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LEGAL ACTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA
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Text consolidated by Valsts valodas centrs (State Language Centre) with amending regulations of:

27 February 2018 [shall come into force from 2 March 2018].

If a whole or part of a paragraph has been amended, the date of the amending regulation appears in square brackets at the end of the paragraph. If a whole paragraph or sub-paragraph has been deleted, the date of the deletion appears in square brackets beside the deleted paragraph or sub-paragraph.

 

Republic of Latvia

Cabinet
Regulation No. 114
Adopted 2 March 2004

Regulations Regarding the Written Form and Use in the Latvian Language of Personal Names, and also Identification Thereof

Issued pursuant to
Section 19, Paragraph three and Section 23, Paragraph three of
the Official Language Law

1. General Provisions

1. The Regulation prescribes the norms of the Latvian literary language in the written form and use in the Latvian language of personal names, and also the procedures for the writing and identification of personal names in documents regardless of their origin.

[27 February 2018]

1.1 The following terms are used in this Regulation:

1.1 1. orthographic transcription - reproduction of a personal name of foreign language origin with the sounds and letters of the Latvian language according to the provisions for orthographic transcription of proper nouns of foreign languages;

1.1 2. multicomponent surname - a surname consisting of more than two components;

1.1 3. historical form of a family surname - the form of the surname which is entered in the personal identification document or a document confirming registration of the civil status of some direct ascendant of the person;

1.1 4. double surname - a surname consisting of two components (within the meaning of The Civil Law - "double surname");

1.1 5. indeclinable personal name - a personal name the form of which does not change either in gender or case;

1.1 6. original form - the written form of a personal name in the original language;

1.1 7. original language - the language in which the original of some text has been written;

1.1 8. personal name - the given name (names), surname (double surname or multicomponent surname) or the given name (names) together with the surname of a natural person;

1.1 9. equalisation - prevention of variants in the form of a personal name;

1.1 10. transcription - orthographic transcription of the pronunciation in the Latvian language of a personal name of a foreign language;

1.1 11. transliteration - conversion of the original form of a personal name of foreign language into the Latin alphabet writing system letter by letter from the writing system of other alphabets in accordance with the transliteration table stipulated by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO);

1.1 12. historical form of the name - a form of a personal name which is different from the present written form in the Latvian language of such name.

[27 February 2018]

2. The purpose of this Regulation is to ensure the conformity of the written form of a personal name with the norms of the Latvian language and to protect a person against unjustified modification of his or her given name and surname, and also against refusal of institutions to recognise the possession of such personal document to the relevant person in which the entry of his or her given name and surname is different from the entry in another (previously issued) document of such person.

3. The given name and surname of a person is an integral part of the private life of such person, and its restriction by orthographic transcription or equalisation of the given name or surname of the person shall be permissible only for the achievement of legitimate objectives.

2. Norms of the Latvian Literary Language in the Written Form and Use of Personal Names

4. In the Latvian language the official system of personal names consists of given names and surnames. Traditionally the given name is used first and followed by the surname in the Latvian language. However, surnames formed from historical genitive form are exceptions (for example, Doku Atis, Māteru Juris, Pārstrautu Jānis, Zeiboltu Jēkabs) which are used before the given name.

[27 February 2018]

4.1 The following elements (if they can be unequivocally identified from the documents presented by a person or obtained by an institution and they are not the given name or surname of the person) not conforming to the official system of personal names of the Latvian language shall not be regarded as the component of the given name or surname and shall not be included in the personal identification document issued in the Republic of Latvia, the Population Register, and registers of civil status documents:

4.1 1. the given name of the father and its abbreviations;

4.1 2. the inherited or granted (aristocratic) titles (for example, Earl, Baron, Duke, Prince (Fürst), Younker, Marquis, Viscount, Count, Prince, Infant, Dauphin, Hidalgo, Lord, Lady, Squire, Sir, Peer, Grand Duke, Pasha, Vizier, Bey);

4.1 3. academic degrees and titles (for example, Bachelor, Master, Doctor, Doctor of Science, Professor), and also their abbreviations (for example, Bc., Mg., Dr., Dr. Sc., prof.);

4.1 4. religious titles (for example, Monsignor, Eminence);

4.1 5. polite forms of addressing (for example, Sir, Madam, Miss, Mister, Missus, Mademoiselle, Monsieur, Madame, Pan, Pani, Don, Donna, Doña, Signor, Signora, Signorina, Señor, Señora, Señorita);

4.1 6. Roman or Arabic ordinal numbers which supplement the given name or surname (for example, Kārlis III, BI3, Leo Šmits 69, Jānis Bērziņš II, Ludvigs Hincs V, Džērids Kingslijs VII, Freds Montgomerijs MCDXLIV, Oto Leja 1987);

4.1 7. abbreviations of the middle name (for example, Džons F. Kenedijs, Baraks H. Obama, Donalds Dž. Tramps);

4.1 8. additional indications which are added after the given name or surname in order to distinguish a person from a parent with the same given name or surname (Junior, Middle, Senior, Junior, Senior) and their abbreviations (Jnr., Mid., Snr., Jnr., Snr.).

[27 February 2018]

5. Personal names shall be adapted to the grammatical system of the Latvian language, except for the following cases:

5.1. when transcribing orthographically personal names from exotic languages, it shall be permissible that the given name or surname is formed only by one consonant (for example, M, K, F), a combination of consonants (for example, Nm, Wr, Ch), one vowel (for example, A, I, O), or a diphthong (for example, Ai, Ie, Ou). In such case personal names shall be orthographically transcribed according to their written form in the original language;

5.2. if the given name or surname is formed only by one letter which does not exist in the Latvian language alphabet (Q, X, Y, W), the personal name shall be orthographically transcribed according to its pronunciation in the original language.

[27 February 2018]

5.1 If the given name (first name) of a person in the original language is indicated in an abbreviated form (for example, Md, Mh or Mhd), the personal name shall be orthographically transcribed in full form on the basis of a documentary certification.

[27 February 2018]

6. Only the letters of the official alphabet of the Latvian language shall be used for the written form of personal names:

6.1. the upper-case letters - A, Ā, B, C, Č, D, E, Ē, F, G, Ğ, H, I, Ī, J, K, Ķ, L, Ļ, M, N, Ņ, O, P, R, S, Š, T, U, Ū, V, Z, Ž;

6.2. the lower-case letters - a, ā, b, c, č, d, e, ē, f, g, ģ, h, i, ī, j, k, ķ, l, ļ, m, n, ņ, o, p, r, s, š, t, u, ū, v, z, ž.

7. Personal names shall be language units - proper nouns for the denomination of a person. Personal names shall be written with an upper-case initial.

8. There shall be two main principles for the use and written form of personal names in the Latvian language:

8.1. the gender of the owner of a personal name shall be indicated by the masculine or feminine declinable ending in the personal names of both the Latvian origin and foreign language origin (except indeclinable personal names);

8.2. personal names of foreign language origin shall be orthographically transcribed according to their pronunciation in the original language (the language in which the original of some text is written) and included in the grammatical system of the Latvian language.

9. In the Latvian language the grammatical meanings - gender, number, case - are expressed with declinable endings for the personal names (as well as for other declinable parts of speech). The ending may vary depending on the context.

10. The personal names shall be used in the principal form (singular, nominative) and in other cases (depending on the text). The rules and norms of the Latvian language grammar shall determine the ending of the personal name.

11. Personal names shall be written according to the spelling rules of the Latvian language:

11.1. a horizontal line above the vowel shall be used to denote the length of the vowel (not duplication of the vowel or h after the vowel);

11.2. the following duplications shall not be used in the written form of personal names and their orthographic transcription (except for the cases referred to in Sub-paragraph 11.5 of this Regulation): bb, cc, čč, dd, ff, gg, ģģ, hh, kk, ķķ, pp, ss, šš, tt, vv, zz, žž;

11.3. combinations of consonants bh, ch, cz, dh, dt, ph, sch, sz, tc, th, tz borrowed from other languages and which denote one sound (phoneme) shall not be used;

11.4. it shall be allowed to retain the duplication of consonants ll, ļļ, mm, nn, ņņ, rr in personal names before a vowel, for example, Nolle, Tiļļa, Pommers, Svenne, Viņņiks, Karro (but Erss, not Errss). Duplication of consonants before a vowel is not characteristic in the Latvian language, for example, Ķerāns (not Ķerrāns), Zuments (not Zumments), Eniņš (not Enniņš), Danebrogs (not Dannebrogs);

11.5. duplication of consonants shall be retained:

11.5.1. in compounds (for example, Lappuķe, Pussars, Mazzariņš, Mežžagata, Niekkalbis, Kaķķepa, Krahhauzers, Naģģērģs, Jānoššomorja);

11.5.2. in derivatives with prefixes (for example, Atteka, Attāls (but Atāls), Auffīrers, Avvejs, Vvedenskis, Poddubovs, Meddēlings, Bezzubovs);

11.6. duplication of consonants shall not be retained, except for compounds and derivatives with prefixes (for example, Laukaarkls, Pieegle, Nooga), and also the cases when it is allowed by the rules of orthographic transcription of proper nouns of the relevant language (for example, Daņiila, Saakišvili, Karaalmazovs);

11.7. the letter o shall denote three sounds: short vowel [o], long vowel [ō] and diphthong [uo].

[27 February 2018]

11.1 A personal name may be written without conforming to the restrictions provided for in Sub-paragraph 11.2 of this Regulation:

11.1 1. if they are recognised as non-applicable to the written form of such personal name by a court ruling which has entered into effect;

11.1 2. if the relevant surname is used by other members of the kin or family (in the narrowest meaning) of such person who are nationals of Latvia.

[27 February 2018]

12. Personal names shall be declined as nouns. In the Latvian language personal names of masculine gender have the endings -s, -š, -is, -us (the endings -a and -e are also possible), in feminine gender - -a, -e, -s, also -us.

13. Personal names (as well as nouns in general) in the Latvian language have an ending also in the nominative case singular unlike many other languages in which the ending is only in dependent cases, for example, the Estonian surname Sirel (Sireli - Sirelit) transcribed orthographically in Latvian in masculine is Sirels, feminine - Sirela.

14. The feminine ending -s may only be in surnames - common names of VI declension of Latvian origin which have acquired the meaning of a proper noun, for example, Dzelzs, Grunts, Klints, Uguns, Zivs. In such case the corresponding male surnames shall be with the same endings as female surnames but with differences in the dative case (Klintij - Klintim).

[27 February 2018]

15. The given names and surnames of foreign language origin which end in -o, -ā, -ē, -i, -ī, -u, -ū (for example, Uibo, Utno, Ostreiko, Paukštello, Dimčenko, Arumā, Šnē, Linē, Jakobi, Martinelli, Barī, Amadu, Eminesku, Foršū) and one-syllable personal names which end in -a or -e (for example, Ca, Pa, De, Me) shall be indeclinable in the Latvian language. The male and female form of the surname in indeclinable surnames shall be equivalent in the Latvian language (for example, Ronaldo, Savčenko, Dimā, Delakruā, Verdi, Gaprindašvili, Kamī, de Višī, Monteskjē, Rišeljē, Ronaldinju, Saramandu, Kocebū, Le, Sa).

[27 February 2018]

16. The ending of the person's surname in the Latvian language is determined by the gender of such person. Also the different gender endings indicate the gender of the owner of the surname in the Latvian literary language: Kalniņš - Kalniņa, Leitāns - Leitāne, Priednieks - Priedniece, also in the cases if the surname is based on such common name which has only masculine or feminine form: krauklis - but: Krauklis - Kraukle, lapiņa- but: Lapiņa- Lapiņš. The gender of the relevant common name shall not be of significance for determination of the gender forms of surnames, for example:

bērzs - but in the surname Bērzs and Bērza

bērziņš - but in the surname Bērziņš and Bērziņa

gailis - but in the surname Gailis and Gaile

cielava - but in the surname Cielavs (may be also masculine Cielava) and Cielava

eglīte - but in the surname Eglītis (may be also masculine Eglīte) and Eglīte.

17. The male surname may have a feminine ending -a, -e because there are common gender words in the noun system of the Latvian language with the following endings in the principal form (aizmārša, auša, tiepša, balamute) and case endings in both the feminine and masculine gender (aušai - aušam, balamutei - balamutem).

18. The female surnames in the Latvian language shall be formed and used with the relevant feminine endings.

19. When forming female surnames, the male surname form shall taken as the basis and the male ending shall be replaced with the corresponding feminine ending.

20. According to the Latvian grammar rules the masculine endings are not used for the feminine surnames.

21. Both the male and female personal name may have the ending -us (with differences in the dative), for example, Mikus Grigus - Mikum Grigum, Anna Grigus - Annai Grigui.

22. The surnames which are based on an adjective shall have the indefinite endings characteristic to the adjectives -s, -a (Stalts, Stalta) or definite endings -ais, -ā (Čaklais, Čaklā):

22.1. if the masculine surname conforms to the adjective with the definite ending -ais, the feminine surname forms shall be formed in the same way as the feminine forms of the relevant adjectives:

Baltais - Baltā

Bagātais - Bagātā

Resnais - Resnā

Salnais - Salnā

22.2. surnames with the definite ending of adjectives shall be used in the same way as other surnames with the ending -ais (even if there is no direct equivalence with the adjectives of the Latvian language), for example:

Režais - Režā

Turlais - Turlā

Gaidais - Gaidā

Dabrais - Dabrā

23. If the variants of the same surname have different forms of gender, the surname shall be used according to the gender of the owner of the surname. If the masculine gender is used in the surname of a woman, it shall be replaced with the form corresponding to the feminine gender, for example, Vilks - Vilka, Zutis - Zute.

24. If the surname of one family or the surname of one person is used in different variants - in both the literary and dialect form, the form of the literary language shall be chosen and used thereafter in the documents (if the person agrees to that), for example, the formsBalodis and Bolūdis are used, the recommended variant is Balodis. The dialect form (Elksnis, Leidums, Pormalis) shall be used in the cases when it is widely known and the person wants it.

25. The surnames of common origin with a different ending (Ārgalis - Ārgals, Ķezberis - Ķezbers, Priedīte - Priedītis), the suffix together with the ending (Purvītis - Purviņš, Virkavs - Virkaus, Zicāns - Zicēns), or other phonetic or morphological element (Brusubārda - Brusubārdis - Brusbārdis) shall not be unified, except for equalisation within the framework of one family if such persons want it.

26. If the surname ends with a suffix together with the ending -aus, the diphthong -au shall be retained before the ending: Laus - Laua, Zaus - Zaua, Janaus - Janaua, Virkaus - Virkaua, Blūmenaus - Blūmenaua. In two-syllable and multi-syllable names the diphthong -au shall be orthographically transcribed also with the suffix together with the ending -avs (-ava), for example, Beltavs - Beltava, Maldavs - Maldava, Virkavs - Virkava.

27. In the surnames of Latvian origin which conform to the common names with the ending -is, the form corresponding to the common name with the ending -is (II declension) shall be used: Asaris, Balodis, Cīrulis, Lūsis, Osis, Prūsis. In the Latvian language the ending -is is also in the surnames with the suffix together with the ending -ainis, -elis, -ulis, -ieris, -manis, -aitis, -eitis, -ītis, -ietis, for example, Aglonietis (not Agloniets), Šūmanis (not Šūmans).

28. Male surnames with the ending -s have the relevant female surnames with the ending -a or the ending -e:

28.1. for male surnames with the ending -s the relevant female surnames with the ending -a shall be formed:

28.1.1. from one-syllable surnames, for example, Vilks - Vilka, Sils - Sila, Kalns - Kalna, Celms - Celma, Balts - Balta;

28.1.2. from the surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -ēns, -ums, -uks, -ājs, -ējs, -tājs, -užs, -avs, -ens, for example:

Gulēns - Gulēna

Sālījums - Sālījuma

Eiduks - Eiduka

Arājs - Arāja

Sējējs - Sējēja

Dziedātājs - Dziedātāja

Linužs- Linuža

Silavs - Silava

Avens- Avena

28.2. from the surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -bahs, -dorfs, -bergs, -baums, -ičs, -ics, -ins, -marks, -ovs, for example:

Švarcbahs - Švarcbaha

Bendorfs - Bendorfa

Veinbergs - Veinberga

Rozenbaums - Rozenbauma

Jurevičs - Jureviča

Derkevics - Derkevica

Logins - Logina

Altmarks - Altmarka

Petrovs - Petrova

28.3. from the surnames which are based on an adjective with the indefinite ending -s, for example:

Balts - Balta

Stalts - Stalta

Sarkans - Sarkana

[27 February 2018]

29. For male surnames with the ending -s the relevant female surnames with the ending -e shall be formed:

29.1. from the surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -ants, -ars, -arts, -āns, -ārs, -āts, -ents, -erts, -gals, -kalns, -mals, -onts, for example:

Porgants - Porgante

Dzintars - Dzintare

Viparts - Viparte

Svilāns - Svilāne

Silārs - Silāre

Valdāts - Valdāte

Zuments - Zumente

Šteinerts - Šteinerte

Laukgals - Laukgale

Zeltkalns - Zeltkalne

Ezermals - Ezermale

Zigmonts - Zigmonte

29.2. from the surnames which end in the suffixes together with the endings of the words of German origin -felds, -lands, -sons, -šmits, -tāls, -valds, for example:

Kiršfelds - Kiršfelde

Neilands - Neilande

Andersons - Andersone

Goldšmits - Goldšmite

Rozentāls - Rozentāle

Rēvalds - Rēvalde

30. Upon wish of a person, female surnames may be formed with the ending -a or -e,from the male surnames with suffixes together with the endings -blats, -šteins, -ups, -uts, -ūns, for example:

Dreiblats - Dreiblata or Dreiblate

Goldšteins - Goldšteina or Goldšteine

Kalnups - Kalnupa or Kalnupe

Sukuts - Sukuta or Sukute

Meškūns - Meškūna or Meškūne

31. The relevant forms of female surnames shall be formed with the suffix together with the ending -niece from the male surnames with the suffix together with the ending -nieks, for example:

Klētnieks - Klētniece

Pilsētnieks - Pilsētniece

32. The relevant female surnames shall be formed with the ending -e from the male surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -ns, -ss which conform to the common names of the II declension consonant stem, for example:

Akmens - Akmene, also: Akmins - Akmine

Mēness - Mēnese

Rudens - Rudene

Zibens - Zibene

33. The female surnames shall be formed with the ending -a from the male surnames with the suffix together with the ending -ens which fail to conform to the common names of the consonant stem, for example:

Rībens - Rībena

Kacens - Kacena

34. The surnames of German origin with the suffix together with the ending -au shall be part of the special group of surnames to which the Latvian ending -s is added. The relevant feminine forms shall be formed with the suffix together with the ending -aua, for example:

Janaus - Janaua

Laus - Laua

Blaus - Blaua

Libaus - Libaua

Blūmenaus - Blūmenaua

35. If the form is changed for the surnames in which initially the suffix together with the ending -aus is used, the female surnames shall be formed according to the form of the male surname, for example:

Dubaus - Dubaua

Dubauss - Dubausa

Dubavs - Dubava

36. In the case of male surnames with the ending the relevant female surnames shall be formed with the ending -a, for example:

Vējš - Vēja

Kociņš - Kociņa

Mežiņš - Mežiņa

Zaļš - Zaļa

37. In the case of male surnames with the ending -is the relevant female surnames shall be formed with the ending -e, for example:

Gailis - Gaile

Serģis - Serģe

Eglītis - Eglīte

Zāģeris - Zāģere

Lapainis - Lapaine

Melnacis - Melnace

Dzirkalis - Dzirkale

Baumanis - Baumane

38. The feminine forms with the ending -e may be formed also from the male surname variants with the elidated (elidēt < Latin elidere - squeeze out, exclude, omit, discard - to omit some sound or word) vowel -i of the ending, for example, from the surnames with the suffixes with the endings -els, -ens, -ers, -als, -ols, -iers, -ons, -uls, -urs, for example:

Bļodons - Bļodone

Pudurs - Pudure

Bumbiers - Bumbiere

39. Female surnames shall be made with the suffixes together with the endings -ska and -cka from male surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -skis and -ckis of Slavic origin, for example:

Beļskis - Beļska

Žilinskis - Žilinska

Cunskis - Cunska

Visockis - Visocka

40. Female surnames shall be made with the ending -a from the male surnames of Latvian origin with the suffixes together with the ending -kis and -gis, for example:

Rutkis - Rutka

Vaskis - Vaska, also Voskis - Voska

Seskis - Seska

Mazgis - Mazga

41. The female surnames with the ending -us shall correspond to the male surname with the ending -us. Differences in gender of such surnames shall be expressed in the dative case, for example:

Jānis Ledus - Anna Ledus, Jānim Ledum - Annai Ledui

Juris Cinkus - Ilze Cinkus, Jurim Cinkum - Ilzei Cinkui

42. If another ending consonant (-uss) is added to the male surnames with the ending -us, the forms of female surnames shall be formed according to the male surname form by adding the vowel -a or -e accordingly, for example:

Pēteris Markus - Ieva Markus, but

Pēteris Markuss - Ieva Markusa or Markuse

43. The same principal form for male and female surnames shall be for the surnames with the ending -a or -e which are to be used similarly to the common gender names of IV or V declension of common names of the Latvian language (for example, pļāpa, balamute), for example:

Jānis Liepa - Anna Liepa

Juris Egle - Ilze Egle

44. The same principal form for male and female surnames shall also be for the surnames of foreign language origin with the ending -a or -e. Differences in gender in the surnames of such type shall only be in the dative case singular, for example:

Cjukša - Cjukšam - Cjukšai

Kupala - Kupalam - Kupalai

Vaišvila - Vaišvilam - Vaišvilai

Bīne - Bīnem - Bīnei

Zenne - Zennem - Zennei

45. If a feminine common name is the basis of the surname of Latvian origin with the suffix together with the ending -īte or -iņa, the male surname form shall be formed with the suffix together with the ending -ītis or -iņš, for example:

Priedīte - Priedītis

Saulīte - Saulītis

Lapiņa - Lapiņš

46. Upon wish of a person, the suffix with the ending -īte and -iņa may also be used in male surnames, for example:

Pēteris Zālīte

Arvīds Priedīte

47. If a feminine surname with the ending -s is the basis of the surname, the surname shall be used in the same principal form for both the masculine and feminine gender. Differences in gender of such surnames shall be present only in the dative case singular, for example:

Juris Klints - Māra Klints, Jurim Klintim - Mārai Klintij

Vilis Dzelzs - Vija Dzelzs, Vilim Dzelzim - Vijai Dzelzij

48. If the following feature non-characteristic to the ethnicity of a person has been entered in the register of civil status documents:

48.1. a non-Latvian name, for example, Ivans, Osips, Josifs, Jeļena, but in other documents issued later the name has been written according to the ethnicity - Jānis, Jāzeps, Helēna, then upon wish of the person a correction may be made in the register of civil status documents by writing Jānis instead of the name Ivans, Jāzeps instead of the names Osips and Josifs, Helēna instead of the name Jeļena;

48.2. a Latvian name, for example, Jānis, Jāzeps, Pēteris, Helēna, Natālija, Kristīna, but in other documents issued later the name is written according to the ethnicity - Ivans, Josifs or Osips, Pjotrs, Jeļena, Nataļja, Kristina, then upon wish of the person a correction may be made in the register of civil status documents by writing Ivans instead of the name Jānis, Osips or Josifs instead of the name Jāzeps, Pjotrs instead of the name Pēteris, Jeļena instead of the name Helēna, Nataļja instead of the name Natālija, Kristina instead of the name Kristīna.

[27 February 2018]

49. If a name non-characteristic to the ethnicity of a person is entered in the register of civil status documents in respect of the person in cases other than referred to in Paragraph 48 of this Regulation, but in other documents issued later the name is written according to the ethnicity, a correction may be made in the register of civil status documents upon wish of the person according to the certification issued by the Latvian Language Agency.

[27 February 2018]

50. The Latvian literary alphabet shall be used in the written form of Latgalian personal names in the documents which have been drawn up in the official language, and such personal names shall be included in the grammar system of the Latvian literary language.

51. Latgalian personal names may be transposed into the Latvian literary language upon wish of the person, for example, Jānis, Pēteris, Sīmanis, Sams, Sīlis, Lidija, Lazda, Līkums, Lūza, Ūdris. Upon wish of the person, the phonetic peculiarities may be retained, for example, Joņs, Pīters, Seimaņs, Soms, Seiļs, Lideja, Lozda, Leikums, Liuza, Iudrs.

[27 February 2018]

52. In proper nouns of historical person their traditional form shall be retained by using the letters of the alphabet of the Latvian literary language, Pīters Miglinīks, Stepons Seiļs, Madsolas Joņs, Meikuls Apeļs, Andrivs Jūrdžs.

53. In the written form of the Latgalian personal names the following sound equivalents shall be taken into account which have emerged by the influence of different phonetics and spelling norms of the Latgalian written language:

53.1. the hard sound i (similar to Polish y, Russian ы) which is denoted in the Latgalian written language with the letter y shall be orthographically transcribed with i:

Cybuļskis - Cibuļskis

Syls - Sils

Pyks - Piks

Grybusts - Gribusts

53.2. the diphthong ie which is denoted in the Latgalian written language with ē may be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian literary language:

53.2.1. according to the pronunciation with ie:

Ziernis

Siermais

Spierga

Klīdziejs

53.2.2. according to the sound system of the Latvian literary language:

Zirnis

Sirmais

Spirga

Klīdzējs

Note. Upon wish of a person, in the cases referred to in Sub-paragraph 53.2.1 of this Regulation the forms with ē may be retained in the written form of the surnames, for example, Zērnis, Sērmais, Spērga, Klīdzējs.

53.3. the diphthong uo which is denoted in the Latgalian written language with ō shall be orthographically transcribed with the diphthong [uo] and denoted with o in the Latvian literary language:

Lōcis - Locis

Lōcmers - Locmers

Ōzišs - Ozišs

Ōrups - Orups

Note. Upon wish of a person, these surnames may be included in the sound system of the Latvian literary language, for example, Lācis, Lācmers, Āzišs, Ārups.

[27 February 2018]

54. The following principles shall be conformed to in the written form of the Latgalian surnames:

54.1. the suffix together with the ending -āns (for example, Laizāns, Rancāns, Brokāns) shall be retained in the surnames, and also -āts (for example, Bernāts, Rudzāts). The corresponding female surnames shall be formed with the suffixes together with the endings -āne, -āte (for example, Laizāne, Rancāne, Brokāne; Bernāte, Rudzāte);

54.2. for the surnames with the finals -ļs and -ņs which in dialects are declined differently than in the Latvian literary language two types of the written form are possible in the Latvian literary language: with the finals -ļs or -lis, -le (not -ļa) and -ņs or -nis, -ne (not -ņa), for example:

Buļs - Bulis/Bule

Cibuļs - Cibulis/Cibule

Rubuļs - Rubulis/Rubule

Apeļs - Apelis/Apele

Rupaiņs - Rupainis/Rupaine

54.3. the suffixes together with the endings -eņš, -eņa shall be retained in the surnames, for example:

Balteņš/Balteņa

Kūceņš/Kūceņa

Ūzuleņš/Ūzuleņa

Note. Upon wish of a person, the surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -eņš, -eņa may be written with the suffixes together with the endings -iņš, -iņa in the Latvian literary language, for example:

Kūceņš - Kūciņš/Kūciņa

Ūzuleņš - Ūzuliņš/Ūzuliņa

54.4. the surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -eits, -eite shall be written with the suffixes together with the endings -eitis, -eite in the Latvian literary language:

Kurseits - Kurseitis/Kurseite

Kalveits - Kalveitis/Kalveite

Rudzeits - Rudzeitis/Rudzeite

Note. Upon wish of a person, the suffix together with the ending -eits may also be used in the Latvian literary language, for example, Kalveits, Rudzeits.

Upon wish of a person, these surnames may also be used with the suffixes together with the endings -ītis, -īte, for example:

Kurseits - Kursītis/Kursīte

Kalveits - Kalvītis/Kalvīte

Rudzeits - Rudzītis/Rudzīte

54.5. the surnames with the suffixes together with the endings -niks, -nika shall be written in their initial Latvian form with the suffixes together with the endings -nīks, -nīka or with the suffixes together with the endings -nieks, -niece, for example:

Sudniks - Sudnīks/Sudnīka or Sudnieks/Sudniece

Pūdniks - Pūdnīks/Pūdnīka or Pūdnieks/Pūdniece

Ūzulniks - Ūzulnīks/Ūzulnīka or Ūzulnieks/Ūzulniece

Note. Upon wish of a person, the suffixes together with the endings -niks, -nika may be retained, for example:

Pūdniks/Pūdnika

Sudniks/Sudnika

Ūzulniks/Ūzulnika

[27 February 2018]

3. Basic Provisions for the Orthographic Transcription in the Latvian Language of Personal Names of Foreign Languages

55. Personal names of foreign language origin shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language as close to their pronunciation in the original language as possible, and also conforming to the historical tradition of orthographic transcription. If two variants of orthographic transcription of one personal name are possible, the variant closest to the written form of the original language shall be selected.

[27 February 2018]

56. When transcribing proper nouns orthographically in the Latvian language, the following shall be taken into account in addition to the requirements of this Regulation:

56.1. the instructions developed and recommended by the Language and Literature Institute of the Latvian Academy of Sciences (the Latvian Language Institute of the University of Latvia), the Latvian Language Agency, the State Language Centre, and also the instructions published by the publishing house "Zinātne" on spelling and correct pronunciation of foreign proper nouns in the Latvian literary language;

56.2. the recommendations of the Terminology Commission of the Latvian Academy of Sciences which are published in the official gazette Latvijas Vēstnesis.

[27 February 2018]

57. The personal names borrowed from other languages (except for indeclinable personal names which end in the vowels ā, ē, i, ī, o, u or ū) shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language in declinable form and masculine or feminine form corresponding to the gender of the person.

58. If in the original language in nominative case the Lithuanian or Greek personal name has the ending which in this case is also in the Latvian language (for example, in the Lithuanian names Butkus, Būga, Šaltis or Greek Mikis Teodorakis), they shall be retained.

59. The ending of Lithuanian personal names -as and the ending of Greek personal nouns -os shall be replaced with the ending -s (for example, Lithuanian Vanagas - Latvian Vanags; Lithuanian Jankauskas - Latvian Jankausks; Greek Ricos - Latvian Rics).

60. [27 February 2018]

4. Orthographic Transcription of Personal Names from the Languages of the Latin Alphabet Writing System

4.1. General Principles

61. In the Latvian language the personal names (as well as the toponyms and common names) from other languages of the Latin alphabet writing system shall be orthographically transcribed according to their pronunciation in the original language and included in the grammatical system of the Latvian language.

62. The personal names borrowed from other languages of the Latin alphabet writing system shall be orthographically transcribed as follows in the Latvian language:

62.1. if personal names of foreign languages have no endings, the ending conforming to the Latvian language norms shall be added to them;

62.2. the endings of personal names of foreign languages shall be replaced with the endings conforming to the Latvian language norms.

63. The same personal name of foreign language shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language in one form also in such case if it has been written in different forms in different languages, for example, German - Schultz, Newskij, English - Shulz, Nevsky, Russian - Шульц, Невский, Polish - Szulc, Niewsky, Slovak - Šuľc, Nĕvský, Hungarian - Sulc, Névskiy, but in the Latvian language - Šulcs, Ņevskis.

63.1 The surnames of Slavic origin which end in -ski/-sky, -cki shall conform to the surnames in the Latvian language with -skis/-ska, -ckis/-cka,for example:

Czech Hostinský - Hostinskis/Hostinska

Polish Dąbrowski - Dombrovskis/Dombrovska

Polish Wozniacki - Vozņackis/Vozņacka.

[27 February 2018]

4.2. Orthographic Transcription of Personal Names from the Lithuanian Language

64. When orthographically transcribing personal names from the Lithuanian language into the Latvian language, the equivalents between these languages shall be taken into account.

65. The short vowels of the Lithuanian language are equivalent to the relevant short vowels of the Latvian language:

65.1. a - a (for example, Balandis - Balandis);

65.2. e - e (for example, Švedas - Šveds);

65.3. i - i (for example, Albinas - Albins);

65.4. u - u (for example, Ugnė - Ugne);

65.5. the short vowel which is prolonged because of the influence of the intonation in the Lithuanian language shall be denoted in the Latvian language by a short vowel, for example Vilkelis - Viļķelis (also Vilkelis).

66. In the Lithuanian language the letter i after a consonant before a vowel denotes the palatalisation of such consonant. Such combination of consonants with the palatalisation letter i shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language as follows:

66.1. if the palatalisation letter i follows the consonants g, k, l, n, they shall be orthographically transcribed as the relevant palatal consonant, for example:

Margiūtė - Marģūte

Šarkiūnas -Šarķūns

Liudas - Ļuds

Niauronis - Ņauronis

66.2. if the palatalisation letter i follows the consonants b, c, d, m, p, r, s, t, v, z, it shall be orthographically transcribed with the consonant j, for example:

Bubius - Bubjus

Gricius - Gricjus

Darius - Darjus

Matiukaitė - Matjukaite

Vaisiūnas - Vaisjūns

Kalvius - Kalvjus

66.3. if the palatalisation letter i follows the consonants č, š, ž, dž, it shall not be orthographically transcribed:

Čiurlionis - Čurļonis

Džiugas - Džugs

Dašiūnas - Dašūns

Žiugžda - Žugžda

67. The long vowels of the Lithuanian language are equivalent to the relevant long vowels of the Latvian language:

67.1. a - ā (for example, Ąžuolas - Āžols);

67.2. ę - ē (for example, Kęstutis - Ķēstutis (also Kēstutis));

67.3. ė - ē (for example, Judrėnas - Judrēns).

Note. The long vowel ė of the Lithuanian language in the ending of the given name shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language with the short vowel e (for example, Eglė - Egle, Jurgaitė - Jurgaite, Smetonienė - Smetoniene);

67.4. į - ī (for example, Įsodas - Īsods);

67.5. y - ī (for example, Jonynas - Jonīns).

Note. The long vowel y of the Lithuanian language in the ending of the given name shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language with the short vowel i (for example, Gaidys - Gaidis, Kazys - Kazis);

67.6. ū - ū (for example, Graičiūnas - Graičūns);

67.7. ų - ū (for example, Jųtra - Jūtra);

67.8. o - o (for example, Lokys -- Loķis [..ō..]).

68. The relevant diphthongs of the Latvian language shall conform to the diphthongs of the Lithuanian language:

68.1. ai - ai (for example, Gailius - Gaiļus);

68.2. au - au (for example, Lankauskas - Lankausks);

68.3. ei - ei (for example, Treinys - Treinis);

68.4. ie - ie (for example, Korsakienė - Korsakiene);

68.5. ui - ui (for example, Žmuidzinavičius - Žmuidzinavičs);

68.6. uo - o (for example, Vienuolis - Vienolis [..uo..]; Uogintas - Ogints [..uo..]).

69. The consonants of the Lithuanian language conform to the relevant consonants of the Latvian language, except for the consonants ch which conform to the consonant h of the Latvian language, for example, Churginas - Hurģins (also Hurgins).

70. Before the vowels and diphthongs i, į, y, e, ė, ę, ie, ei the Lithuanian consonants k and g shall be orthographically transcribed with ķ and ģ, however, the variants with k and g are also possible, for example:

Gediminas - Ģedimins (also Gedimins)

Gytis - Ģītis (also Gītis)

Keturakis - Ķeturaķis (also Keturakis)

71. When orthographically transcribing the Lithuanian personal names, the consonants l and n shall be palatalised in the Latvian language before ķ and ģ, for example:

Algis - Aļģis

Algirdas - Aļģirds

Lingys - Liņģis

72. When making entries in documents, it shall be necessary to retain direct equivalents between the Lithuanian and Latvian language:

72.1. the Lithuanian wide e shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language with e (in the Russian language - with я):

Petras - Petrs (Russian Пятрас)

Šunelis -- Šunelis (Russian Шунялис)

72.2. the diphthong [uo] which is pronounced in the Lithuanian language in the same way as the relevant diphthong of the Latvian language shall be orthographically transcribed with the letter o (in the Russian language the orthographic transcription with two letters of the Lithuanian diphthong uo shall be retained in the written form in the Russian language):

Danguolė - Dangole (Russian Дангуоле)

Uosis - Osis (Russian Уосис)

72.3. the Lithuanian diphthong ie shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language with the diphthong ie (in the Russian language e may be written instead of the diphthong):

Kielė - Ķiele (also Kiele) (Russian Келе)

Valienė - Valiene (Russian Валене)

72.4. the Lithuanian diphthong ei shall be orthographically transcribed with ei (in the Russian language - яй):

Meilė - Meile (Russian Мяйле)

73. Equivalents of the endings of male personal names:

73.1. in the Latvian language the ending -s conforms to the Lithuanian ending -as (Jonas -- Jons; Lankauskas - Lankausks);

73.2. in the Latvian language the ending -is conforms to the Lithuanian ending -is (Liesis - Liesis; Rytis - Rītis);

73.3. in the Latvian language the ending -is conforms to the Lithuanian ending -ys (Balys - Balis; Jucys - Jucis);

73.4. in the Latvian language the ending -us conforms to the Lithuanian ending -us (Butkus - Butkus; Bronius - Broņus).

74. The endings -a and are possible in the surnames of the Lithuanian men which are transcribed orthographically with the endings -a and -e also in the Latvian language, for example, Norvaiša - Norvaiša, Lapė - Lape.

75. The Lithuanian ending -as shall conform to the ending -s (namas - nams, Ambrazas - Ambrazs) in the Latvian language in both the common names and proper nouns, therefore, when transcribing orthographically the ending -as shall not be retained in the Latvian language.

76. In the Lithuanian surnames of Slavic origin with suffixes together with the ending -ičius, -avičius, -evičius, -ovičius neither palatalisation for the vowel i, nor the vowel of the ending u shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language:

Homičius - Homičs

Karpavičius - Karpavičs

Balkevičius - Baļķevičs (also Balkevičs)

Makutinovičius - Makutinovičs

77. In the surnames with the suffix together with the ending -evičius where the vowel e is being elongated in the Lithuanian language, the parallel forms with a short or long vowel may be used in the Latvian language, for example, Marcinkevičius - Marcinkevičs (also Marcinkēvičs).

78. Equivalents of the endings of female personal names:

78.1. the Lithuanian ending -a shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language with the ending -a (Rasa - Rasa);

78.2. the Lithuanian ending shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language with the ending -e (Eglė - Egle).

79. The Lithuanian female surnames shall be orthographically transcribed with special suffixes together with the endings according to the surname of the father or husband in the Latvian language:

79.1. in the surnames of unwedded women the ending of the Lithuanian male surname shall be replaced with the relevant suffix together with the ending, for example:

Ending

Surname of the father

Suffix with the ending

Surname before marriage

Form in the Latvian language

-a

Alekna

-aitė

Aleknaitė

Aleknaite

-as

Vanagas

-aitė

Vanagaitė

Vanagaite

Kielė

-ytė

Kielytė

Ķielīte (also Kielīte)

-is

Liesis

-ytė

Liesytė

Liesīte

-ys

Jucys

-ytė

Jucytė

Jucīte

-us

Karalius

-ūtė

Karaliūtė

Karaļūte

in two-syllable surnames

-us

Butkus

-utė

Butkutė

Butkute

79.2. in the surnames of the married women the ending of the Lithuanian male surname shall be replaced with the suffix together with the ending -ienė and shall be orthographically transcribed in the same way with the suffix together with the ending -iene (not with -ene, from Russian -ене) in the Latvian language: Aleknienė - Alekniene (Russian Алекнене), Liesienė - Liesiene (Russian Лесене).

80. In the Lithuanian language the suffix together with the ending -ienė is characteristic only to the female surnames after marriage. For example, if a woman, when entering into the marriage, takes the surname of her husband which in the masculine is Dižbalis, her surname after the marriage shall be Dižbalienė (the root of the surname Dižbal- with added suffix together with the ending of the Lithuanian women after the marriage -ienė). In the Latvian language the female surnames of the Lithuanian origin shall be formed in conformity with the rules for formation of the Latvian female surnames: Alekna, Vanaga, Liese, Juce, Maceviča. Upon wish of a person, the traditional Lithuanian female surname after the marriage with the suffix together with the ending -iene may be used: Alekniene, Vanagiene.

80.1 The surnames of Lithuanian children shall be formed in conformity with the rules for the formation of the Latvian or Lithuanian surnames, for example:

Surname of the mother

Surname of the son

Surname of the daughter

Alekna/Alekniene/Aleknaite

Alekna

Alekna/Aleknaite

Buce/Buciene/Bucīte

Bucis

Buce/Bucīte

Butkus/Butkiene/Butkute

Butkus

Butkus/Butkute

[27 February 2018]

81. After the marriage Lithuanian women may exercise the right to retain the surname before the marriage or renew it after the divorce also in Latvia. In such case the surname of this person shall end with the relevant suffix together with the ending of the relevant unwedded Lithuanian woman, Aleknaite, Jucīte, Butkute.

[27 February 2018]

4.3. Orthographic Transcription of Personal Names from the Estonian Language

82. The letters and sounds of the Estonian language which are not in the Latvian language shall be replaced with those Latvian sounds and letters which conform to the sounds of the Estonian as close as possible. Transcription of the Estonian personal names with intermediation of the Russian language thus encumbering the identification of the Estonian given names shall not be permissible.

[27 February 2018]

83. Equivalents of the letters of vowels:

83.1. a - a Ariste - Ariste

83.2. aa - ā Aarna - Ārna

83.3. e - e Eller - Ellers

83.4. ee - ē Reek - Rēks

83.5. i - i Kits - Kitss

83.6. ii - ī Liiv - Līvs

83.7. o - o Maanso - Mānso

83.8. oo - o Jaansoo - Jānso

83.9. u - u Lukk - Luks

83.10. uu - ū Luuk - Lūks

83.11. õ - e Jõgi - Jegi

83.12. õõ - ē Krõõt - Krēts

83.13. ä - e Järv - Jervs

83.14. ää - ē Rääk - Rēks

83.15. ö - e Tölp - Telps

83.16. öö - ē Sööt - Sēts

83.17. ü - i Kütt - Kits

83.18. üü - ī Müür - Mīrs

84. Equivalents of diphthongs:

84.1. the combination of two different vowel letters existing in the Estonian written language denotes a diphthong and shall be pronounced as one syllable. In the Latvian language it shall be transcribed sound by sound (in conformity with Paragraph 83 of this Regulation regardless of whether it is pronounced in one or two syllables in the Latvian language), for example:

84.1.1. ae - ae Taev - Taevs

84.1.2. ai - ai Laine - Laine

84.1.3. eu - eu Eugen - Eugens

84.1.4. eä - ee Teär - Teers

but Täär - Tērs

Teeäär - Tēērs

84.1.5. õe - ee Jõerüüt - Jeerīts

84.1.6. õi - ei Kõiva - Keiva

84.1.7. õu - eu Rõuk - Reuks

84.1.8. äe - ee Mäe - Mee

84.1.9. äo - eo Käosaar - Keosārs

84.2. if two equal vowel letters are obtained in the Latvian language when transcribing the Estonian diphthong, these letters shall be left unchanged without replacing them with a long vowel letter, for example, Kivimäe - Kivimee, not Kivimē;

84.3. if in the Estonian language there is one long vowel at the end of the word, it shall be orthographically transcribed with a long vowel in the Latvian language, Laidvee- Laidvē.

85. A set of three vowel letters of the Estonian language shall be pronounced by setting the non-syllable sound i or u which is not denoted in the Latvian transcription, for example:

Raiet [pronounced: Raijet] - Raiets

Leius [pronounced: Leijus] - Leiuss

Hiie [pronounced: Hīje] - Hīe

Kauer [pronounced: Kauver] -- Kauers

86. In the Latvian transcription, based on the norms in effect in the particular period of time for the orthographic transcription of the Estonian personal names, parallel forms of the surnames referred to in Paragraph 85 of this Regulation and other similar surnames with insertion of j and v were admitted - Raijets, Leijuss, Hīje, Kauvers. In order to ensure identification of persons, the insertion of j or v shall not be admitted in similar cases because j or v may be present in the original form of Estonian personal names, for example, Suija - Suija, Kauver - Kauvers.

87. The consonants of the Estonian language shall be transcribed with the corresponding consonant letters of the Latvian language, conforming to the following conditions:

87.1. one consonant letter shall be written in the Latvian transcription instead of double consonant letters b, c, d, g, k, p, s, t , for example:

Tikk - Tiks

Tõnisson - Tenisons

Lätte - Lete

Püttsepp - Pitseps

87.2. the Estonian double consonants ll, rr, mm, nn shall be retained in the Latvian transcription in all cases, for example:

Põllu - Pellu

Päll - Pells

Karro - Karro

Tamm - Tamms

Tammsaare - Tammsāre

Tenno - Tenno

87.3. the letter h shall be retained at the beginning of the given name in the Latvian transcription (for identification of the person) although it is not pronounced in the Estonian language, for example:

Hallik - Halliks, but Allik - Alliks

Heino - Heino, but Eino - Eino

Hella - Hella, but Ella - Ella

87.4. the palatalisation of consonants in the Estonian writing system is not reflected and is also not indicated in the Latvian transcription, for example:

Kull - Kulls (not Kuļļs)

Kont - Konts (not Koņts)

Sütt - Sits

Kass - Kass

87.5. the Estonian letter s between vowels shall be transcribed in the Latvian language with the consonant z which is closer to the Estonian pronunciation, and also helps to reduce the number of similar variants of the personal name, for example:

Maasik - Māziks

Tasa - Taza, but Tassa - Tasa

Roosi - Rozi

Rosi - Rozi, but Rossi -- Rosi

87.6. in the joint of compound components s remains s between vowels also in the transcription, for example, Ernesaks - Ernesakss, Puusepp - Pūseps.

88. In order to include Estonian personal names in the Latvian language system, the masculine or feminine ending of the Latvian language shall be added thereto:

88.1. in the Latvian transcription the nominative ending of the Latvian language -s (to male personal names), -a or -e (female personal names) shall be added to personal names which end in a consonant in the nominative of the Estonian language, for example:

Allik - Alliks, Allika

Allikas - Allikass, Allikasa or Allikase

Kuld - Kulds, Kulda

Kull - Kulls, Kulla

Kotkas - Kotkass, Kotkasa or Kotkase

Kallas - Kallass, Kallasa or Kallase

Kass - Kass, Kasa or Kase

Ots - Otss, Otsa [..o..]

Ott - Ots, Ota or Ote [..o..]

Roos - Ross, Rosa or Rose [..ō..]

Ross - Ross, Rosa or Rose [..o..]

Sütt - Sits, Sita or Site

Sits - Sitss, Sitsa

88.2. for the Estonian surnames of German origin which end in -man or -mann, the traditional ending -is shall be added to the male surnames in the Latvian transcription similarly as in Latvian surnames, for example, Beekman - Bēkmanis, Veidemann - Veidemanis, but to the female surnames - the ending -e, for example, Bēkmane, Veidemane. Upon wish of a person the Estonian surnames of German origin which end in -man, may be orthographically transcribed with the suffix together with the ending -mans in the Latvian language, for example, Beekman - Bēkmans, but in the feminine form - Bēkmane;

88.3. for the personal names which have the nominative ending -a or -e in the Estonian language, it shall also be retained in the Latvian transcription. In dative (hereinafter - dat.) the masculine personal names have the ending -am, -em, but the feminine personal names - the ending -ai, -ei, for example:

Kulla - Kulla, dat. Kullam - Kullai

Kotka - Kotka, dat. Kotkam - Kotkai

Käpa - Kepa, dat. Kepam - Kepai

similarly: Käppa - Kepa, dat. Kepam - Kepai

bet Käpp - Keps, Kepa, dat. Kepam - Kepai ,

similarly: Kõpp - Keps, Kepa, dat. Kepam - Kepai

and Kepp - Keps, Kepa, dat. Kepam - Kepai

Läte - Lete, dat. Letem - Letei

similarly: Lätte - Lete, dat. Letem - Letei

Mõte - Mete, dat. Metem - Metei

similarly: Mõtte - Mete, dat. Metem - Metei

Otsa - Otsa, dat. Otsam - Otsai [..o..]

88.4. the personal names which in the Estonian language end in õe or äe in the nominative case and which in the Latvian language are transcribed with ee shall be declined as masculine or feminine given names of the Latvian language with the ending -e, for example:

Jõe - Jee, dat. Jeem - Jeei

Mäe - Mee, dat. Meem - Meei,

but Jää - Jē and Mee - Mē remain indeclinable

88.5. the nominative ending in the Latvian language shall not be added to the personal names which in the Estonian language end in -i, -o, -u or in a long vowel in the nominative case (in the Latvian transcription -ā, -ē, -ī, -o, ) and they shall not be declined, for example:

Pau - Pau

Päi - Pei

Mägi - Megi

Sarapuu - Sarapū

Türnpu - Tirnpu

Rummo - Rummo

Jaansoo - Jānso

Vetemaa - Vetemā

4.4. Orthographic Transcription of Personal Names from the English Language

89. The personal names written in the English language shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language according to their pronunciation in the English language. The most appropriate sounds and letters of the Latvian language shall be used instead of those sounds and letters of the English language which are not found in the Latvian language.

90. When orthographically transcribing English personal names, a declinable ending shall be added thereto which indicates the gender of the person:

Harding - Hārdings, Hārdinga

Turner - Tērners, Tērnere

91. In the orthographic transcription of the vowels of the English language the following conditions shall be conformed to:

91.1. if there is a long vowel in the pronunciation of the English personal name, it shall be orthographically transcribed with a long vowel in the Latvian language, especially in the first accented syllable, for example:

Turner - Tērners, Tērnere

Keith - Kīts, Kīta

Armstrong - Ārmstrongs, Ārmstronga

91.2. taking into account that pronunciation in the English language is different from the written from and the pronunciation of the vowel depends on its placement, the pronunciation of the relevant given name shall be detected for correct orthographic transcription of the given name. Vowels shall be orthographically transcribed according to their pronunciation:

91.2.1. [a:] - ā:

Fast - Fāsts, Fāsta

Frances - Frānsisa

91.2.2. - a:

Hunt - Hants, Hanta

Young - Jangs, Janga

Coverdale - Kaverdeils, Kaverdeila

91.2.3. [e] - e:

Empson - Empsons, Empsone

Geoffrey - Džefrijs

91.2.4. - ē(r):

Ervin - Ērvins

Earle - Ērls, Ērla

Irving - Ērvings

Burns - Bērnss, Bērnsa

Wordsworth - Vērdsvērts, Vērdsvērta

91.2.5. - a, e, o, u if it is not accented and denoted with one letter in the written form:

Malone - Malons, Malona

Cromwell - Kromvels, Kromvela

Donovan - Donovans, Donovana

Ferguson - Fērgusons, Fērgusone

91.2.6. - e if it is denoted with two vowel letters in the written form:

Sturgeon - Stērdžens, Stērdžena

Patience - Peišenss, Peišensa

91.2.7. [æ] - a:

Alan -- Alans

Alison - Alisons, Alisone

91.2.8. [i:] - ī:

Egan - Īgans

Leigh - Lī

91.2.9. [i] - i:

Hill - Hills, Hilla

91.2.10. [i] before the ending is orthographically transcribed with -ij-:

Barie - Berijs

Annie - Enija / Anija

91.2.11. [i] - e if in the written form it is denoted with e, eo and is not in the accented syllable:

Elisabeth - Elizabete

Bennet - Benets

Pigeon - Pidžens

91.2.12. - o if in the written form it is denoted with a, au, aw:

Aldridge - Oldridžs, Oldridža [..o..]

Austin - Ostins [..o..]

Taw - To [..ō..]

91.2.13. - or if in the written form this sound is followed by r:

Gore - Gors, Gora [..ō..]

Warner - Vorners, Vornere [..o..] or [..ō..]

91.2.14. [u:] - ū, also u:

Bloomfield - Blūmfīlds, Blūmfīlde

Hoover - Hūvers, Hūvere

Hook - Huks, Huka

92. The following conditions shall be conformed to in the orthographic transcription of the English diphthongs:

92.1. [ai] - ai:

Wilde - Vailds, Vailda

Tyler - Tailers, Tailere

92.2. the diphthong [ai] before the ending shall be orthographically transcribed with -aj-:

Rye - Rajs, Raja

92.3. [au] - au:

Brown - Brauns, Brauna

92.4. [ei] - ei:

Taylor - Teilors, Teilore

Heywood - Heivuds, Heivuda

92.5. the diphthong [ei] before the ending shall be orthographically transcribed with -ej-:

Gray - Grejs, Greja

92.6. [ou] - o or ou:

Koe - Ko

Jones - Džonss / Džounss, Džonsa / Džounsa

92.7. the diphthong [ou] shall be orthographically transcribed with -ov-:

Rowe - Rovs, Rova [..o..]

Bowie - Bovijs, Bovija [..ō..]

92.8. [oi] -oi:

Point - Points, Pointa

Joyce - Džoiss, Džoisa

92.9. the diphthong [oi] before the ending shall be orthographically transcribed with -oj-:

Hoy - Hojs, Hoja [..o..]

92.10. - ēr:

Baring - Bērings, Bēringa

Clare - Klērs, Klēra

Bear - Bērs, Bēra

92.11. - īr:

Pearson - Pīrsons, Pīrsone

Windermere - Vindermīrs, Vindermīra

92.12. - ūr or oor:

Moore - Mūrs / Moors, Mūra / Moora

93. The following conditions shall be used in the orthographic transcription of the English language consonants:

93.1. duplication of obstruents shall be orthographically transcribed with one obstruent:

Griffith - Grifits, Grifita

Hobbs - Hobss, Hobsa

93.2. in one-syllable names the duplication of consonants ll, mm, nn after a short vowel shall be retained:

Hill - Hills, Hilla

Romm - Romms, Romma

Lynn - Linns, Linna

93.3. in several syllable names the duplication of sonorants shall not be retained:

Morris - Moriss, Morisa

Lennox - Lenokss, Lenoksa

93.4. orthographic transcription of certain consonants:

93.4.1. [t] - č:

Churchill - Čērčils

93.4.2. - dž:

John - Džons

George - Džordžs

Bridges - Bridžess

93.4.3. [j] - j:

Young - Jangs

93.4.4. [ ∫] - š:

Shanks - Šenkss

93.4.5.[ θ] - t:

Thurston - Tērstons

93.4.6. - t:

Vither - Viters

93.4.7. [w] - v:

Walter - Volters

Warner - Vorners

4.5. Orthographic Transcription of Personal Names from the German Language

94. German personal names shall be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language by including them in the grammatical system of the Latvian language and they shall be used with the endings of the Latvian language.

95. Short and long vowels are distinguished in the German language. The shortness or length of these vowels shall also be indicated in the orthographic transcription of personal names in the Latvian language.

96. In the German language the length of the vowels is indicated as follows:

96.1. with duplication of a vowel:

Raabe - Rābe

Seemann - Zēmanis, Zēmane

96.2. with the letter h which follows a vowel:

Mahler - Mālers, Mālere

Ehrlich - Ērlihs, Ērliha

96.3. with the letter e (or eh) which follows a vowel:

Elfriede - Elfrīde

Diehl - Dīls, Dīla

97. A long vowel can be at the end of the accented syllable and in one syllable names if the vowel is not followed by duplication, for example:

Dürer - Dīrers, Dīrere

Bremann - Brēmanis, Brēmane

Blum - Blūms, Blūma, Blūme

Stoß - Štoss, Štosa [..ō..]

98. If the length of a vowel cannot be surely determined - a vowel is followed by the consonant combinations ch, sch, tsch - a short vowel shall be written and pronounced in the Latvian language, for example:

Eisenach - Eizenahs, Eizenaha

Sengbusch - Zengbušs, Zengbuša

Rötschmann - Rečmanis, Rečmane

99. Equivalents of the letters of vowels:

99.1. a - a, ā:

Bach - Bahs, Baha

Franz - Francis

Graf - Grāfs, Grāfa

99.2. aa - ā:

Raabe - Rābe

Schaal - Šāls, Šāla

99.3. ah - ā:

Brahms - Brāmss, Brāmsa

Stahl -- Štāls, Štāla

99.4. ä, ae - e or ē:

Kästner - Kestners, Kestnere

Schäfer - Šēfers, Šēfere

Maerz - Mercs, Merca

99.5. äh - ē:

Kähler - Kēlers, Kēlere

99.6. e - e or ē:

Berg - Bergs, Berga

Bremer - Brēmers, Brēmere

99.7. ee - ē:

Beethoven - Bēthovens, Bēthovena

99.8. eh - ē:

Behrens - Bērenss, Bērensa

Dehmel - Dēmelis, Dēmele

99.9. i - i or ī:

Wilhelm - Vilhelms

Strigel - Štrīgelis, Štrīgele

Nikolaus - Nikolauss

99.10. ih - ī:

Stihl - Štīls, Štīla

99.11. ie, ieh - ī:

Frieda - Frīda

Dieter - Dīters

Liese - Līze

Riehl - Rīls, Rīla, Rīle

99.12. o - o or ō (in written form only o):

Otto - Oto [in pronunciation: Otō]

Ottilia - Otīlija [O..]

Rosenzweig - Rozencveigs, Rozencveiga [..ō..]

99.13. oo, oh - ō (in written form o):

Roon - Rons, Rona [..ō..]

Moor - Mors, Mora [..ō..]

Kohl - Kols, Kola [..ō..]

99.14. ö, oe - e or ē:

Lötsch - Lečs, Leča

Römer - Rēmers, Rēmere

Kroetz - Krecs, Kreca

Goethe - Gēte

99.15. u - u or ū:

Gustav - Gustavs

Hubert- Hūberts

99.16. ü, ue - i or ī:

Lübben - Libens, Libena, Libene

Mueller - Millers, Millere

Dürer - Dīrers, Dīrere

99.17. üh - ī:

Mühlenbach - Mīlenbahs, Mīlenbaha

Kühne - Kīne

99.18. y - i or ī:

Mayer - Maiers, Maiere

Naunyn - Naunīns, Naunīna

100. The vowel y shall be orthographically transcribed with the suffix together with the ending -ijs, for example, Harry - Harijs; Niesky - Nīskijs.

101. Orthographic transcription of diphthongs:

101.1. ai, ay shall be orthographically transcribed with ai if the diphthong is at the beginning or in the middle of the name:

Kainz - Kaincs, Kainca

Mayrhofer - Mairhofers, Mairhofere

101.2. ai, ay shall be orthographically transcribed with aj if the diphthong is at the end of the name:

Nay - Najs, Naja

Kai - Kajs, Kaja

101.3. au - au:

Blau - Blaus, Blaua

Lau - Laus, Laua

Laube - Laube

Hausmann - Hausmanis, Hausmane

101.4. äu and eu shall be orthographically transcribed with ei:

Neumann - Neimanis, Neimane

Feuerbach - Feierbahs, Feierbaha

Kräuter - Kreiters, Kreitere

101.5. oi and oy shall be orthographically transcribed with oi if the diphthong is at the beginning or in the middle of the name:

Oidtweiler - Oitveilers, Oitveilere

Foygt - Foigts, Foigta

101.6. oi and oy shall be orthographically transcribed with oj if the diphthong is at the end of the name:

Noi - Nojs, Noja

Nestroy - Nestrojs, Nestroja

101.7. ei and ey shall be orthographically transcribed with ei or ai:

Geibel - Geibelis, Geibele

Heyse - Heize

Reiner - Rainers

102. The consonants of the German language conform to the consonants of the Latvian language. Duplication of consonants in the German language indicates to the shortness of the preceding vowel, therefore, duplication shall not be retained in the Latvian orthographic transcription even in compounds, for example:

Abbe - Abe

Melitta - Melita

Münchhausen - Minhauzens, Minhauzena

103. Duplication of the consonants l, m, n, r shall be retained in the orthographic transcription of the German personal names which conforms to the Latvian spelling requirements:

Schiller - Šillers, Šillere

Kümmel - Kimmels, Kimmele

Annemarie - Annemarija

Karre - Karre

104. Duplication of the consonants nn shall not be retained upon orthographically transcribing surnames with the suffix together with the ending -mann. They shall be orthographically transcribed in Latvian with the suffix together with the ending -manis, -mane:

Kellermann- Kellermanis, Kellermane

Stockmann -Štokmanis, Štokmane

105. The requirements referred to in Paragraphs 102 and 103 of this Regulation shall not apply to certain consonants or combinations of consonants which are orthographically transcribed as follows:

105.1. b, bb - b:

Busch - Bušs, Buša

Hebbel - Hebelis, Hebele

105.2. c - c if c is before the vowels i, e, y in the German language:

Cyprian - Cipriāns

Cecilia - Cecīlija

105.3. c - k if in the German language c is before the vowels a, o, u or before a consonant, and also at the end of the name:

Carmen - Karmena

Curd - Kurds

Conrad - Konrāds

Marc - Marks

105.4. ch - h or k:

Bruch - Bruhs, Bruha

Brecht - Brehts, Brehta

Brühlchen - Brīlhens, Brīlhene / Brīlhena

Christine - Kristīne

Chlodwig - Klodvigs

105.5. ch - š, if the personal name is a borrowing from the French language:

Charlotte - Šarlote

105.6. chs - ks:

Fuchs - Fukss, Fuksa

Sachs - Zakss, Zaksa

105.7. ck - k:

Rückert - Rikerts, Rikerte

Klopstock - Klopštoks, Klopštoka

105.8. d, dd - d:

Dieter - Dīters

Rodden - Rodens, Rodena

105.9. dt - t:

Arndt - Arnts, Arnte

Schmidt - Šmits, Šmite

105.10. f, ff - f:

Fritz - Fricis

Korff - Korfs, Korfa

105.11. g, gg, gh -- g:

Gisela - Gīzela

Rosegger - Rozegers, Rozegere

Ghasel -- Gazelis, Gazele

105.12. h - h:

Heinrich - Heinrihs

Hans - Hanss

Note. If the letter h is not pronounced in the German language, it shall not be orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language:

Lohengrin - Loengrīns

Rehehusen - Rēehūzens

105.13. j - j:

Johann -Johans

Junkers - Junkerss, Junkersa

105.14. k, kk - k:

Karl - Karls

Bekker - Bekers, Bekere

105.15. l, ll - l, ll:

Lieselotte - Līzelote

Kalle - Kalle

Tell - Tells, Tella

105.16. m, mm - m, mm:

Matilde, Mathilde - Matilde

Mozart - Mocarts, Mocarte

Kammhof - Kammhofs, Kammhofa

105.17. n, nn - n, nn:

Naunyn - Naunīns, Naunīna

Renner - Renners, Rennere

105.18. p, pp - p:

Pauline - Paulīne

Philipp - Fīlips

Krupp - Krups, Krupa

105.19. ph - f:

Philipine - Filipīne

Sophia - Zofija, Sofija

105.20. pf - pf:

Pfeiffer - Pfeifers, Pfeifere

Rumpf - Rumpfs, Rumpfa

105.21. qu - kv:

Quast - Kvasts, Kvasta

Quendel - Kvendelis, Kvendele

105.22. r, rh - r:

Rau - Raus, Raua

Lortzing - Lorcings, Lorcinga

Reiner - Rainers

Rhoden - Rodens, Rodena

105.23. s shall be orthographically transcribed with s or z in conformity with the pronunciation in the German language:

105.23.1. s with s if it is before a consonant or at the end of the given name:

Agnes - Agnese

Christiane - Kristiāne

Hans - Hanss

105.23.2. s with z if it is before a vowel or diphthong:

Sachs - Zakss, Zaksa

Singer - Zingers, Zingere

Seidewitz - Zeidevics, Zeidevica

105.24. sch - š:

Schwerin - Šverīns, Šverīna

Tischbein - Tišbeins, Tišbeina

105.25. sp - šp:

Spitteler - Špitelers, Špitelere

Spatz - Špacs, Špaca

105.26. ss - s:

Lessing - Lesings, Lesinga

Hesse - Hese

105.27. st shall be orthographically transcribed with št or st in conformity with the pronunciation in the German language:

105.27.1. st with štt- at the beginning of the given name or at the beginning of the components of a compound:

Staudtv - Štauts, Štauta

Stein - Šteins, Šteina

Hohenstein - Hoenšteins, Hoenšteina

Note. In certain surnames st shall be retained traditionally:

Stender - Stenders, Stendere

Bielenstein - Bīlenšteins or Bīlensteins

105.27.2. st with st - in the middle or at the end of the given name or in the middle or at the end of the components of a compound:

Anastasia - Anastasija

Ernestine - Ernestīne

Horst - Horsts

Fürstmayer - Firstmaiers, Firstmaiere

105.28. ß - s:

Meßter - Mesters, Mestere

Strauß - Štrauss, Štrausa

105.29. t, tt, th - t:

Tell - Tells, Tella

Otto - Oto [pronounced: Otō]

Thälmann - Tēlmanis, Tēlmane

105.30. tsch, tzsch - č:

Bartsch - Barčs, Barča

Nietzsche - Nīče

105.31. tz - c:

Lortzing - Lorcings, Lorcinga

Hertz - Hercs, Herca

105.32. v - f:

Voß - Foss, Fosa

Veit - Feits, Feita

105.33. v - v in borrowed proper nouns in which v is pronounced in the German language, v shall be used also in the Latvian language:

Veronika - Veronika

Viktor - Viktors

Gustav - Gustavs

105.34. w - v:

Wolfdietrich - Volfdītrihs

Roswitha - Rosvīta

105.35. x - ks:

Hexenberg - Heksenbergs, Heksenberga

Marx - Markss, Marksa

Xawer - Ksāvers

105.36. z, zz - c:

Zeiß - Ceiss, Ceisa

Diez - Dīcs, Dīca

Mizzi - Micija

5. Orthographic Transcription of Personal Names from the Languages of Cyrillic Writing System

5.1. Orthographic Transcription of Personal Names from the Russian Language

106. The basic principles of orthographic transcription of the Russian personal names shall refer also to personal names of few other languages of the Cyrillic writing system (especially to Ukrainian and Byelorussian personal names) if they are orthographically transcribed in the Latvian language after their orthographic transcription in the Russian writing form.

[27 February 2018]

107. In the Russian language short and long vowels are not distinguished, but they acquire certain elongation by the accent in their pronunciation. Such elongation shall not be indicated in the Latvian language, for example:

Несмеянов - Ņesmejanovs

Астахов - Astahovs

108. A long vowel in the root may be written in the personal names of non-Russian origin which coincide with the Latvian personal names of analogical origin, for example:

Валентина - Valentīna

Константин - Konstantīns

109. Upon wish of a person, the elongation of a vowel may be indicated in the written form of the surname, for example:

Andrejs Makārovs

Aivars Panteļējevs

110. Orthographic transcription of the vowels of the Russian language:

110.1. a - a:

Агеев - Agejevs

110.2. и - i:

Тихонов - Tihonovs

110.3. и - ji (after the palatalisation mark in the middle of the given name):

Анастасьин - Anastasjins

Note. The vowel и shall be orthographically transcribed with j in the Latvian language if there are o, e, a at the beginning of the given name after и:

Иосиф - Josifs

Ионов - Jonovs

Ие... - Je...

Иа... - Ja...

110.4. ы - i:

Черных - Černihs

110.5. o - o:

Носов - Nosovs

Ожегов - Ožegovs

110.6. у - u:

Ушаков - Ušakovs

111. Orthographic transcription of the letters я, ё, е, ю depends on their placement:

111.1. я - ja:

111.1.1. at the beginning of the given name:

Яблоков - Jablokovs

111.1.2. at the beginning of the syllable after a vowel:

Бруякин - Brujakins

111.1.3. at the beginning of the syllable after ь:

Васьянов - Vasjanovs

111.1.4. after all consonants, except for л and н:

Васяткин - Vasjatkins

Рябинин - Rjabiņins

111.2. the letter combinations ля, ня shall be orthographically transcribed with the letter combination ļa, ņa accordingly:

Лядов - Ļadovs

Князев - Kņazevs

111.3. the letter combinations -лья and -нья shall be orthographically transcribed with -ļja, -ņja accordingly:

Вельяминов - Veļjaminovs

Маньяков - Maņjakovs

111.4. ё - jo (in an accented syllable):

111.4.1. after the consonants, except for л, н, ч, ш, щ, ж:

Демин - Djomins

Еремин - Jerjomins

Елкин - Jolkins

111.4.2. at the beginning of the syllable after the preceding vowel:

Kаекин - Kajokins

Note. It must be taken into account that currently ё and e are not distinguished in the Russian written form.

111.5. ё - o:

111.5.1. after the consonants л and н which are orthographically transcribed with ļ and ņ accordingly:

Линев - Ļiņovs

Селезнев - Seļezņovs

111.5.2. after the consonants ч, ш, щ, ж:

Гнучев - Gnučovs

111.6. ю - ju:

111.6.1. at the beginning of the name:

Юдин - Judins

111.6.2. at the beginning of the syllable after the preceding vowel:

Баюков - Bajukovs

111.6.3. after all consonants, except for л and н:

Бирюков - Birjukovs

Вьюгин - Vjugins

111.7. ю - u after the consonants л and н which are orthographically transcribed with ļ and ņ:

Любовь - Ļubova

Ванюшкин - Vaņuškins

111.8. е - e, when orthographically transcribing the sound groups ле, не - ļe, ņe:

Некрасов - Ņekrasovs

Лебедев - Ļebedevs

Елена - Jeļena

Note. If е is after another consonant, its palatalisation shall not be indicated in the Latvian language, for example:

Теплов - Teplovs

Перепелкин - Perepjolkins

111.9. е - je:

111.9.1. at the beginning of the name:

Егоров - Jegorovs

Елена - Jeļena

111.9.2. at the beginning of the syllable after the preceding vowel:

Абаев - Abajevs

Нуриев - Nurijevs

111.9.3. if ь which is after a consonant is before e (except for л and н):

Аркадьев - Arkadjevs

Алябьев - Aļabjevs

112. The following conditions shall be conformed to in the orthographic transcription of the consonants of the Russian language:

112.1. the same consonant which is written in the Russian language shall be retained in the pronunciation and written form of the Latvian language:

Надежда -- Nadežda

Титов - Titovs

Дементьев - Dementjevs

112.2. if after the consonant л or н the letter и or e is located, sound clusters ле, ли, не, ни shall be orthographically transcribed with ļe, ļi, ņe, ņi:

Леонтьев - Ļeontjevs

Литвинов - Ļitvinovs

Незнамова - Ņeznamova

Никитин - Ņikitins

112.3. in the given names which in terms of origin are analogue to the Latvian personal names, л and н shall not be palatised:

Александр - Aleksandrs

Лидия - Lidija

Анатолий - Anatolijs, but: Евгения - Jevgeņija

Note. In surnames which are derived from the following personal names the variants shall be permissible, for example:

Алексеев - Aleksejevs / Aļeksejevs

Леонидов - Leonidovs / Ļeoņidovs

Леонтьев - Leontjevs / Ļeontjevs

Note. Upon wish of a person, parallel forms are permissible also in other forms, for example:

Лесничий - Ļesņičijs / Lesničijs

113. ь of the Russian language shall be orthographically transcribed as follows depending on its location:

113.1. the letter combinations ль and нь which are followed by a consonant shall be orthographically transcribed with ļ and ņ:

Альцев - Aļcevs

Афонькин - Afoņkins

113.2. the letter combinations лья and нья shall be orthographically transcribed with ļja, ņja:

Гальянов - Gaļjanovs

Сеньянцев - Seņjancevs

113.3. the letter combinations: льи, ньи, лье, нье shall be orthographically transcribed with ļji, ņji, ļje, ņje:

Ильин - Iļjins

Васильев - Vasiļjevs

Ароньев - Aroņjevs

113.4. if ь is at the end of the word, it shall be replaced with the declinable ending -a of feminine personal names or the declinable ending -s (-is) of masculine personal names, but the palatalisation of the preceding consonant shall not be indicated:

Любовь - Ļubova

Игорь - Igors

Карась - Karass, Karasa

Лебедь - Lebeds/Ļebeds, Lebeda/Ļebeda

Миндаль - Mindalis, Mindale

Эртель - Ertelis, Ertele

Кассиль - Kasilis, Kasile

Гоголь - Gogolis, Gogole

Яшкуль - Jaškulis, Jaškule

Note. Palatalisation of consonants at the end of a personal name traditionally has not been indicated, for example Белоконь - Belokonis. However, upon wish of a person, the surnames with ļ and ņ at the end may be orthographically transcribed in the form close to the original, for example, Король - Korolis/Koroļs, Соболь - Sobolis/Soboļs, Белоконь - Belokonis/Belokoņs, Миндаль - Mindalis/Mindaļs;

113.5. in personal names of non-Russian origin the letter combinations лья and нья in the end part of surnames -льян, -ньян shall be orthographically transcribed with -ljans, -njans:

Абальян - Abaljans

Айзиньян - Aizinjans

[27 February 2018]

114. The Russian й shall be orthographically transcribed depending on its placement:

114.1. й - j, if it is at the end of the name or at the beginning of syllables between two vowels:

Крутой - Krutojs

Майоров - Majorovs

114.2. й - i, if it is located after the vowels a, e, o, y:

Райкин - Raikins

Верейский - Vereiskis

Стройков - Stroikovs

Пуйманов - Puimanovs

115. In the personal names of non-Russian origin г shall be orthographically transcribed with g, but traditional writing with h is also be permissible:

Генрих - Genrihs, Henrihs

Гиршман - Giršmanis, Hiršmanis

116. щ shall be orthographically transcribed with šč:

Щедрин - Ščedrins

Верещагин - Vereščagins

117. In order to include Russian personal names in the grammar system of the Latvian language, they must have the masculine or feminine declinable ending.

118. The ending -s shall be added to the male surnames of Russian origin which end in a consonant:

Иванов - Ivanovs

Щедрин - Ščedrins

Гром - Groms

Воробей - Vorobejs

Коротких - Korotkihs

119. In the female surnames of Russian origin which have a special feminine form and ending -a, this ending shall also be retained in the Latvian language:

Иванова - Ivanova

Щедрина - Ščedrina

Васильева - Vasiļjeva

120. If a female surname in the Russian language has no special feminine form and it ends with a consonant as well as the male surname does, the ending -a shall be added to it in the Latvian language:

Гром - Groma

Воробей - Vorobeja

Коротких - Korotkiha

Березняк - Berezņaka

121. In the surnames of Russian origin the basis of which is an adjective (Белый, Черный) and which have the relevant feminine forms in the Russian language (Белая, Черная), the Russian я shall be orthographically transcribed with -ja in the feminine form in the Latvian language:

Белая - Belaja

Черная - Čornaja

122. The newly-coined female surnames referred to in Paragraph 121 of this Regulation and other similar female surnames (for example, upon entering into the marriage) the form of the female surname in the Latvian may be formed not in accordance with the regulations for the creation of the Russian female surnames (Belijs - Belaja), but by only changing the ending of the Latvian surname (Belijs- Belija):

Белый - Belijs - Belaja / Belija

Черный - Čornijs - Čornaja / Čornija

Зеленый - Zeļonijs - Zeļonaja / Zeļonija

Note. Also the derived male surname (for example, when a son is being registered with the surname of the mother) may be created both using the standard method and changing the ending of the Latvian surname:

Белая - Belaja - Belijs / Belajs

Черная - Čornaja - Čornijs / Čornajs

Зеленая - Zeļonaja - Zeļonijs / Zeļonajs

123. The surnames of Slavic origin with the endings -ский / -ская, -цкий / -цкая shall conform to the forms -skis / -ska, -ckis / -cka in the Latvian language:

Шумский - Šumskis; Шумская - Šumska

Высоцкий - Visockis; Высоцкая - Visocka

124. The surnames of German origin with the endings -ман, -манн shall conform to the forms -manis (in masculine) and -mane (in feminine) in the Latvian language.

Либерман - Libermanis, Libermane

Гроссманн - Grosmanis, Grosmane

125. [27 February 2018]

126. The surnames which end in -ар, -ер, -сон, -фельд in the Russian language shall have the ending -e in feminine:

Гайдар - Gaidare

Шильдер - Šildere

Кацнельсон - Kacnelsone

Вайнфельд - Vainfelde

127. The surnames which in the Russian language end with the ending -a or also in masculine shall retain their form (ending) in both genders also in the Latvian language:

Шульга - Šuļga

Зозуля - Zozuļa

128. The same ending as in the Russian language shall be retained in the orthographic transcription of female personal names borrowed from other languages:

Беатриса - Beatrisa

Рената - Renāta

Инесса - Inesa

5.2. Orthographic Transcription of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Personal Names

129. The Ukrainian and Byelorussian personal names shall be orthographically transcribed directly from the Ukrainian or Byelorussian language if a person may certify the written form of such personal names in the original language:

129.1. the root of the surnames shall retain the phonetic peculiarities of the Ukrainian and Byelorussian language:

Бiлодiд - Bilodids

Цiлуйко - Ciluiko

Недайхлiба - Nedaihliba

Перебийніс - Perebijniss

129.2. the peculiarities of the suffix together with ending of the Ukrainian or Byelorussian language shall be taken into account in the orthographic transcription of personal names. Traditional written forms shall also be permissible:

Олексiйова/Алексеева - Oleksijova/Aleksejeva

Астрейка/Острейко - Astreika/Ostreiko

Лукашенка/Лукашенко - Lukašenka/Lukašenko

[27 February 2018]

130. The traditional forms of the Ukrainian and Byelorussian personal names if they exist in the personal documents of the Russians or Byelorussians in accordance with the regulations for the orthographic transcription in the Latvian language of proper nouns of foreign languages shall be orthographically transcribed in conformity with their pronunciation in the original language:

Рыгор - Rigors

Фядосий - Fjadosijs

Багдан - Bagdans

Алена - Aļona

Микола - Mikola

6. Written Form and Identification of Personal Names in Documents

131. Personal names shall be entered in documents and used for the legal identification of a person. Accuracy and consistency shall be conformed to in the use and writing of personal names.

132. The given name and surname shall be indicated in the documents. If a person has two given names, they shall be written one after another and no punctuation marks shall be used between them (Rolands Jānis, Anna Marija).

133. If several given names are written in the birth certificate of the person, they shall be used also in all the other documents.

134. A double surname shall be regarded as one surname. The following conditions shall be conformed to in their use and written form:

134.1. the parts of the double surname shall be joined with a hyphen (for example, Bergs-Bergmanis, Saule-Sleine). The use of a hyphen shall apply also to the orthographically transcribed multicomponent surnames between all parts of such surname (for example, Nails-Silva-Laurio-Grants), except for the prepositions (for example, cu, da, dalla, de, del, delji, di, du, duš, d', of, fon, ter, van) or a combination of prepositions (for example, fon der, fon un cu, van de) and the surname (for example, da Silva-Mežs, de Vaškevičs-Mirskis, di Kaprio-Gulbis, Bērziņš-O'Hara, d'Artanjans-Liepiņš);

134.2. a hyphen shall not be used in multicomponent surnames in which the second surname starts with the preposition cu, da, dalla, de(l), delji, di, du(š), d', of, fon, ter, van or a combination of prepositions, for example, Mežs da Silva, Nails da Silva Laurio Grants, Mirskis de Vaškevičs, Gulbis del Potro, Kļaviņš di Kaprio, Vanags du Pintu, Rozītis duš Santušs, Liepiņš d'Artanjans, Krēsliņš van der Stūls, Kociņš fon un cu Gutenbergs;

134.3. each part of the double surname has its ending and it shall be declined when used (Bergs-Bergmanis, Berga-Bergmaņa, Bergam-Bergmanim; Kaže-Kažis, Kažes-Kaža, Kažem-Kažim). In female double surnames (or multicomponent surnames) both parts shall be used with the feminine ending (Berga-Bergmane, Bergas-Bergmanes, Bergai-Bergmanei; Kaže-Kaže, Kažes-Kažes, Kažei-Kažei);

134.4. in civil status registration documents the parts of the double surname of foreign languages shall be joined with a hyphen in the Latvian language, indicating the original form of the double surname (multicomponent surname) in slashes, for example, Anna de Butkeviča-Mirska /de Butkewicz Mirsky/, Klotilde van der Stūla-Vollebeka /van der Stoel Wollebeck/. The hyphen need not be used if the parts of the double surname are joined with a preposition written with a lower case letter, for example, Anna Mirska de Butkeviča, Klotilde Vollebeka van der Stūla.

[27 February 2018]

134.1 The prepositions referred to in Paragraph 134 of this Regulation shall be written with a lower case letter, except for the cases if they have become a part of the surname (for example, Flemish Van, Judaic Bar, Ben, Arabic Ibn). If a preposition (for example, Judaic Bar, Ben) is used as the name, it shall be orthographically transcribed and written with an upper case letter in the Latvian language (Bars, Bens).

[27 February 2018]

135. The nominative case shall be the basic form of a personal name to be used in the documents: Jānis Bērziņš, Reinis Kaudzīte, Māra Sudraba (not "Bērziņu Jānis", "Kaudzīšu Reinis", "Sudrabu Māra"). Other cases shall be used according to the requirements for the co-ordination of words in a written text, for example, issued to Mārim Bērziņam, received from Māras Sudrabas.

136. If a person has other variants of the surname used in the kin documents in addition to the surname form used in the family (in the narrowest meaning) (for example, Buls, Buļs and Bulis; Makarovs and Makārovs), he or she has the right to choose one of these variants and obtain it in accordance with the procedures laid down in laws and regulations.

[27 February 2018]

137. Personal names shall be written according to the norms of the Latvian language, using the letters of the Latvian alphabet referred to in Paragraph 6 of this Regulation.

138. Each personal name shall have an ending conforming to the grammar system of the Latvian language in masculine or feminine (except for the common gender surname forms with a feminine ending for persons of both genders and indeclinable surnames).

139. Latvian names of foreign language origin shall be written as they have been entered in the birth register of the owner of the given name according to the wish of the parents, provided that the entry is not in contradiction with the Latvian literary language norms laid down in this Regulation.

140. [27 February 2018]

141. Upon issuing a document to a person the personal name of whom has already been entered in the personal identification document issued in the Republic of Latvia, the Population Register, or the register of civil status documents, its equalisation according to the wish of the person shall be permissible in conformity with the grammar and spelling norms of the Latvian language. Equalisation is not the change of the given name or surname.

[27 February 2018]

142. The orthographic transcription of the given name and surname shall be made by:

142.1. the General Registry Offices of local governments by making and entry in the register of civil status documents, and also by issuing a repeat certificate of registration of a civil status document on the basis of the entries made earlier;

142.2. the Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs by including or updating the data on a person in the Population Register;

142.3. the diplomatic and consular missions of the Republic of Latvia abroad by making an entry in the register of civil status documents or by issuing a repeat certificate of registration of a civil status document on the basis of the entries made earlier.

[27 February 2018]

142.1 Equalisation of the given name or surname shall be made by:

142.1 1. the General Registry Offices of local governments by making an entry in the register of civil status documents, and also by issuing a repeat certificate of registration of a civil status document on the basis of the entries made earlier;

142.1 2. the Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs by including or updating the data on a person in the Population Register.

[27 February 2018]

143. If a person also wants to indicate the original form or historical form of his or her personal name and presents documents certifying the original form or historical form of the personal name in the relevant language:

143.1. the institutions referred to in Sub-paragraph 142.1 of this Regulation shall enter the original form of the personal name of another language additionally in transliteration of the Latin alphabet in the columns "vārds"(to be made in accordance with the transliteration table specified by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)) or historical form of the personal name;

143.2. the institutions referred to in Sub-paragraphs 142.2 and 142.3 of this Regulation shall indicate the original form of the personal name of another language in transliteration of the Latin alphabet or historical form of the personal name in the place provided for in the document.

[27 February 2018]

144. In the documents other than those referred to in Paragraph 142 of this Regulation the personal names shall be written in the Latvian language, but upon request of a person, provided that the person presents documents certifying the original form or historical form of the personal name in the relevant language, the original form of the personal name in transliteration of the Latin alphabet, or historical form of the personal name shall be additionally indicated.

[27 February 2018]

145. The personal name form written in the Latvian language shall be legally identical to the original form of the personal name in transliteration of the Latin alphabet or historical form of the personal name.

[27 February 2018]

146. No natural person or legal person has the right to challenge the belonging of the given name (names) and/or surname of the person entered in different documents of the person to the same person if it has been entered with the following differences:

146.1. the given name and surname have been entered in different documents according to the norms of the Latvian language in effect in the relevant period of time:

146.1.1. the given name or surname has been used with an ending in one document, without an ending- in another document;

146.1.2. the given name or surname has the ending of another declension;

146.1.3. the given name or surname has been written in another orthography;

146.2. in one document the given name or surname has been written in conformity with the peculiarities of the dialect, in another document - in the literary language;

146.3. in different documents the given name or surname of the person is in different cases;

146.4. the given name or surname of the person has been entered in another language, but in another document - in the Latvian language;

146.5. two or more given names have been entered in one document, but only one given name is retained in another document,in accordance with the legal norms in force during the time period of issuing thereof;

146.6. the given name or surname has been entered according to different principles of orthographic transcription of proper nouns.

147. Personal names shall be written in their original written form in true copies and extracts.

148. The original form in transcription of the Latin alphabet shall be provided for a personal name of another language which is orthographically transcribed in translations of documents.

149. If the written form of a personal name is not regulated in this Regulation, the opinion of the Latvian Language Agency on the written form of the relevant personal name in the official language provided upon a written request of the person or institution shall be binding on the institutions referred to in Paragraph 142 of this Regulation.

[27 February 2018]

150. If the orthographically transcribed form of a personal name is not harmonious or acquires disdainful meaning which may cause significant infringement of legal interests of a person, the person may turn to the Latvian Language Agency with a request to orthographically transcribe the personal name in the Latvian language in the form less infringing to the interests of the relevant person. The opinion of the Latvian Language Agency on how the personal name should be written in the official language shall be binding on the institutions referred to in Paragraph 142 of this Regulation.

[27 February 2018]

151. If due to the fault of the institution or official referred to in Paragraph 142 of this Regulation a mistake in the written form of the personal name has been made in the document, the relevant institution or official shall, upon request of the person, correct the mistake and issue a new document.

7. Closing Provision

152. The following Regulations are hereby repealed:

152.1. Cabinet Regulation No. 295 of 22 August 2000, Regulations Regarding Written Form of Given Names and Surnames, and Identification Thereof (Latvijas Vēstnesis, 2000, No. 302; 2001, No. 187);

152.2. Cabinet Regulation No. 95 of 5 March 2002, Regulations Regarding Written Form of Personal Names of Other Languages and Use Thereof in the Latvian Language (Latvijas Vēstnesis, 2002, No. 38).

Prime Minister E. Repše

Minister for Justice A. Aksenoks


Translation © 2019 Valsts valodas centrs (State Language Centre)

 
Document information
Status:
In force
in force
Issuer: Cabinet of Ministers Type: regulation Document number: 114Adoption: 02.03.2004.Entry into force: 06.03.2004.Publication: Latvijas Vēstnesis, 36 (2984), 05.03.2004.
Language:
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