in the context of the European Year for Development, an analytical report was developed on the development cooperation of Latvia for the time period from 2011 to 2014, also experts gathered to discuss the future of the policy, and informative graphics and a photography exhibition were prepared regarding the policy results in this period.

In order to provide information on the Latvian progress in global education, and share experience in the relevant issues, Latvia regularly reports its progress made in the global education to the Global Education Network Europe (GENE). The MoFA attends the regular meetings of the GENE at which challenges and recent developments of global education are discussed at the EU level. With reference to the GENE's practice, the funding for and support to global education would constitute the issues which come within the competence of the Ministry of Education and Science, although currently more effort may be observed from the MoFA. General curricula do not include global education as a separate subject, yet the issues of global education are integrated in the standards of subjects of general education, such as geography, social sciences, Latvian history, world history, biology, ethics, politics and law, economics, housekeeping and technologies, as well as in the content of sample subject programmes.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- The MoFA will continue to provide information on results of development cooperation, use of funding, and importance of aid efficiency.

- The established practice of publishing project reports and collecting information on recent trends in the development cooperation in Latvia and abroad will be continued.

- It is necessary to disseminate specific examples of the results of the support provided by Latvia, such as in Moldova and Ukraine, more intensively. It is necessary to emphasise the benefits for Latvia from participation in development cooperation projects, by creating the understanding that the support that Latvia is currently providing for less developed countries today is also a contribution to Latvia's security, welfare, economic growth and environmental sustainability.

- Project implementers will be involved in the provision of information and communication during project implementation more intensively in order to ensure feedback.

VI. Strengthening Capacity of Implementers of the Development Cooperation

The interest of public institutions, local governments, civil society organisations and the private sector in the implementation of development cooperation projects increases, as can be seen from the number of implemented projects and readiness to engage in the framing of development cooperation policy. Sustainability, visibility and quality of the development cooperation policy of Latvia is closely related to the quality of the responsible institutions and of implementers of the Latvian development cooperation policy and activities.

6.1. Involvement of the Implementers of Development Cooperation Projects of Latvia

Implementers of the development cooperation of Latvia, i.e. line ministries, public institutions, authorities of local governments, the private sector and civil society, are increasingly involved in the implementation of development cooperation activities in partner countries. There is an increasing trend towards the grant project tenders announced by the MoFA, activities carried out by the interested parties outside the MoFA budget, as well as increased public involvement in different charity campaigns and activities related to the development cooperation.

The grant project tenders of the MoFA for the provision of support to partner countries were restored in 2013. The interest in tenders and the number of applications are growing significantly each year.

Grant Project Tenders Organised by the MoFA

 

2013

2014

2015

Scope of grant project tenders, EUR 34,486 134,411 209,947
Number of approved projects 2 6 10
Amount of announced projects in total 276,348 432,177 831,249
Number of announced projects in total 18 19 43
Out of which Public institutions and subordinate institutions 0 1 10
CSOs 16 12 16
Authorities of local governments and subordinate institutions 0 1 9
Private sector 2 2 7
National educational institutions 0 3 1

It may, however, be concluded that none of the sectors - neither the private, the public, nor the civil society - has a significant number of organisations which would specialise in the development cooperation.9

At the same time an increase may be observed in the number of development cooperation projects implemented by the public administration institutions within the framework of their budgets. Line ministries engage in the institutional EU projects, such as Twinning, TAEX etc. The capacity of not only public institutions but also the Latvian experts to implement large-scale projects is also affected by limited expertise and the intense international competition in developing regions which have not been recognised as priorities for Latvia, such as Africa.

In order to promote cooperation for achieving a common goal, instead of mutual competition, between the project implementers, the MoFA especially supports development of multilateral projects which include participation of the State institutions, the CSOs and the private sector. Such approach is also supported according to the public opinion polls. Every year synergies between different implementers of Latvian projects, as well as Latvian and foreign experts are reinforced. The MoFA also invites project implementers to provide co-funding from their own resources for implementation of projects.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- It is necessary to promote the absorption capacity for multilateral funding, including the involvement of public institutions in Twinning, EuropeAid, and other project tenders of international organisations. It has to be evaluated whether the existing mechanisms are the best way to ensure provision of support to partner countries and continuation of projects.

- In order to promote implementation of multilateral projects, the MoFA, together with its main partners, especially the LPDC and the public administration institutions which carry out the development cooperation activities, are required to develop an information catalogue regarding the interest to engage in development cooperation projects and the specific contribution of expertise to partner countries, and update it on a regular basis.

- It is important to develop a co-funding mechanism within the framework of which long-term cooperation activities, which have been started in Central Asia and the Eastern Partnership during the Latvian Presidency, may be supported, as the possibilities of ministries to continue cooperation are limited in circumstances of the current funding.

- It is necessary to strengthen communication of the Latvian project implementers in Latvia and internationally with regard to the implemented activities, their results and quality.

6.2. Strengthening Capacity of Civil Society Organisations and Local Governments

The MoFA has actively cooperated with the civil society organisations during implementation of the Guidelines, in particular by supporting strengthening of the capacity of the LPDC and its members.

Direct funding for the LPDC and the Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments

Since 2013 the MoFA has annually provided direct funding to the LPDC for strengthening of professional and practical knowledge of its members which include a grant for the rent of premises, remunerations, participation in an EU-level platform, international activities, projects etc. In 2013, an amount of EUR 13,187 was allocated to the LPDC, in 2014, it was EUR 14,000, while in 2015, a total amount of EUR 39,000 was allocated from the MoFA budget for development cooperation, and out of this amount EUR 14,000 was intended for functioning of the LPDC and EUR 25,000 - as a co-funding for the EC-funded grant for implementation of the national programme in the context of the European Year for Development.

Experts from the MoFA regularly participate in activities organised by the LPDC, its members and the civil society in order to explain the importance of development cooperation and global processes, the development cooperation policy of Latvia, and listen to views. The MoFA also, to the extent possible, provides logistical and informative support to the organisation of events, for example, on 11-12 June 2015, the associations "Latvian Green Movement" and "Green Liberty" organised a seminar on the Ministry premises for politicians from seven countries, including Latvia, which was devoted to ways of supporting less developed countries and the importance of such support.

Furthermore, the MoFA has allocated a direct funding amounting to EUR 4,000 for several years to the Latvian Association of Local and Regional Governments for its participation in the EU platform of local governments with regard to development cooperation.

Co-funding for projects implemented by the CSOs

In order to promote involvement of the CSOs in large-scale projects, starting from 2012 the MoFA has been organising co-funding grant project tenders for the CSOs which have acquired funding from international donors, including the EC, for the implementation of development cooperation and global education projects.

Co-funding Grant Project Tenders Organised by the MoFA

 

2012

2013

2014

2015

The total funding available in the co-funding tender, EUR 21,726 19,920 25,813 25,813
Allocated funding, EUR 21,726 19,920 25,813 17,792
Funding attracted within the framework of projects from the EC/other sources, EUR 193,511 913,867 1,077,646 348,794
Number of announced projects 6 10 7 2
Number of projects supported as a result of tender 6 8 6 2
- Out of which the development cooperation projects implemented for support to partner countries 1 2 0 0
- Public awareness / global education projects implemented in Latvia 5 6 6 2

Mostly, the projects which have acquired support in the EC tenders and need to ensure approximately 10 % of the co-funding from the project implementer are announced in a co-funding grant project tender organised by the MoFA. Overall, since 2012 the number of announced and supported projects has increased, except for 2015 when only two projects were announced in the tender and amount of the funding allocated for project tender was not used. Situation in 2015 might be explained with the change in approval system and planning of the EC projects.

Most of the projects submitted in the tender are public awareness and global education projects implemented in Latvia. Only two development cooperation projects for provision of assistance to partner countries have been announced in this period. It should be noted that so far none of the Latvian organisations has applied for implementation of the EC development cooperation projects. Local governments of Latvia and the LALRG have so far applied for the EC tenders as one of the project partners, and many projects have been approved; local governments and the LALRG have, however, failed to apply as a leading partner of the project.

The CSOs explain this situation with difficulties to find partners in developing countries and the lack of experience and knowledge of the relevant region/country (especially in southern countries). The low institutional and financial capacity of the Latvian CSOs constitutes a serious obstacle (the annual budget of most CSOs is below EUR 400,000). Consequently CSO cannot be a leading organisation in the implementation of large-scale projects which would allow to attract funding from multilateral donors (mainly EU).10 Project implementers and experts also indicate uncertainty and unpredictability related to the receipt of the Latvian funding as an obstacle to absorption of international funding.

The active involvement of CSOs in the EC global education/public awareness projects (DEAR projects) and the decision of the MoFA to delegate implementation of the national project for the European Year for Development to the LPDC resulted in broadened experience of the CSOs, and increased financial turnover which allow to apply for other EC projects more successfully. In light of the insufficient financial turnover of the Latvian CSOs, in order to apply for the EU projects it might be necessary to review the rules for co-funding tender and include not only CSOs and local governments but also other organisations to promote development of multilateral projects.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- It is necessary to promote involvement of CSOs and local governments in the implementation of development cooperation projects, including by gradually increasing the amount of co-funding for EuropeAid projects, as well as envisaging 50 % of the grant project tender for projects implemented by the CSOs.

- The actual impact of the direct funding provided by the MoFA for strengthening of the capacity should be evaluated according to the increased capacity of the Latvian CSOs to independently engage in development cooperation projects and ensure the quality of their implementation.

- It is necessary to promote involvement of CSOs in projects of experienced players in development cooperation of Latvia (including pubic institutions).

- It is necessary to promote mutual cooperation and mergers of CSOs for implementation of projects by facilitating projects jointly implemented by CSOs of Latvia and other EU countries.

6.3. Involvement of the Private Sector in Development Cooperation

Nowadays, one of the new major development players is the private sector. The private sector ensures not only employment but also the major share of all foreign financial inflows to developing countries. For example, in 2013, the direct foreign investments in developing countries amounted to USD 778 billion, and this amount is larger than in developed countries.11 Also the EU increasingly more emphasises in its policy the private sector as the leading driver of employment, growth, investment, trade and innovation, and the central role of the private sector in poverty reduction. The EU also notes that interests of the private sector are compatible with the environmental sustainability and promotion of inclusive growth.

The private sector of Latvia shows increasing interest in its involvement in development cooperation. The number of the companies that engage in the implementation of the CSR principles keeps increasing, and there is a range of CSOs aiming to promote implementation of these principles.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- Responsible institutions of Latvia should continue the started initiatives by promoting involvement of the private sector in development cooperation.

- Intensified attention should be paid to investments in third countries and compliance of these investments with the human rights and responsibility standards.

6.4. Strengthening Capacity of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Diplomatic Missions

Development cooperation is one of the central areas of EU foreign policy, thus it is also important to strengthen the knowledge of employees of the Latvian public administration about this policy. The presence of diplomatic missions in partner countries also plays a significant role in the planning and implementation of development cooperation.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- Latvian embassies should be even more actively involved in the joint programming of development cooperation in order to evaluate, in the context of joint programming, the issues of further cooperation, and implementation of joint initiatives, as well as information exchange on the possibilities of multilateral assistance, such as EU-funded cooperation projects, and support in the course of evaluation of tender of such projects.

- It is important to regularly strengthen the knowledge of employees of missions about development indicators and challenges of the relevant country, as well as the necessary assistance. Furthermore, it is important to provide employees of the Development Cooperation Policy Department with possibilities to go on study visits in partner countries and participate in training programmes for experts.

- In order to promote involvement of the Latvian project implementers in large-scale project tenders and the linkage of activities with other donors, it is important to ensure the capacity of the MoFA, including that of the Latvian diplomatic missions, to provide the necessary informative and political support to the implementers of the development cooperation activities of Latvia and project applicants.

VII. Amount of the Funding for Development Cooperation of Latvia

The international practice requires that amount of the ODA be listed according to the criteria developed by the OECD DAC. According to these criteria the amount of the provided assistance is calculated in relation to the gross national income (GNI).

From 2011 to 2015, the amount of Latvian ODA was formed from the funding which was channelled through bilateral and multilateral formats.

• ODA of Latvia in bilateral format forms 10 % of the total amount on average and includes the following:

o Funds provided for in the budget line "Development Cooperation Projects and International Assistance" of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;

o Funding allocated for bilateral development cooperation of other public institutions;

o Assistance and humanitarian aid provided on an ad hoc basis.

• ODA of Latvia in multilateral format forms 90 % of the total amount on average and includes the following international contributions:

o Contributions of Latvia to the EU budget;

o Contributions to the European Development Fund;

o Contributions to the UN agencies and other international institutions, initiatives and trust funds.

7.1. Funding Commitments

In accordance with the EU commitments Latvia had to strive to reach the ODA amount of 0.33 % of the GNI12 or EUR 80 million by 2015. In 2015, Latvia reached 0.09 % of the GNI or EUR 21.1 million which was the highest amount up to now. In comparison with 2014, the funding in absolute figures increased by 13 % in 2015.

Latvian ODA from 2011 to 2015

Year

Multilateral assistance in absolute figures, M EUR

Bilateral assistance in absolute figures, M EUR13

Total, M EUR14

% of the GNI

MoFA budget funds for development cooperation, incl. Emergency financial resources

Bilateral ODA/bilateral cooperation of other public institutions, and bilateral humanitarian aid

2011

12.80

0.0004

0.45

13.8.

0.07 %

2012

15.50

0.10

0.53

16.4

0.08 %

2013

16.80

0.10

0.66

17.9

0.08 %

2014

17.48

0.44

1.10

19.2

0.08 %

2015

19.06

0.57

0.42

21.05

0.09 %


In 2015, the Latvian ODA was almost four times smaller than the international commitments of Latvia as a EU Member State. The Latvian ODA is modest even in comparison with Latvian neighbours.15 In 2015, Lithuania and Estonia, the neighbouring countries of Latvia, had ODA of EUR 39 million or 0.11 %, and EUR 30 million or 0.15 % respectively. In comparison with other EU Member States, in 2015, the total amount of the Latvian ODA was the third lowest in EU in terms of volume after Cyprus and Malta, and the lowest, along with Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania, in terms of a percentage of GNI or 0.09 %.

It should also be noted that from 2011 to 2015 the percentage of funding was also affected by the comparatively rapid increase in GNI.

The objectives of the Latvian development cooperation funding by 2030 arise from the Addis Ababa Action Agenda adopted by the UN in July 2015 and the relevant funding commitments approved within framework of the EU. In conformity with these commitments, the EU and its Member States have jointly committed to allocate 0.7 % of GNI to the development cooperation by 2030 out of which 0.2 % of ODA/GNI should be allocated to least developed countries. According to these commitments Latvia should allocate 0.33 % of GNI for development cooperation by 2030.

At the same time the Ukrainian crisis and migration issues have shown that global challenges become increasingly important to Latvia, and its involvement in addressing them is necessary to not only promote reliability and image of Latvia in global policy but also to meet domestic policy objectives, such as economic growth and promotion of external economic relations with developing countries, and strengthen national security.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- In order to meet the international commitments, especially those of EU, by 2030, during implementation of the Guidelines Latvia should pursue an increase in ODA to 0.17 % of GNI.

7.2. Multilateral Format

90 % of the Latvian ODA on average consist of mandatory contributions to international organisations according to the OECD DAC criteria.

The largest share of contributions in multilateral formats constitutes the mandatory contributions made by Latvia to the EU budget under Heading 4 - "The EU as a Global Player".

- In 2011 - EUR 10,292,105,

- In 2012 - EUR 11,210,000,

- In 2013 - EUR 12,000,000,

- In 2014 - EUR 12,960,000,

- In 2015 - EUR 13,370,000.

The contributions made by Member States finance the EU geographical and thematic support programmes for developing countries in all the regions of the world, except for sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific States (ACP States).

Since 2011, Latvia has also made annual mandatory contributions to the European Development Fund from which EU support programmes for support to the ACP States are funded. Amount of the contributions made by Latvia to the European Development Fund (EDF) increases:

- In 2011 - EUR 1,707,894,

- In 2012 - EUR 1,820,000,

- In 2013 - EUR 2,064,999,

- In 2014 - EUR 2,201,016,

- In 2015 - EUR 2,528,486.

11. The EDF operates from 2014 to 2020, the total funding of the Fund amounts to EUR 30,506,000,000. Amount of the contributions made by Latvia is EUR 35,423,567 in this stage.16 Since commencement of contributions to the EDF the financial contribution made by Latvia has significantly increased for support to the least developed countries.

Furthermore, Latvia makes mandatory and voluntary contributions to the UN agencies, the World Bank Group, and other international institutions, initiatives and trust funds in multilateral formats. For example, in 2012, Latvia started making contributions to the International Development Association (IDA) included in the World Bank Group. Every 3 years the IDA conducts replenishments of funds in which Latvia, as a donor country, also is obliged to participate with its contributions. In spring 2016, negotiations were launched on the 18th replenishment of funds.

7.3. Bilateral Format

In 2011, the bilateral development cooperation funding coordinated by the MoFA was reduced to a minimum as a result of economic crisis. Starting from 2012, this funding was restored and gradually increased:

- In 2012, an amount of EUR 71,526 was allocated,

- In 2013, an amount of EUR 71,526 was allocated in addition to an amount of EUR 49,800 from the budget programme "Contributions to International Organisations" of the MoFA,

- In 2014, an amount of EUR 213,813 was allocated in addition to an amount of EUR 250,000 from the emergency financial resources,17

- In 2015, an amount of EUR 413,813 was allocated in addition to an amount of EUR 172,000 from the emergency financial resources for support to Ukraine.18

In addition to the bilateral assistance funding coordinated by the MoFA, other public administration institutions of Latvia also implement measures within the framework of their budgets which are transferred to the Latvian ODA according to the OECD DAC criteria.19 For example, providing consultations on the Latvian reform experience to representatives of developing countries, participation in police missions, scholarships for students of developing countries etc. Since 2012, the amount of development assistance provided by the public administration of Latvia has increased amounting to EUR 1 million on average per year.

The Latvian ODA to priority countries significantly increased during the period from 2011 to 2015. Funding has been successfully used according to the defined priority sectors by providing technical support and strengthening capacity of partner countries. Also bilateral assistance provided by public institutions from their budgets is mainly used for the defined partner countries and sectors of the development cooperation defined by Latvia.

Although the Latvian bilateral ODA funding increases, it is modest even in comparison with Latvian neighbours.

Source: OECD DAC

Source: OECD DAC

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- During implementation of the Guidelines it is necessary to promote a stronger linkage between the planned activities of the MoFA and other public institutions in the drafting process of policy plan in order to maximise results and provide Latvian support in a coordinated manner.

- In light of the importance of bilateral development cooperation in the implementation of foreign policy of Latvia, it is necessary, over the coming years, to significantly increase the share of the bilateral funding managed by the MoFA which amounted to 0.03 % of the total Latvian ODA on average in 2015. Currently the limited funding prevents continuity of the development cooperation established in the previous years and sustainable development of partner organisations, visibility of Latvia as a predictable and long-term partner, and affects the possibilities of the most active implementers of the development cooperation of Latvia to expand its activities in long term. This especially refers to activities in Central Asia where several projects which had been launched successfully could not be continued.

- It is important to provide for a share of funding in the budget for bilateral development cooperation which would be used as a co-funding for the project implementers of Latvia which have acquired funding from international donors for implementation of activities in partner countries. Availability of co-funding to trilateral projects is especially important, recognising that a rapid increase in the Latvian bilateral funding is impossible.

- It is necessary to promote sending of Latvian civil experts on international missions which comply with the international political commitments of Latvia and the identified priorities of foreign policy.

- As the funding increases, the project tenders implemented by embassies should be carried out for supporting partner countries.

VIII. Transparency and Results-Based Planning and Evaluation of the Development Cooperation Policy of Latvia

8.1. Institutional Framework

International assistance of Latvia is planned by the MoFA in cooperation with the Consultative Council for Development Cooperation Policy (hereinafter - the Consultative Council) and the Consultative Council for the Participation of Latvian Civil Experts in International Civil Missions Organised by International Organisations in accordance with the competence specified in laws and regulations.

The chief advisory institution of the MoFA in development cooperation is the Consultative Council. This consultative institution was established in 200320 in order to strengthen the bilateral development cooperation of Latvia, to raise the public awareness of the development cooperation policy, and to provide support for its implementation, and also to promote active participation of Latvia in the shaping and implementation of the EU and global development cooperation policy. The Council meetings take place as appropriate but at least twice per year. It is composed of representatives of public institutions and civil society etc., thus ensuring the widest possible representation of opinions.

Individual formats of experts and working groups are formed within the framework of the Consultative Council as appropriate, for instance, with regard to implementation of the European Year for Development, implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda during the negation process.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- It is necessary to extend and intensify the work of the Consultative Council in order to promote closer coordination and information exchange of development cooperation, in particular to involve a wider range of project implementers.

- It is necessary to create a format of regular meetings in which representatives of public administration, local governments, CSOs and the private sector would share their experience and interests together. This would allow to make conclusions on joint interests and needs.

8.2. Planning of Activities

On the basis of the existing policy planning documents21 and the funding for bilateral development cooperation provided for in the State budget, Development Cooperation Policy Plans have been developed in cooperation with the Consultative Council since 2012 and then approved by the Cabinet. Development of the plan takes account of the current and long-term needs defined by partner countries. Priority sectors and activities included in the plan are defined upon consultations with institutions of partner countries using the expertise of Latvian embassies and EU delegations in partner countries, as well as taking account of activities of other donors and EU joint programming process.

In the development of the annual policy plan the MoFA follows the principles of good development cooperation policy provision, by planning the funding allocated by the MoFA in accordance with the instruments of approval of international assistance determined in the Law on International Assistance:

1) grant project tender,

2) approval of a civil expert for participation in an international mission,

3) public procurement,

4) voluntary contribution,

5) delegated cooperation,

6) international assistance activities envisaged in the policy planning documents approved by the Cabinet.

In a situation of limited funding available for development cooperation, an instrument of grant project tender offers transparent procedure according to which projects are supported. At the same time it should be taken into account that grant project tenders are implemented within the framework of a one-year budget, and it is impossible to ensure predictable long-term support based on interests of partner countries through such short-term planning process. Also the OECD principles and the global principles for effective development cooperation, as defined in the Paris, Acra and Busan international agreements, emphasise the need to plan the funding for development cooperation in the long term by providing support to projects for a three- to five-year period.

As one of the results to be achieved, the Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines for 2011-2015 underlined the transition towards multiannual funding commitments for funding cooperation programmes and projects.

In accordance with Section 5, Clause 6 of the Law on International Assistance, one of the instruments of approval of development cooperation policy is the international assistance activities envisaged in the policy planning documents approved by the Cabinet. Inclusion of such activities directly in the Development Cooperation Plan is one of the ways in which the MoFA ensures efficient assistance and predictability of support in the long term.

The Plan includes the following activities:

- Projects according to the strategic priorities of Latvia (including foreign policy, security, economy) and geopolitical situation;

- Implementation of trilateral cooperation projects and/or activities which have attracted co-funding from other donors amounting to at least 50 %, including the projects in the evaluation process;

- Long-term development cooperation projects according to the needs expressed by partner countries, and the Latvian expertise.

In recent years the MoFA and diplomatic missions of Latvia have become increasingly active in development cooperation by informing partner countries of the Latvian expertise, analysing needs of partner countries, and exploring the possibilities of attracting donor funding. Thus a number of successful cooperation projects have been launched with other donors, by ensuring a larger scale and visibility of Latvian activities, as well as promoting possibilities of cooperation in the future. For example, 54 % of the total costs of the programme were attracted from other donors in 2014 and 2015 for the training programme for support to representatives of the Eastern Partnership and Central Asia implemented by a consortium of higher education institutions of Latvia. Embassies have a particularly important role to play in lobbying use of multilateral resources and involvement of Latvian players (public administration, private sector, CSOs) in international projects. As these projects operate according to the programming cycles of leading donors, the Development Cooperation Policy Plan should envisage direct support to them. The MoFA coordinates development of a project application, ensures its submission to a donor, as well as ensures further negotiations with the donor through embassy. Although applications are mostly developed according to the form of project application specified by the leading funders, the MoFA subjects these projects to rules equivalent to those of a grant project tender, including requirements for project monitoring and evaluation.

Starting from 2011, the EU has developed a closer internal coordination in partner countries on the spot. The EU Joint Programming process has been adapted to the medium and long-term national development plans of partner countries and their priorities (for a five- to seven-year period).

The MoFA also promotes achievement of sustainable results according to the needs of partner countries, for example, ensures support to development of policy strategies and training for employees of the public administration of partner countries. Such activities are based on reports on implementation of the projects of the previous year, and bilateral consultations (Intergovernmental Commissions, visits of officials, letters, notes, opinion of Latvian embassies) with partner countries.

The MoFA constantly improves the quality and transparency of support to development cooperation, in particular according to the OECD principles for the provision of good aid. According to the OECD recommendations, Latvia provides for measures for preventing, detecting and reporting bribery of foreign officials. Also, natural persons who have been convicted of bribery, as well as legal persons who have been applied coercive means due to bribery, are excluded from implementation of the ODA projects.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- Activities should be planned based on previously defined results, aiming to reduce funding of isolated short-term activities, and planning the linkage of results with long-term objectives of a partner country and other initiatives in the relevant area.

- Projects with a long-term impact should receive special support in the project tenders, also factors, such as experience of an organisation and its cooperation with local partners in the relevant region, should be taken into account in the evaluation. It would be necessary to increasingly earmark funding for 3-5 year long Latvian projects by envisaging support to them in the Development Cooperation Policy Plans on the basis of regular evaluation of projects.

- As the number of activities carried out by other line ministries keeps increasing, it is necessary to consider possibilities to specify the role of line ministries and their linkage with the priorities identified in the development cooperation policy planning documents in order to efficiently attract expertise of ministries for needs of developing countries. In light of experience of other countries, for example, co-funding is provided for activities of ministries, they are involved in the development of policy, and negotiations according to their areas of responsibility, as well as project monitoring and evaluation.

- The capacity of the MoFA and Latvian missions should be strengthened in order to rapidly mobilise Latvian partners and enforce coalitions, if necessary, for provision of assistance to beneficiary countries in response to geopolitical situation in priority regions of Latvia.

- Possibilities should be examined to strengthen the capacity of beneficiary countries to implement projects themselves, thus strengthening responsibility of partner countries for their development. It might be necessary for the MoFA to restore its practice of 2008 by allocating funding through the embassies of Latvia.

8.3. Monitoring of Activities

By conducting careful evaluation before launch of activities, the MoFA monitors implementation of Latvian activities and provides the necessary support to the course of activities by particularly involving embassies of Latvia in partner countries.

Winners in the development cooperation grant project tenders and co-funding tenders should submit medium-term and final reports to the MoFA on the implementation process and results of the project.

Development cooperation activities are characterised by work in an unstable political, economic and social environment which often involves change in the project activities and budget. It is necessary to ensure a mechanism which enables to, within the framework of fiscal year, direct change in the distribution of funding to the ODA objectives in an efficient and transparent manner. Currently the MoFA fundingis directed to the development cooperation activities, if necessary, whose objective complies with the identified priority countries and sectors. The issue of redistribution of funding is also discussed with members of the Consultative Council.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- It is necessary to strengthen the circulation of information on the implemented activities, in particular from the perspective of partner countries, as well as by demonstrating mutual benefits from development cooperation.

8.4. Evaluation of Activities

It is important to evaluate the development cooperation planning documents and activities in order to: a) evaluate the impact of aims, methods, implementation of activities and their results on sustainable development of a partner country; b) promote exchange of experience, identify good practice, and improve coordination; c) examine the need to continue or discontinue the relevant activity or programme; d) plan the provision of assistance and use of funding in the future, as efficient and qualitative as possible; e) more successfully explain benefits to the society from development cooperation and the achieved results.

After carrying out of the activities funded by the MoFA the project implementers submit a report to the MoFA which is published on the MoFA website. The MoFA regularly provides an informative report to the Cabinet on the execution of development cooperation planning documents, as well as to international institutions, i.e. the EC, the OECD DAC etc., on the development cooperation and ODA implemented by Latvia.

According to the international commitments, the MoFA reports not only on the use of funding but also on its quality, for instance, by submitting reports on the implementation process of the 2030 Agenda, policy coherence for development, promotion of gender equality, involvement of the private sector, and other thematic issues.

It should be noted that the diplomatic service conducts negotiations with partner countries and other donors on implementation of activities on the basis of results and quality of projects where the evidence-based approach and the capacity of Latvian implementers to respond timely by providing the required information are of vital importance. The interest in cooperation with the project implementers of Latvia, in particular in the transfer of experience, keeps increasing, for example, in anti-corruption, agriculture, as well as the public administration development.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- The MoFA increases the level of reporting details and constantly improves data quality on the ODA by gradually moving towards the CRS++ reporting system for development assistance funding.

- It is important to envisage more detailed evaluation of projects by involving partner countries and direct beneficiaries of development assistance of Latvia, including by restoring the project evaluation visits in partner countries.

IX. Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development

Together with the development cooperation policy, the EU has implemented the policy coherence for development (PCD) already since 2005. The PCD includes mechanisms and procedures in order to evaluate whether a policy (also domestic policy) implemented by the EU and its Member States is not detrimental to developing countries. Implementation of the PCD in EU and its Member States is conducted in accordance with Article 208 of the Treaty of Lisbon which stipulates that "the Union shall take account of the objectives of development cooperation in the policies that it implements which are likely to affect developing countries". The principle applies similarly as the evaluation of the impact of policy on, for example, gender equality or environment. Efficient application of the PCD resolves inconsistencies between different EU policies, and strengthens their mutual synergy, thus promoting (or at least not impeding) growth of developing countries.

Since 2013, the European Commission (EC) has especially emphasised the implementation of the PCSD in the following five strategic policies:

- Trade and finance, by promoting access of less developed countries to the EU market, good tax and finance governance, responsible extraction and supply chains, and corporate social responsibility of entrepreneurs;

- Security - security and development may not be implemented without each other. These issues should be approached in a comprehensive manner, by supporting promotion of good and efficient governance; responding to internal political developments and instability of partner countries (for example, buying and selling of weapons, reduction of corruption, fight against organised crime and terrorism). It is important to support security sector reforms in developing countries and countries in post-crisis or post-conflict situations. Special attention should be paid to women in conflict zones;

- Food security - the EU's Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) and the agricultural market policy are regulated in accordance with the PCD. In 2013, the CAP reform was adopted, as a result of which the food security of EU citizens would improve, as well as market distortions would be reduced;

- Climate change and environmental sustainability - to promote the use of sustainable resources, as well as changes in consumer and producer behaviour, for example by reducing over-production, supporting imports of fair trade goods to Latvia, and suspending reduction in biological diversity;

- Migration - to promote migration as a positive factor for development, implementation of the policy on protection of migrants, promotion of mobility and circular migration, stemming of brain drain from developing countries, strengthening of the contact of diaspora with its country of origin, simplification of remittance systems, and reduction of costs;

As the 2030 Agenda will apply to all countries, covers a wide range of policies, as well as integrates the issues of environmental sustainability, gradual transition from the policy coherence for development to the policy coherence for sustainable development (PCSD) takes place. The new approach demonstrates transition towards closer horizontal coordination in policy-making, as well as includes wider policies (such as sustainable national consumption and production). The PCSD principles, along with other sustainability aspects included in the 2030 Agenda, should be more strongly reflected in the medium and long-term documents of Latvia and the relevant coordination mechanisms.22

Diplomatic missions of EU and EU Member States in partner countries have an important role to play in the implementation of policy.

9.1. Implementation of the Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development in Latvia

Latvia conducts implementation of the PCSD as a Member State, at the same time taking into account recommendations made in the OECD accession negotiations and standards set by the Organisation. The MoFA is an institution coordinating the PCD, but the PCSD includes not only assessment of the impact on developing countries (PCD) but also sustainable development in general, i.e. environment and the next generations. Consequently coordination of the PCSD falls on responsibility of national planning institutions.

The Latvian Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines for 2011-2015 emphasised the policy coherence for development as one of the eight fundamental principles of the development cooperation of Latvia, by indicating that "the commitments on the development cooperation principles, policy coherence for development, efficiency of assistance, division of labour, aid for trade and support to strengthening of democracy approved in the EU Foreign Affairs Council conclusions, shall be integrated in the development cooperation of Latvia". A significant instrument for ensuring the PCD on a national level is the Consultative Council for Development Cooperation Policy. The wide representation of the Consultative Council enables wide representation of opinions and coordinated implementation of the PCSD principles.

Annotation of any legal act includes a section on its impact on economy (including export and import), society, environment (including natural resources, emissions, generated waste etc.). A separate part of annotation of a draft law is devoted to the evaluation of a draft legal act in accordance with the international commitments of Latvia to the EU, other countries, and international institutions and organisations, as well as bilateral and multilateral agreements. Consequently also Article 208 of the Treaty of Lisbon.

Since 2007 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has reported the implementation of the PCSD to the EC, by coordinating with line ministries.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- During implementation of the Guidelines it is necessary to work on the consolidation of the national coordination mechanisms between line ministries in evaluation of the PCSD issues.

- The PCSD of Latvia primarily focuses on two current sectors - security and trade which are mutually important to Latvia and partner countries.

- Since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda the policy coherence has been considered in a broader context of sustainable development, instead of the context of only developing countries, therefore involvement of the Cross-Sectoral Coordination Centre as an institution planning national policy is necessary. For this reason it is necessary to involve the Parliament in the evaluation of the PCSD issues more actively.

- Implementation of the PCSD is closely related to the informing of the public and politicians about the PCSD issues. The civil society has an important role to play in communicating importance of such policy. It is also necessary to actively involve the private sector and local governments.

9.2. Trade and Responsible Consumption and Production

The issues of fair trade and responsible financial governance have been raised in the context of the accession of Latvia to the OECD, as well as by carrying out activities of the European Year for Development.

In the context of the OECD increased attention is paid to responsible business environment which is an integral component of the OECD countries, as there is a close link between responsible business and competitiveness and welfare of a country in the long term. After accession of Latvia to the OECD, increased attention is paid to the Latvian companies exporting and producing abroad.

In 2015, the MoFA raised the issues of responsible business exactly in the context of development cooperation. The Latvian CSOs in turn actively advocate raising of the issues of food security and sustainable consumption among Latvian consumers and farmers.

Latvia also engages in appropriate international formats, in particular through the World Trade Organisation and EU activities. Latvia has emphasised, within the framework of its Presidency in the EU Council, support to a multilateral international trading scheme in which support to LDCs constitutes an important part of negotiations. So far, Latvia has supported preferential treatment of LDCs in order to ensure preferential trade arrangements applicable to both goods and services. Latvia also actively follows negotiations regarding the EU Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and has supported their signing.

Latvia has acceded to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (Guidelines) which aim to ensure compliance of companies with the policy for sustainable development pursued by governments, by covering employment, environmental protection, respect for human rights, consumer protection and fair competition, prevention of corruption, and freedom of information. Latvia has established the National Contact Point (NCP) for Implementation of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises which includes a wide range of institutions. The NCP informs the public of the Guidelines and provides for a possibility to report cases when the Guidelines have been violated as a result of any activity of the company. The NCP provides all stakeholders with a platform for discussions and mediation. Currently the NCP focuses on preventive work and provision of availability of information.

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- It is important in the future to expand activities for promotion of responsible business, and stimulate operation of the Latvian National Contact Point for Implementation of the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. It would be necessary for Latvia to develop a national planning document for targeted enhancing of responsible and sustainable business on the national level.

- The involved institutions, such as line ministries, associations of entrepreneurs, CSOs, research institutes, and educational institutions, should address several issues jointly. The role of the State in development of responsible and sustainable business is also related to the work of State or local government capital companies, as these are the companies which must demonstrate good practice and serve as an example for the private sector. It is necessary to ensure coordination of cooperation between the public administration institutions, involvement of entrepreneurs and civil society organisations, and public awareness.

- Priority areas for action should be established by coordinating them with the internationally recognised guidelines (the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, the EC's Strategy on Corporate Social Responsibility, the UN Global Compact).

- Awareness of companies should be raised about the principles of responsible and sustainable business and their implementation, including the need to establish internal control mechanisms, and introduction of ethical standards.

9.3. Linkage of the Development Cooperation Policy with Security Issues

Security and stability of the region have a direct impact on welfare and a feeling of security of citizens of Latvia. Strengthening of good governance, as well as promotion of peace and security are important priorities of Latvian development cooperation which amount to approximately one fifth of the Latvian bilateral ODA. According to the OECD criteria, the ODA includes, for example, participation of the State Police and State Border Guard in different OSCE and EU missions, Twinning projects for support to the Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries. The State Border Guard College has provided long-term support to the Cynology Centre of the Moldova Border Policy. Latvia is also the leading country in the BOMCA Programme funded by the European Commission.

One of the most important elements in the implementation of security and defence policy is the missions organised by international organisations. Latvia participates in the EU civil missions in Ukraine, Afghanistan and Georgia. Latvia not only strengthens the capacity of countries in crisis situations but also provides other support to security sector reforms, such as organisation of training for representatives of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

In the context of the principles of promotion and maintenance of sustainable peace and security, Latvia supports efficient implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, and of other related resolutions aimed at ensuring gender equality and equal opportunities.

Latvia has so far supported the work of the EU and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) missions in Ukraine by ensuring work of civil experts in missions. The EU Adviser's Mission for the civil security sector reforms provides significant support to fostering of stability in a country by providing consultative support to the civil security reforms, including prevention of corruption, strategic communication, human rights, and gender equality. In 2015, decisions were taken to expand the OSCE Special Observation Mission in Ukraine (the total budget was approved for 800 observers), as well as expand the EU Adviser's Mission in Ukraine (from 100 to 140 international seconded experts).

Indicative activities from 2016 to 2020

- As sustainable development is not possible without security, it is important to promote stability in partner countries by providing support to implementation of the security sector reforms, including providing training and ensuring the necessary equipment.

- During implementation of the Guidelines the MoFA emphasises support to initiatives of security sector reforms by continuing to pay increased attention to conflict prevention efforts. Many European security challenges initially arise outside the EU, consequently cooperation with third countries constitutes an important security issue of the EU Agenda.

- A comprehensive approach to external conflicts and crises which combines different policy areas and instruments of Common Foreign and Security Policy is of special importance in situations of crisis and conflict. Such approach enables to work more efficiently on prevention of conflicts, as well as to ensure harmonious transition from one type of EU involvement to another.


1 Hereinafter the implementation of the identified indicative activities from 2016 to 2020 will be promoted by evaluating their inclusion in the Development Cooperation Policy Plans which include measures for achievement of the objective laid down in the Guidelines, performance results and their result-based indicators.

2 PROVIDUS Analytical Report on the Development Cooperation Policy of Latvia for 2011-2015 (2015), p. 9.

3 An EU-funded programme to strengthen capacity of the public administration institutions by attracting experts from EU Member States and creating an opportunity to establish partnership and cooperation among different countries.

4 In April 2015, Ukraine and the OECD signed the Action Plan in order to support the country in the reform process. The Ukraine Day provides a platform for discussions between stakeholders on priorities and strategy for introduction of the Action Plan.

5 Support to the Government of Croatia for the effective use of their first set of EU-funded programs as a Member State (2014-2020).

6 the statement jointly approved by the Council, Commission and Parliament in 2007, the European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid which outlines the actions of the EU in the field of humanitarian aid according to the principles which have been jointly defined by the donor countries, UN agencies, CSOs, International Red Cross, Red Crescent in provision of humanitarian aid in 2003.

7 European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid; Good Humanitarian Donorship Principles; Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2020; 2030 Agenda, as well as the Agenda for Humanity adopted at the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016.

8 The co-funding tender is envisaged for both the development cooperation projects for support to partner countries and the projects for raising awareness of the Latvian public. From 2012 to 2015, organisations submitted their projects for public awareness (except for four projects submitted for support to partner countries).

9 PROVIDUS Analytical Report on the Development Cooperation Policy of Latvia for 2011-2015 (2015), p. 9.

10 PROVIDUS Analytical Report on the Development Cooperation Policy of Latvia for 2011-2015 (2015), p. 10.

11 UNCTAD, World Investment Report, 2014.

12 In accordance with the conclusions of May 2005 made by the EU Foreign Affairs Council, the Member States which have joined the EU after 2002 should aspire to devote 0.33 % of the GNI to ODA by 2015, while the old EU Member States should direct 0.7 % of the GNI to ODA by 2015.

13 See Section 7.3 of situation analysis.

14 In addition to multilateral and bilateral development cooperation, the total amount of ODA also includes humanitarian aid (see graph on p. 15).

15 The EU Council Conclusions of 26 May 2016 "Annual Report 2015 to the European Council on EU Development Aid Targets".

16 In accordance with the "Internal Agreement between the Representatives of the Governments of the Member States of the European Union, meeting within the Council, on the financing of European Union aid under the multiannual financial framework for the period 2014 to 2020, in accordance with the ACP-EU Partnership Agreement, and on the allocation of financial assistance for the Overseas Countries and Territories to which Part Four of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union applies", http://m.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=265117.

17 In 2014, additional funds were also allocated from economies in the budget programme "Contributions to International Organisations" of the MoFA,

18 In 2015, additional funds were allocated from the emergency financial resources for support to Ukraine.

19 Each year the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as an institution coordinating development cooperation gathers information on the amount of the development assistance provided by the public administration of Latvia.

20 Cabinet Regulation No. 271 of 20 May 2003 "By-laws of the Consultative Council for Development Cooperation Policy".

21 Development Cooperation Policy Guidelines of the Republic of Latvia approved in 2011 and the Law on International Assistance adopted in 2008.

22 The OECD has already commenced restoration of all documents at the disposal of the Organisation in accordance with the new 2030 Agenda, including by developing new tools for governments and stakeholders to develop, disseminate, implement and evaluate coordinated and complementary action policies for sustainable development. For example, http://www.oecd.org/pcd/TOOLKIT%20FRAMEWORK%20FOR%20PCSD.pdf.

 


Translation © 2017 Valsts valodas centrs (State Language Centre)

 
Document information
Title: Par Attīstības sadarbības politikas pamatnostādnēm 2016.–2020. gadam Status:
In force
in force
Issuer: Cabinet of Ministers Type: order Document number: 523Adoption: 14.09.2016.Entry into force: 14.09.2016.Publication: Latvijas Vēstnesis, 180, 16.09.2016. OP number: 2016/180.3
Language:
LVEN
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