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LEGAL ACTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF LATVIA
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The translation of this document is outdated.
Translation validity: 18.03.2006.–30.06.2021.
Amendments not included: 29.06.2021.

Text consolidated by Valsts valodas centrs (State Language Centre) with amending regulations of:

4 November 2003 [shall come into force from 8 November 2003];
30 March 2004 [shall come into force from 1 May 2004];
22 April 2004 [shall come into force from 1 May 2004];
7 March 2006 [shall come into force from 18 March 2006].

If a whole or part of a paragraph has been amended, the date of the amending regulation appears in square brackets at the end of the paragraph. If a whole paragraph or sub-paragraph has been deleted, the date of the deletion appears in square brackets beside the deleted paragraph or sub-paragraph.


Republic of Latvia

Cabinet
Regulation No. 149

Adopted 9 April 2002

Regulations for Protection against Ionising Radiation

Issued pursuant to
Section 3, Paragraph three and Section 17, Paragraph one
of the Law on Radiation Safety and Nuclear Safety

1. General Provisions

1. This Regulation prescribes the requirements for protection against ionising radiation according to the basic principles of radiation safety and nuclear safety, as well as specify dose limits of ionising radiation in respect of the population.

2. This Regulation shall not apply to the effect of ionising radiation on tissues, organs and human body as a whole or on environmental objects (hereinafter - the exposure) which is caused by:

2.1. potassium isotope 40K in the human body;

2.2. cosmic radiation at the level of the surface of earth;

2.3. radio nuclides in the crust of the earth.

3. It is prohibited to distribute food products, animal feed, toys, personal ornaments, jewellery and cosmetic products to which radioactive substances have been added or which have been irradiated thus giving rise to radio nuclides therein. Such food products, animal feed, toys, personal ornaments, jewellery and cosmetic products are permitted to be used only for purposes of scientific research.

4. In order to optimise radiation safety and nuclear safety, several sources of ionising radiation which are located in a facility or territory of the facility owned or possessed by one operator (hereinafter - the operator-controlled area) shall be regarded as one source of ionising radiation.

5. If a person determines that the requirements for radiation safety and nuclear safety are not conformed to or there are grounds for suspicion that the requirements are partly conformed to, he or she shall inform the relevant work manager and the Radiation Safety Centre (hereinafter - the Centre) thereof.

2. Radiation Safety and Nuclear Safety Measures

6. Natural and legal persons who are involved in performing activities with sources of ionising radiation or who perform activities in proximity of the sources of ionising radiation shall comply with the following radiation safety and nuclear safety requirements:

6.1. precaution in performing activities with sources of ionising radiation;

6.2. as far as possible extensive information regarding the relevant sources of ionising radiation;

6.3. conformity with the radiation safety and nuclear safety measures specified within the operator-controlled area (hereinafter - the protection measures);

6.4. exchange of information related to radiation safety and nuclear safety among all users of the relevant information;

6.5. assessment of potential exposure from the relevant source of ionising radiation if the probability and magnitude thereof can be calculated or determined in advance (hereinafter - the potential exposure). The operator shall ensure assessment of potential exposure, as well as hazards to humans and the environment;

6.6. priority of protection measures in comparison with other measures in the operator-controlled area.

7. The probability and magnitude of the potential exposure in the operator-controlled area shall be calculated by:

7.1. the work manager in the operator-controlled area;

7.2. a medical physics expert in the relevant medical treatment institution;

7.3. a radiation safety expert - a person whose qualifications enable him or her to carry out physical, technical and radiochemical measurements, assess doses of ionising radiation and radiation safety, as well as by correct use of protective equipment, effectively protect people from ionising radiation;

7.4. a radiation safety and nuclear safety expert - a person whose qualifications enable him or her to carry out physical, technical and radiochemical measurements, assess doses of ionising radiation and radiation safety, and nuclear safety, as well as by correct use of protective equipment, effectively protect people from ionising radiation.

8. A radiation safety expert and radiation safety and nuclear safety expert shall have appropriate education in order to perform activities with sources of ionising radiation and experience in performing or managing of such activities:

8.1. persons with secondary vocational education - at least 17 years;

8.2. persons with a bachelor's degree or higher vocational education - at least 13 years;

8.3. persons with master's degree - at least 10 years;

8.4. persons with a doctorate in science - at least 7 years.

9. A radiation safety expert and a radiation safety and nuclear safety expert shall, in addition to the requirements laid down in Paragraph 8 of this Regulation, have a certificate issued by the the radiation safety and nuclear safety expert attestation commission (hereinafter - the commission). The commission shall consist of at least nine members who represent professional associations, the Ministry of Environment, the Centre, the Radiation Safety Council, and educational institutions which ensure vocational further education. The Minister for Environment shall approve the personnel of the commission.

[4 November 2003]

9.1 The commission shall evaluate persons who apply for a certificate (hereinafter - the applicant) by assessing the conformity of their education and professional qualification with the requirements of Paragraph 8 of this Regulation, as well as the practical skills in the area of radiation safety and nuclear safety corresponding to the speciality. The commission shall issue a certificate for five years.

[4 November 2003]

9.2 The commission shall elect the chairperson of the commission and the vice-chairperson of the commission from amongst its members. The chairperson of the commission shall organise and chair meetings of the commission and sign minutes of meetings and certificates.

[4 November 2003]

9.3 The vice-chairperson of the commission shall fulfil the duties of the chairperson of the commission during his or her absence.

[4 November 2003]

9.4 The Centre shall ensure taking of minutes at meetings of the commission, keeping of records related to certification, and storage of documentation.

[4 November 2003]

9.5 In order to receive a certificate, the applicant shall submit the following to the Centre:

9.51. an application specifying the sources of ionising radiation and the types of activities involving them, or the area of radiation safety and nuclear safety where the applicant wishes to be recognised as an expert;

9.52. a copy of the third page of the passport (the page where personal data are indicated);

9.53. copies of the documents certifying education and further education;

9.54. copies of the documents certifying professional activities of the applicant in the speciality (the work book, copies of employment contracts, or a statement of the employer);

9.55. copies of the document certifying that education was acquired in the official language, or a certificate of the conformity of fluency in the official language to the level three, grade A (copy);

9.56. a description of work experience specifying professional experience in managing or performing activities with sources of ionising radiation, as well as radiation safety and nuclear safety programmes, recommendations or other long-term strategic documents in the development or implementation of which the applicant has participated.

[4 November 2003]

9.6 In order to extend the term of validity of the certificate, the expert shall, at least two months prior to expiry of the term of validity of the certificate, submit the following to the Centre:

9.61. an application for extending the term of validity of the certificate;

9.62. a copy of the education document if the expert has acquired additional education after receipt of the certificate;

9.63. a copy of the employment contract if the expert works as a work manager;

9.64. a list of the works performed during attestation period and a short description thereof, attaching copies of employment contracts, or a statement of the employer, or a contract for the services provided by the expert.

[4 November 2003]

9.7 The commission shall, within 30 days from receipt of the documents referred to in Paragraphs 9.5 and 9.6 of this Regulation, examine them at its meeting to which the applicant has been invited, and take a relevant decision.

[4 November 2003]

9.8 If the information indicated in the submitted documents is incomplete or incorrect, or an additional examination is required to decide whether to issue a certificate or extend the term of validity of the certificate, the commission shall postpone examination of the matter and ask the applicant to submit the necessary information within 14 days, or perform an additional inspection and notify the applicant. The matter shall be examined after receipt of the necessary information or results of the examination.

[4 November 2003]

9.9 If the commission has taken a decision to issue a certificate or a decision to extend the term of validity of the certificate, to cancel the certificate or to suspend the operation of the certificate, it shall inform the applicant in writing within three working days after taking of the decision.

[4 November 2003]

9.10 The following information shall be indicated in the certificate:

9.101. the full name of the commission;

9.102. the given name, surname, and personal identity number of the recipient of the certificate;

9.103. the permitted activities with sources of ionising radiation and the type and category of the sources of ionising radiation, or the area of radiation safety and nuclear safety where the expert has been certified;

9.104. the date of granting the certificate;

9.105. the term of validity of the certificate;

9.106. the registration number of the certificate.

[4 November 2003]

9.11 The decision taken by the commission may be contested in the Ministry of Environment.

[30 March 2004]

10. In the operator-controlled area at least one radiation safety expert or radiation safety and nuclear safety expert shall be required (subsequent to co-ordination with the Centre the operator may assign the functions of the experts referred to, to the work manager) if in the operator-controlled area:

10.1. activities with radioactive substances are carried out;

10.2. activities with ionising radiation installations for which the minimum amount of operatorʼs civil liability insurance is higher than the smallest insurance amount specified in laws and regulations are carried out;

10.3. activities with ten or more installations of ionising radiation are carried out:

10.3.1. which have the smallest minimum amount of operator's civil liability insurance;

10.3.2. operation of which does not require direct participation of the relevant employee;

10.4. activities with sources of ionising radiation are permanently carried out by more than five employees.

11. In the operator-controlled area at least one radiation safety and nuclear safety expert shall be required if activities with nuclear materials are permanently performed by more than five employees.

12. The operator shall establish a radiation safety unit or a radiation safety and nuclear safety unit which shall be responsible only for the activities with sources of ionising radiation within the operator-controlled area if:

12.1. operations with ionising radiation objects of national significance are carried out;

12.2. activities are performed with a radioactive substance which is placed in a hermetically sealed capsule or is in a solid state and tightly bound, preventing any dispersion of radionuclides in the environment under normal conditions of use (hereinafter - the sealed radiation source), and the total radioactivity of which more than one million times exceeds the limits requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit for activities with sources of ionising radiation specified in Cabinet Regulation No. 288 of 3 July 2001, Regulations Regarding Activities with Sources of Ionising Radiation for which a Special Permit (Licence) or Permit is not Required (hereinafter - the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit);

12.3. operations with a radioactive substance are carried out which substance is not a sealed radiation source (hereinafter - the unsealed radiation source) and the total radioactivity of which more than 104 times exceeds the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, and there is a risk of contamination of the environment, materials, surface or external or internal contamination of humans with radioactive substances (hereinafter - the radioactive contamination);

12.4. in case of a radiation accident human life may be endangered. A radiation accident is an unplanned event, for example, if an employee (including apprentices and students older than 18 years) who permanently or temporary perform activities with sources of ionising radiation (hereinafter - the worker), has made a mistake in the activity, or an unplanned activity of the source of ionising radiation the consequences or the possible consequences of which exceed the ionising radiation dose limits specified in this Regulation or causing of such radioactive contamination due to which the relevant limits may be exceeded;

12.5. such mobile ionising radiation installations are used for which the minimum amount of operator's civil liability insurance is higher than the smallest insurance amount specified in laws and regulations regarding civil liability insurance;

12.6. ten and more ionising radiation installations are used in the operation of which the relevant workers participate directly.

[4 November 2003]

13. A radiation safety unit shall consist of the work manager and radiation safety expert, radiation safety and nuclear safety expert or medical physics expert (if there is such in the institution). A radiation safety and nuclear safety unit shall include a work manager and radiation safety and nuclear safety expert.

14. A work manager in the operator-controlled area:

14.1. shall be responsible for the compliance with radiation safety and nuclear safety requirements;

14.2. shall involve all workers in implementation of protection measures;

14.3. shall appoint workers responsible for the specific activities with sources of ionising radiation;

14.4. shall ensure immediate investigation and prevention of conditions which may adversely affect radiation safety and nuclear safety, if such conditions have arisen.

15. If any of the radiation safety and nuclear safety requirements is not fulfilled, the work manager shall:

15.1. ascertain the reasons, conditions, and consequences of the violation;

15.2. take appropriate protection measures for elimination of the consequences caused by the violation, as well as prevent recurrence of such violations. Performance of protection measures shall be financed by the operator.

16. In order to ensure the performance of protection measures the operator in co-operation with the work manager and radiation safety expert or radiation safety and nuclear safety expert shall develop a radiation safety and nuclear safety quality assurance programme for testing, use, storage, and control of the source of ionising radiation (hereinafter - the quality assurance programme) which shall include requirements and control of fulfilment thereof in respect of:

16.1. recording and registration entries, identification, compilation, indexation of entries, updating and correcting of information;

16.2. control of orders and purchases, including evaluation and selection of the supplier, requirements of laws and regulations regarding purchases, requirements regarding documentation of orders and purchases and quality attesting documents, as well as purchase controls;

16.3. measuring instruments to be used for testing;

16.4. testing installations, calibration, regulation and repair thereof;

16.5. labelling of the material and products to be tested;

16.6. notes regarding checks and testing;

16.7. disclosure and documentation of non-conformity with quality requirements;

16.8. labelling of the non-conforming elements, the removal thereof from the system and repair or replacing with other elements;

16.9. training of workers, including development of training programmes and tests of workers qualifications;

16.10. supervision of service providers;

16.11. regular inspections irrespective of operation (by inviting experts from the relevant institutions or an independent authority);

16.12. preparation, confirmation, registration, recording, storage, and archiving of the requirements and performance documents thereof referred to in Sub-paragraphs 16.1-16.11 of this Regulation, as well as amendments thereto.

17. In order to fulfil the requirements set out in the quality assurance programme, the operator shall foresee the financial resources required for the performance of protection measures and regularly take inventory and examine material resources.

18. The Centre shall:

18.1. promote education of the population regarding radiation safety and nuclear safety issues and disseminate information on the most recent findings in the field of radiation safety and nuclear safety;

18.2. control fulfilment of quality assurance programmes;

18.3. participate in the training of radiation safety experts, radiation safety and nuclear safety experts, medical physics experts and work managers;

18.4. immediately provide consultations and technical assistance to the residents who have suspicions that they have found an orphan source of radiation. An orphan source of radiation is a sealed source of radiation which is not subject to monitoring and control by the Centre because it has never been subject to such, or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or transferred to another operator without notifying the Centre according to the established procedure, or transferred without informing the recipient of the source of radiation, and the radioactivity of which at the moment of finding it is higher than the limits specified in laws and regulations which require a special permit (licence) or a permit.

[7 March 2006]

19. The operator shall co-ordinate the quality assurance programme with the Centre. Additional co-ordination shall be required in the following cases:

19.1. if the operator is performing operations with ionising radiation objects of national significance, a plan for the preparedness to radiological emergencies and actions in the event of radiological emergency which has been co-ordinated with the territorial local government shall be required, as well as a plan of physical protection measures and a draft of physical protection which has been co-ordinated with the Security Police;

19.2. if the operator is performing activities with a high-power source of ionising radiation the total radioactivity of which is 106-109 times higher than the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, the operator shall develop and co-ordinate with the territorial local government a plan for preparedness to radiological emergencies and actions in the event of radiological emergency, as well as develop and co-ordinate a plan of physical protection measures with the Security Police;

19.3. if the operator is performing activities with a medium-power or high-power installation of ionising radiation which does not contain radioactive substances and the dose rate of ionising radiation of which within the distance of one meter from the source of ionising radiation exceeds 0.1 Sv/h. In such case a plan of physical protection measures which has been co-ordinated with the Security Police shall be required;

19.4. if the operator performs activities with a medium-power source of ionising radiation the total radioactivity of which is 103-106 times higher than the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, the operator shall develop and co-ordinate a plan of physical protection measures with the Security Police, as well as develop and co-ordinate with the territorial local government a plan for preparedness to radiological emergencies and actions in the event of radiological emergency if activities with an unsealed radiation source are performed, or inform the local government of the relevant plans if activities with a sealed source of radiation are performed.

[4 November 2003]

3. Calculation of Doses of Ionising Radiation

20. Absorbed dose (D) is the energy of ionising radiation absorbed per unit of mass. Absorbed dose is the average dose of ionising radiation for tissues or organs and environmental objects, its unit of measurement is the gray (Gy) which corresponds to one joule per one kilogram.

21. Equivalent dose (HT,R) is the absorbed dose in an individual organ or tissues (T) according to the type of ionising radiation (R) and the range of the energy (quality). Equivalent dose shall be calculated by using the following formula:

HT,R = wRDT,R , where

DT,R - the absorbed dose of the relevant type of ionising radiation (R) in tissues or an individual organ (T);

wR - the weighting factor of the relevant type of ionising radiation (R) for the relevant energy range. Values of wR are specified in Annex 1 to this Regulation.

22. If the ionising radiation field is composed of various types of ionising radiation with different values of wR, the total equivalent dose (HT) shall be calculated, using the following formula:

23. Effective dose (E) is the sum of the equivalent doses in all the tissues and organs of the body from external irradiation (if the source of ionising radiation is outside the body) and internal irradiation (if the source of ionising radiation is inside the body), taking into account the ionising radiation weighting factor for tissues. Effective dose shall be calculated by using the following formula:

, where

HT - the equivalent dose absorbed in tissues or an organ (T);

wT - the ionising radiation weighting factor for tissues or individual organs (T). The appropriate wT values are specified in Annex 2 to this Regulation.

24. Committed equivalent dose (HT()) is the dose integral over a time period () of the equivalent dose rate in an individual organ or tissue (T). It shall be calculated within the time period t0 when radionuclides from the external environment have entered the human organism. In calculation the following formula shall be used:

, where

HT(t) - the equivalent dose rate in an individual organ or tissues (T) at time t;

- time period in years, which would have passed from the intake of radioactive substances, and during which the integration is performed. If not known, it shall be assumed to be 50 years for adults, and 70 for children.

25. Committed effective dose (E()) is the sum of the committed tissue or organ (T) equivalent doses where each ionising radiation dose is multiplied by the appropriate tissue or organ weighting factor wT. The committed effective dose shall be calculated, using the following formula:

, where

- the time period in years which has passed from the intake of radioactive substances and during which the aggregation is performed.

26. The unit of measurement for the equivalent dose, effective dose, committed equivalent dose and committed effective dose is joule per kilogram - the sievert (Sv).

27. The effective dose (ET) received by a person of specific age (g) shall be determined, using the following formula:

, where

E ārējā - the effective dose from external irradiation;

e (g)j,ing and e (g)j,inh - the committed effective dose per intake unit for radio nuclide j (Sv/Bq) which is ingested or inhaled by a person of the relevant age (g) in the group;

Ij,ing and Ij,inh - the radio nuclide j (Bq) received via ingesting or inhaling.

28. The committed total effective dose shall be calculated by summing up the equivalent dose from external radiation sources within a year and the committed equivalent dose from internal intake of radioactive substances, calculating it from the total amount of radionuclides received by an adult in 50 years, and a child in 70 years. Potential exposure shall be evaluated by using the values referred to in this Chapter, Sub-chapters 4.1 and 5.1, Paragraph 122 and Annex 2.

[4 November 2003]

4. Ionising Radiation Dose Limits

4.1. Ionising Radiation Dose Limits for Workers and Apprentices and Students of 16 to 18 Years of Age

29. The basic limit of the effective dose for workers shall be 20 mSv per year. For a worker - a pregnant woman and mother who breastfeeds a child, the basic limit of the effective dose shall be 1 mSv per year.

30. In addition to the basic limits of the effective dose (20 mSv per year) a worker shall have the following subordinated limits of the equivalent dose:

30.1. the equivalent dose for the lens of the eye - 150 mSv per year;

30.2. the equivalent dose for any area of skin of 1 cm2 - 500 mSv per year;

30.3. the equivalent dose for the hands, forearms, feet and ankles -500 mSv per year.

31. The basic limit of the effective dose for apprentices and students aged between 16 and 18 years (hereinafter - the apprentices and students) shall be 6 mSv per year.

32. In addition to the basic limits of the effective dose apprentices and students shall have the following subordinated limits of the equivalent dose:

32.1. the equivalent dose for the lens of the eye - 50 mSv per year;

32.2. the equivalent dose for any area of skin of 1 cm2 - 150 mSv per year;

32.3. the equivalent dose for the hands, forearms, feet and ankles - 150 mSv per year.

33. In accordance with the potential exposure the work manager shall divide workers into two categories:

33.1. category A - workers whose committed effective dose may exceed 6 mSv per year or the equivalent dose may be by 3/10 higher than the subordinated limits of the equivalent dose specified in Paragraph 30 of this Regulation;

33.2. category B - workers whose committed effective dose may not exceed 6 mSv per year or the subordinated limits of the equivalent dose specified in Paragraph 30 of this Regulation.

34. In addition to the provisions of Sub-paragraph 33.2 of this Regulation, the following persons shall be classified in category B:

34.1. employees who do not perform activities with sources of ionising radiation but who undergo regular radiological examination in order to disclose illegal offences in respect of the property of the employer - if this is provided for in the labour agreement and assent from the relevant trade union has been received;

34.2. persons undergoing radio diagnostic procedures for purposes of forensic expert-examination or insurance in order to disclose an unlawful activity.

4.2. Ionising Radiation Dose Limits for Specially Authorised Exposure of Workers

35. Specially authorised exposure is a systematic exposure if for the performance of a specific activity the basic limit of the effective dose for a worker (20 mSv per year) is expected to be exceeded, or exposure in case of a radiation accident in order to save human lives, prevent exposure of many people or preserve great material values.

36. Specially authorised exposure shall not be longer than five years.

37. Only category A workers may be subject to specially authorised exposure.

38. The work manager shall substantiate the necessity of specially authorised exposure and co-ordinate it with the relevant worker or his or her representative.

39. In each particular case of specific activities, if the necessity of specially authorised exposure has been substantiated (except for radiation accidents), the Centre jointly with a certified practitioner of occupational diseases from a health care treatment institution of workers, apprentices and students (hereinafter - the medical treatment institution) authorised by the Ministry of Health may allow a worker to exceed the basic limit of the effective dose (20 mSv per year) for a certain period of time for the performance of the relevant specific activities if the dose of ionising radiation does not exceed 50 mSv in the relevant year and 100 mSv per year over five consecutive years.

[4 November 2003]

40. It is prohibited to subject to specially authorised exposure those workers of category A who over the last five years have already received a dose of ionising radiation exceeding 100 mSv per year.

41. The work manager may allow a worker to receive additional dose of ionising radiation up to 50 mSv per exposure during a radiation accident or elimination of consequences thereof. Exposure above 50 mSv per exposure may be permitted in exceptional cases in order to save human lives if the additionally received dose of ionising radiation does not exceed 200 mSv per exposure.

42. The operator shall provide workers with information regarding the risks of specially authorised exposure and the necessary protection, as well as ensure that ionising radiation doses and the number of workers subjected to exposure in the relevant economic and social circumstances is as low as possible.

4.3. Ionising Radiation Dose Limits for the Population

43. The basic limit of the effective dose for the population shall not exceed 1 mSv per year, excluding irradiation from natural sources of ionising radiation and medical exposure.

44. In addition to the basic limit of the effective dose (1 mSv per year) the population shall have the following subordinated limits of the equivalent dose:

44.1. the equivalent dose for the lens of the eye - 15 mSv per year;

44.2. the equivalent dose for any area of skin of 1 cm2 - 50 mSv per year;

44.3. the equivalent dose for the hands, forearms, feet and ankles - 50 mSv per year.

45. If it is impossible to prevent intensified exposure of the population by means of protection measures (including the cases of a radiation accident), the basic limit of the effective dose for the population (1 mSv per year) may be exceeded but the dose of ionising radiation shall not be higher than 5 mSv per year and the average dose of ionising radiation shall not exceed 1 mSv per year over five consecutive years.

5. Protection of Workers, Apprentices and Students against Ionising Radiation

5.1. Estimation of Potential Exposure

46. Before a worker, an apprentice or a student commences activities with sources of ionising radiation, the work manager shall evaluate the nature and magnitude of the potential exposure and determine appropriate measures for protection of the worker, apprentice or student.

47. The committed effective dose is determined:

47.1. in Annex 3 to this Regulation - for the population, apprentices, and students upon ingestion of radionuclides (except for daughter nuclides of radon isotopes 222Rn and 220Rn ) with food or water, in Annex 4 - for the population, apprentices, and students upon inhalation of radionuclides (except for daughter nuclides of radon isotopes 222Rn and 220Rn ); and

47.2. in Annex 5 to this Regulation - for workers upon inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides (except for radon isotope 222Rn and 222Rn daughter nuclides) with food or water.

48. Annex 6 to this Regulation specifies coefficients (f1) of gut transfer of compounds of chemical elements upon ingestion of such by the workers and the population with food or water. Annex 7 to this Regulation specifies the coefficients (f1) of gut transfer of compounds of chemical elements upon inhalation of such by workers.

49. In order to evaluate exposure caused by daughter nuclides of radon isotopes 222Rn and 220Rn the following determined effective dose conversion coefficients per unit of potential alpha-energy exposure (Sv per J h m-3) shall be applied:

49.1. 222Rn at home - 1.1;

49.2. 222Rn at work - 1.4;

49.3. 220Rn at work - 0.5.

50. The potential alpha energy is the total alpha energy emitted by daughter nuclides of 222Rn and 220Rn during the radioactive decay, daughter nuclides of 222Rn decaying up to 210Pb, and daughter nuclides of 220Rn - up to stable 208Pb. The unit of measurement for total alpha energy is joule (J) but the unit of measurement for the dose rate of ionising radiation caused by a definite concentration of such radionuclides in the air, is J·h·m-3.

51. Annex 8 to this Regulation specifies the committed effective dose for workers and the population upon inhaling soluble or reactive gases and vapour.

52. Annex 9 to this Regulation specifies the rate of the effective dose for exposure of workers and the population to inert gases.

5.2. Area Classification, Demarcation and Marking

53. The work manager shall divide the operator-controlled area into areas and sub-areas in accordance with the estimated potential dose of ionising radiation per year and the possible consequences of a radiation accident.

54. The operator-controlled area shall encompass the following areas:

54.1. controlled area - a territory around each source of ionising radiation or around a group of ionising radiation sources located in a compact territory, where the dose of ionising radiation may exceed 2 mSv per year;

54.2. supervised area - a territory outside the control area where the dose of ionising radiation may exceed the basic limit of the effective dose 1 mSv per year.

[4 November 2003]

55. In determining boundaries of areas and sub-areas the physical boundaries of premises, buildings or territories shall be taken into account.

56. The controlled area is intended for:

56.1. control of irradiation received from the source of ionising radiation under normal conditions of use;

56.2. prevention of radioactive contamination;

56.3. prevention or restriction of potential exposure.

57. In the controlled area the following requirements shall be observed:

57.1. it shall be demarcated and access to the controlled area and exit therefrom shall take place according to the procedures stipulated by the work manager in writing;

57.2. if a controlled area contains sub-areas with significantly different radiation safety and nuclear safety requirements, the work manager shall determine procedures for crossing of the borders of the sub-area.

58. If necessary, the operator shall establish one or more sub-areas in the controlled area:

58.1. radiation territory - premises or a territory where a worker may receive ionising radiation higher than 0.05 mSv/h. To mark the sub-area, a radiation warning sign with inscription "KONTROLES ZONA. RADIĀCIJAS TERITORIJA" [Controlled Area. Radiation Territory] shall be used;

58.2. high radiation territory - premises or a territory where a worker may receive ionising radiation higher than 0.1 mSv/h. To mark the sub-area, a radiation warning sign with inscription "KONTROLES ZONA. AUGSTAS RADIĀCIJAS TERITORIJA" [Controlled Area. High Radiation Territory] shall be used;

58.3. very high radiation territory - premises or a territory where a worker may receive ionising radiation higher than 5 mSv/h. To mark the sub-area, a radiation warning sign with inscription "KONTROLES ZONA. ĻOTI AUGSTAS RADIĀCIJAS TERITORIJA" [Controlled Area. Very High Radiation Territory] shall be used;

58.4. other sub-areas if there is a need to utilise different individual and collective means of protection.

59. The place in the controlled area where the radioactive material is used or stored shall be marked by a radiation warning sign (radiation symbol and the words "RADIOAKTĪVIE MATERIĀLI" [Radioactive Materials]). If radioactive materials remain in the place of storage for more than five days, the selection of the place of storage and equipment thereof shall be co-ordinated with the Centre.

60. In a supervised area radioactive contamination and ionising radiation shall be controlled in order to assess the efficiency of the quality-assurance programme and potential exposure in case of a radiation accident.

61. The operator shall ensure:

61.1. separation of the supervised area, controlled area and, if necessary, sub-areas with barriers;

61.2. marking of supervised areas, controlled areas, and sub-areas, indicating the type of area and sub-area and the dose rate of ionising radiation;

61.3. controlled access to areas and sub-areas and exit therefrom, as well as conditions which prevent access of unauthorised persons to the areas and sub-areas.

62. The work manager shall:

62.1. prepare workplaces of workers according to the classification into areas and sub-areas, taking into account the probability of potential exposure, the nature of the source of ionising radiation, the magnitude of risk, the requirements of protection measures, and the nature and scope of possible radiation accidents;

62.2. ensure appropriate monitoring of the supervised areas and controlled areas, as well as sub-areas (if such exist);

62.3. develop instructions in conformity with the probability of potential exposure and operations to be carried out in the supervised area and controlled area, as well as sub-areas (if such exist);

62.4. organise radiation monitoring in the supervised area and controlled area, as well as sub-areas (if such exist).

5.3. Health Care of Workers, Apprentices and Students

63. The operator shall provide the workers with the following health care:

63.1. medical examination prior to employment of a worker;

63.2. medical examination prior to classification of the worker into category A or B in order to determine the worker's fitness for the post;

63.3. mandatory health examination in order to determine the workerʼs fitness for the performance of the relevant duties.

64. The operator shall provide health care of apprentices and students - medical examination before an apprentice or student commences the training course in the operator-controlled area.

65. The state of health of category A workers shall be examined at least once a year but the state of health of category B workers at least once every two years in order to determine the worker's fitness for performance of the relevant duties.

66. Prior to commencing health examination of a worker, apprentice or student, the medical treatment institution shall request an extract from his or her out-patient or in-patient medical card which shall contain all known previously received exposure at workplace, as well as medical exposure, if relevant, and assessment of radiation monitoring of the working environment.

67. In respect of the fitness of a worker, apprentice or student for the relevant work the following medicinal classification shall be used:

67.1. the state of health is suited for the work with sources of ionising radiation to be performed;

67.2. the state of health is suited for the work with sources of ionising radiation if the specified conditions are met;

67.3. the state of health is not suited for the work with sources of ionising radiation to be performed.

68. If signs of occupational disease or illness of general nature related to the work performed is determined to a worker and the worker has finished activities with sources of ionising radiation, the medical treatment institution shall continue the health care of the person as long as necessary to ensure the health of the relevant person. In such case the employer shall continue to cover the expenses related to health examination.

69. Information regarding health examinations of a worker shall contain the following:

69.1. the type of activity with sources of ionising radiation;

69.2. the results of health examinations prior to employment or classification into category A or B;

69.3. the results of compulsory health examinations;

69.4. assessment of the received doses of ionising radiation.

70. The medical treatment institution shall keep the information regarding health examinations of a worker until the person has or would have attained the age of 75 years but not less than 45 years after the termination of activities with sources of ionising radiation. After expiration of the abovementioned time period, the relevant information shall be transferred to the archive in accordance with the procedures specified in the Law on Archives.

71. If the basic limit of the effective dose (20 mSv per year) or subordinated limit of the equivalent dose for a worker per year has been exceeded, the operator shall ensure extraordinary health examination of the relevant worker and if signs of occupational disease or illness of general nature related to the work performed are determined - the necessary treatment. In such case, as well as any other case when occupational disease is determined, a permit from a practitioner of the medical treatment institution shall be necessary to continue the work with sources of ionising radiation.

72. In case of a radiation accident:

72.1. the operator shall ensure special health examinations of the workers, apprentices and students exposed during the radiation accident;

72.2. the medical treatment institution, if necessary, shall eliminate or maximally reduce the internal radioactive contamination;

72.3. the operator, taking into account the instructions of the medical treatment institution, shall ensure availability of medicinal products, as well as carry out other activities required for health care of the exposed workers, apprentices and students.

5.4. Assessment and Implementation of Protection Measures of Workers, Apprentices and Students

73. In order to ensure protection of workers, apprentices, and students against ionising radiation, as well as to prevent radiation accidents the operator shall:

73.1. ensure control and recording of exposure of workers, apprentices, and students in the operator-controlled area;

73.2. appoint sufficient number of trained workers for work with sources of ionising radiation;

73.3. ensure appropriate training and instruction of the work manager and workers so that all workers, apprentices, and students are informed of radiation safety and nuclear safety requirements and are trained as regards the protection against ionising radiation;

73.4. ensure informing of workers, apprentices, and students about the potential harm to the health that may be caused by work with sources of ionising radiation;

73.5. ensure additional informing of women-workers in respect of the potential harm to their reproductive health and effect of ionising radiation on pregnancy;

73.6. ensure development of instructions for servicing the source of ionising radiation and performance of work, approval thereof and issuance to the workers;

73.7. control and register the readiness of each worker, apprentice, and student to perform the work assigned;

73.8. ensure drawing up and storage of recording and control journals and other documents related to sources of ionising radiation, as well as the possibility to check the performance of protection measures;

73.9. terminate activity with a source of ionising radiation if a fault therein or a violation of laws and regulations in activity with sources of ionising radiation has been determined and rectify the relevant deficiencies.

74. The operator shall be responsible for insurance of workers against accidents at work and occupational diseases. Measures for protection of workers, apprentices, and students against ionising radiation shall be determined by the work manager.

75. The operator shall provide the worker who is intended to be involved in elimination of the consequences of a radiation accident with appropriate information, instructions and preparedness.

76. In order to assess the quality and efficiency of the implementation of protection measures, the operator shall ensure:

76.1. regular checks of the effectiveness, readiness for use and correct use of the protective devices, auxiliary devices, and materials used for radiation safety and nuclear safety;

76.2. evaluation of the construction and location of the sources of ionising radiation;

76.3. approval of the readiness for use of a new or modified source of ionising radiation;

76.4. checking of the effectiveness of technical devices;

76.5. regular calibration of measuring instruments, as well as regular checking of their readiness for use and correct use.

6. Radiation Safety and Nuclear Safety Requirements for Sources of Ionising Radiation

6.1. Requirements for Construction of Sources of Ionising Radiation

77. It is prohibited to import into Latvia and use sources of ionising radiation which are not certified or allowed to be used in Latvia in accordance with the procedures specified in laws and regulations, except for the case when a source of ionising radiation is imported for testing to verify its possibilities of use in Latvia.

78. A source of ionising radiation shall be so designed that it may not be used for other purposes that might increase the risk of human exposure or cause radioactive contamination of the environment.

79. A producer of a source of ionising radiation shall be deemed an operator who produces a source of ionising radiation.

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80. A producer of a source of ionising radiation shall be responsible for the safety of the source of ionising radiation. The duties of the producer are as follows:

80.1. produce a safe source of ionising radiation which is not harmful to human life, health and personal property, as well as to the environment;

80.2. take all precautionary measures to guarantee the safety of the source of ionising radiation (for example, labelling of the source of ionising radiation and sample examination, verification of complaints submitted in respect of the source of ionising radiation, withdrawal of the source of ionising radiation from circulation).

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81. A producer of a source of ionising radiation, in designing and making the source of ionising radiation, shall take into account the possible operational conditions of the relevant source and, if necessary, provide for the possibility to use also additional individual means of protection.

82. A producer of a source of ionising radiation, in designing and making the source of ionising radiation, shall ensure that:

82.1. a damage of the source of ionising radiation that may cause unplanned exposure can be determined without delay;

82.2. separate damage of a component in the system cannot cause unplanned exposure;

82.3. unplanned exposure due to a mistake by a worker has been reduced to minimum;

82.4. the possibility of parts of the ionising radiation installation getting clogged from outside is prevented;

82.5. the source of ionising radiation is easily cleaned from the radioactive contamination;

82.6. places for regulation and technical servicing of the source of ionising radiation are located outside the area affected by ionising radiation (if possible);

82.7. elements of the source of ionising radiation requiring frequent replacement are easily and safely replaced;

82.8. materials used in the construction of the source of ionising radiation, as well as products used or produced by such source are safe.

83. A producer of a source of ionising radiation shall ensure:

83.1. by collective means of protection against ionising radiation and such special equipment and accessories that it is possible to regulate the ionising radiation installation, maintain it in working order, and use without the risk of exposure;

83.2. safe operating of the source of ionising radiation and parts thereof;

83.3. that the source of ionising radiation is so designed or packed that it may be stored safely and without damage, and that it is stable enough.

84. An ionising radiation installation shall be so designed and produced that:

84.1. it may be actuated only by operating devices intended for actuation and the control devices of the source of ionising radiation immediately warn of deviations in the operation of the installation;

84.2. it is suited for performance of the intended functions and can be safely regulated and repaired according to the instructions of a producer, without causing radiation accidents during the use of the installation (including the assembly and disassembly stage) even if the risk of radiation accident occurs in a possible emergency situation;

84.3. warning devices and signal devices may not be easily damaged.

85. A source of ionising radiation shall be equipped with one or several radiation accident stopping devices in order to ensure stopping of the ionising radiation installation if a radiation accident occurs and prevent actual or imminent danger.

86. In high-power ionising radiation installations, the total radioactivity of which is 106-109 times higher than the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, or whose dose rate of ionising radiation within the distance of one meter from the source of ionising radiation is higher than 10 Sv/h:

86.1. at least two independent stopping devices shall be ensured which shall be dominating in relation to actuation devices;

86.2. in the construction of safety blocking devices physical protection systems shall be used - codes and keys which guarantee that upon performance of repairs or calibration, the operation of the source of ionising radiation with deactivated blocking is possible only under direct control by the workers, using for blocking two mutually independent systems deactivation of which is performed by two workers simultaneously.

87. In order to prevent occurrence of dangerous situations, the operating device of the source of ionising radiation shall be adequately labelled. It shall be so designed and produced that:

87.1. the relevant device is safe, handy, protected from effects of external factors and is impossible to be operated without external force;

87.2. the probability of mistakes caused by people during the use of the operating device is very small;

87.3. a mistake in the use of the operating device does not cause dangerous situation;

87.4. the use of the operating device is simple, unambiguous and corresponding to the intended purpose.

6.2. Requirements for Operation and Maintenance of Sources of Ionising Radiation

88. A supplier of a source of ionising radiation shall be the operator who, while performing commercial activities, sells, supplies or otherwise distributes sources of ionising radiation, without affecting their safety or radiation safety and nuclear safety.

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89. A supplier of a source of ionising radiation shall not sell, supply or otherwise distribute a source of ionising radiation if it fails to conform the radiation safety and nuclear safety requirements, as well as such source of ionising radiation regarding the safety of which the supplier lacks sufficient information.

90. In choosing place for a source of ionising radiation the operator shall take into account factors that may affect:

90.1. the safety of the source of ionising radiation;

90.2. exposure of workers, apprentices, students and the population.

91. When selecting a place for an unsealed source of radiation the total radioactivity of which more than 103 times exceeds the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, and a sealed source of radiation the total radioactivity of which more than 106 times exceeds the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, the operator shall take into account:

91.1. parameters which may affect radiation safety and nuclear safety;

91.2. parameters which may be affected by the source of ionising radiation;

91.3. the plan for preparedness to radiological emergencies and actions in the event of radiological emergency.

92. Prior to commencing activities with a source of ionising radiation, the operator shall carry out preparatory work in order to:

92.1. as far as possible prevent radiation emergency that could occur in the relevant work performance conditions;

92.2. be able to restrict any consequences of radiation emergency (if such nevertheless has happened);

92.3. introduce an appropriate procedure that ensures control of sources of ionising radiation and any possible radiation accidents;

92.4. be able to perform radiation safety and nuclear safety inspections and tests to the relevant system, element and installation on a regular basis and in good time determine any changes that could give rise to unplanned conditions, deterioration of work characteristics and increase of the risk of the working environment;

92.5. ensure that everywhere, where possible, there is an automated system for disconnection of the ionising radiation beam or diminishing of the radiation from the source of ionising radiation if operating conditions fail to conform to the work regime determined;

92.6. it is possible by means of fast reacting systems to disclose unplanned operating conditions, which may significantly affect radiation safety and nuclear safety, and to take protection measures in good time.

93. The operator shall ensure:

93.1. provision of ionising radiation installations that generate ionising radiation with actuation and disconnection indicators and control and collimation mechanisms of the ionising radiation beam;

93.2. provision of a source of ionising radiation with blocking devices that do not allow accidental actuation of the ionising radiation installation;

93.3. provision of the source of ionising radiation with protective devices against scattered ionising radiation;

93.4. provision of radiographic installation with devices which automatically disconnect ionising radiation after a certain period of time or after certain dose of ionising radiation has been reached;

93.5. automatic transfer of the sources of ionising radiation within the installation from working state to storage state if the supply of current is interrupted, and repeated actuation of the beam control mechanism only from the control panel of the installation.

94. The operator shall be responsible for the development of a multi-stage protection system for sources of ionising radiation in conformity with the magnitude and probability of the potential exposure, so that operational mistakes of a source of ionising radiation on one level are compensated or corrected on other levels of protection. The objective of the multi-stage protection system shall be:

94.1. to prevent radiation accident which may cause unplanned exposure;

94.2. if radiation accident which has causes unplanned exposure has nonetheless taken place, diminish the consequences thereof;

94.3. restore safe use of the source of ionising radiation after the radiation accident.

95. A source of ionising radiation shall be kept in work premises or specially determined storage facilities to prevent access of unauthorised persons to the place where the container and sources of ionising radiation is stored. If it is necessary to store:

95.1. a sealed source of radiation the total radioactivity of which 103 times exceeds the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, shall be stored in a container which does not allow any unauthorised activity with the relevant source of ionising radiation;

95.2. an unsealed source of radiation the total radioactivity of which 103 times exceeds the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit, shall be stored in a container which does not allow leakage of the radioactive contents under none of the possible storage conditions.

96. The operator shall ensure storage of sources of ionising radiation at places were flaring up of other materials is not possible, as well as take the necessary fire safety measures, taking into account the specific features of the territory where the source of ionising radiation is stored or used and the requirements specified in the safety data sheet of the source of ionising radiation.

97. It is prohibited to store sources of ionising radiation in paperboard packaging.

98. Sources of ionising radiation shall be stored at a fireproof distance from highly inflammable materials.

99. When installing ionising radiation installation, the operator shall ensure that the ionising radiation installation may be surveyed from the main control panel of the installation. If it is impossible the operator shall ensure that prior to actuation of the ionising radiation installation all warning signals can be seen or heard and the workers or other persons who may be endangered by the relevant installation may leave the dangerous area in good time or take other protective measures after the relevant warning signals are triggered.

100. The operator and the work manager shall immediately take the necessary radiation safety measures and conduct investigation in the following cases:

100.1. if any operational parameter of the source of ionising radiation which is related to radiation safety and nuclear safety exceeds the permitted level or does not comply with the foreseen operating conditions;

100.2. if radiation accident takes place which may cause the ionising radiation dose limits to be exceeded.

101. The operator shall ensure:

101.1. control of the state of metal constructions and welding joints of the ionising radiation installation at least once a year in order to discover defects which may endanger safe use of the relevant installation in good time, for example, cracks, deformations, changes in the wall thickness due to corrosion;

101.2. control of the state of metal constructions several times a year if the ionising radiation installation is used in such circumstances where the working environment adversely affects the relevant installation;

101.3. that during regulation, maintenance, repair and other service operations of the source of ionising radiation, the source of ionising radiation is not operated (if possible). The abovementioned service operations shall be carried out only by appropriately authorised institutions.

102. The operator shall ensure calibration of all sources of ionising radiation under its ownership or possession. Calibration shall be performed at the beginning of the operation of the source of ionising radiation, repeated at least once a year, as well as after every such operating procedure that affects the parameters of ionising radiation.

103. In calibration the following conditions shall be observed:

103.1. an ionising radiation installation shall be calibrated according to the type of ionising radiation, energy and the absorbed dose or the rate of the absorbed dose at a certain distance;

103.2. a sealed source of radiation for close irradiation shall be calibrated according to the total radioactivity thereof by determining the rate of the absorbed dose in vacuum or at a certain distance in the air.

6.3. Assessment of Radiation Safety and Nuclear Safety of Sources of Ionising Radiation

104. A safe source of ionising radiation under normal or expected conditions of use (taking into account also the expected duration of use) shall not produce risk or shall produce a minimum risk which conforms to the radiation safety and nuclear radiation safety requirements. The possibility of higher safety levels or existence of sources of ionising radiation with lower levels of risk may not be a reason to regard other sources of ionising radiation or activities therewith as unsafe.

105. The operator and work manager shall ensure continuous control of sources of ionising radiation and inform the Centre and the Security Police without delay if a source of ionising radiation has been lost, moved or used without authorisation.

106. If a producer, supplier of the source of ionising radiation or other operator who performs activities with the relevant source learns that the source of ionising radiation or activities therewith may be dangerous to human life, health, personal property or the environment, it shall without delay:

106.1. directly or through the mediation of the Centre inform other operators who perform activities with sources of ionising radiation of the relevant type of the unsafe source of ionising radiation or activities therewith, as well as other deficiencies of the source of ionising radiation;

106.2. perform intervention activities - rectify the relevant deficiencies, transfer the unsafe source of ionising radiation to a radioactive waste disposal or management undertaking (if the relevant source of ionising radiation contains radioactive substances) or destroy the unsafe ionising radiation installation which does not contain radioactive substances;

106.3. take measures to withdraw the unsafe source of ionising radiation from circulation;

106.4. inform the Centre of the measures taken and to be taken in order to guarantee the safety of the source of ionising radiation or the relevant activity or of the withdrawal of the unsafe source of ionising radiation from circulation, or suspension of the relevant activity with the unsafe source of ionising radiation.

107. The operator in co-operation with the work manager and radiation safety expert or radiation safety and nuclear safety expert shall perform radiation safety and nuclear safety assessment of the source of ionising radiation (hereinafter - the safety assessment) so that the ionising radiation dose received by the population does not exceed ionising radiation dose limits for the population. The safety assessment shall contain the following information:

107.1. the magnitude, characteristics, and probability of occurrence of potential exposure;

107.2. technical working conditions and boundaries of the source of ionising radiation;

107.3. constructions, systems, elements, and procedures (or all together) related to radiation safety and nuclear safety which may cause potential exposure, as well as consequences thereof;

107.4. changes in the environment which may affect radiation safety and nuclear safety;

107.5. probable mistake of the operating procedure related to radiation safety and nuclear safety and consequences thereof.

108. In safety assessment the following shall be taken into account:

108.1. the potential amount of radioactive substances emitted in the environment within a year if activities with radioactive substances are carried out in the operator-controlled area. Annex 10 to this Regulation specifies the permissible amounts of radionuclides that may be annually emitted in the environment;

108.2. factors which may cause such amounts of radioactive substance emissions which exceed the permitted amounts of radionuclides specified in Annex 10 to this Regulation, means for prevention or control of emissions, as well as the maximum total radioactivity of each radioactive substance which may be released in the environment due to the damage of the protective cover;

108.3. factors which on long-term basis may cause such amount of radioactive substance emissions which is smaller than the permitted amounts of radionuclides specified in Annex 10 to this Regulation, and means for prevention or control of emissions;

108.4. factors which may promote unexpected actuation of the ionising radiation beam and means for determination, rectification and control of the abovementioned radiation accident;

108.5. the necessity of various independent means for provision of radiation safety and nuclear safety so that one fault does not lead to another fault and to prevent the probability and magnitude of the potential exposure.

109. If controlled areas of two operators where activities with radioactive substances are carried out border on each other or areas of impact of the relevant sources of ionising radiation overlap, the work managers in assessing the dispersion of radioactive substances in the environment shall take into account the permitted emissions of radioactive substances from the controlled area of the other operator so that the dose of ionising radiation received by the populations does not exceed the ionising radiation dose limits for the population.

110. The operator shall ensure the documentation of the safety assessment. An independent analysis of the safety assessment may be performed if such is provided for in the relevant quality assurance programme.

111. The operator shall organise repeated safety assessment, specify radiation safety and nuclear safety instructions and technical prescriptions in the following cases:

111.1. if it is intended to significantly modify the source of ionising radiation or the operating or servicing procedures thereof;

111.2. if the operator has obtained information on radiation accidents which have caused exposure or radioactive contamination of the environment, exceeding the relevant ionising radiation dose limits, or it is determined that the potential exposure may exceed the relevant dose limits;

111.3. if the requirements laid down in laws and regulations that may affect safety assessment have changed.

112. If the repeated safety assessment shows that the probability of a radiation accident remains, the work manager shall prepare a radiation accident prevention plan. The radiation accident prevention plan shall be approved by the operator. If a radiation accident affects the safety of the population and the environment, the operator shall co-ordinate the plan for preparedness to radiological emergencies and actions in the event of radiological emergency with the relevant local government and the Centre.

6.4. Control of High-activity Sealed Radioactive Source

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112.1 The requirements of this Chapter shall be additionally applied to the following sources of ionising radiation:

112.11. a high-activity radioactive source - a sealed radioactive source the radioactivity of which at the moment of production thereof or, if it is unknown, at the moment when the source of radiation is first marketed is equal to or exceeds the limit of radioactivity specified in Annex 10.1 to this Regulation;

112.12. a disused source of radiation - a high-activity radioactive source which is no longer used or not expected to be used in activities for the performance of which a special permit (licence) or a permit for activities with sources of ionising radiation has been received.

112.2 A producer of a high-activity radioactive source shall provide suppliers and users with photographs of each model of the high-activity radioactive source produced and of the container.

112.3 With regard to a high-activity radioactive source, the operator shall:

112.31. ensure keeping of the records of high-activity radioactive sources in accordance with the information referred to in Annex 10.2 to this Regulation, as well as register the location of each high-activity radioactive source and transfer thereof to another operator;

112.32. fill in and submit (also electronically) to the Centre a completed form specified in Annex 10.2 to this Regulation:

112.32.1. immediately after receipt or transfer of the high-activity radioactive source to another operator;

112.32.2. each year by 31 January;

112.32.3. if the information regarding the high-activity radioactive source has changed;

112.33. at least once a month inspect the high-activity radioactive source and the installation in which the high-activity radioactive source is integrated (condition and location thereof in the intended place for use or storage). The operator shall decide on the frequency of inspections after co-ordination thereof with the Centre according to the specific nature of the use and storage of the radioactive source and the relevant installation;

112.34. at least once a year perform inspections and tests of radiation safety and nuclear safety of the high-activity radioactive source, including leakproofness tests;

112.35. perform inspections of radiation safety and nuclear safety of the high-activity radioactive source and the relevant installation, including leakproofness tests, in case of an emergency or accident which may affect this source or installation (for example, fire or floods), or in case of any other changes in the use of the source which may cause changes in conditions of use of the source which do not correspond to the conditions of the producer;

112.36. transfer the high-activity radioactive source to another operator only if a special permit (licence) or a permit for activities with sources of ionising radiation has been issued to the recipient;

112.37. provide regular training in the matters of radiation safety for the workers who perform operations with the high-activity radioactive source.

112.4 The Centre shall, at least four times a year, inspect a high-activity radioactive source and the installation in which a high-activity radioactive source is integrated.

112.5 A disused source of radiation may not be stored in a temporary repository of the operator for more than six months. During this period of time the operator shall take a decision to transfer it to another operator for further use, to a producer or a supplier according to the terms and conditions of a purchase or supply agreement, or to a radioactive waste management undertaking for long-term storage or disposal.

7. Protection of the Population against Ionising Radiation

113. The Centre shall perform monitoring of the ionising radiation doses received by the population by means of the indirect method - use and control the monitoring data on radioactive contamination in the environment (hereinafter - monitoring of environmental radiation) and food products (radioactive contamination of food) in the territory of Latvia:

113.1. determine people who are equally subjected to the effect of a source of ionising radiation and to whom irradiation from such source is the strongest (hereinafter - the critical group of the population);

113.2. compile the information received from the operators in respect of the monitoring of environmental radiation in the operator-controlled areas;

113.3. compile information in respect of the monitoring of environmental radiation and radioactive contamination of food in the country;

113.4. continuously study and assess the exposure of the population;

113.5. assess the ionising radiation doses received by the critical groups of the population in the areas of impact of the ionising radiation objects of national significance.

114. If the intended activities with sources of ionising radiation are related to the exposure risk of the population, the operator shall prior to the commencement of the relevant activities perform an analysis of the probable risk.

115. Monitoring of environmental radiation in a supervised area shall be ensured by the operator performing activities with:

115.1. an ionising radiation object of national significance;

115.2. an unsealed source of radiation the total radioactivity of which 103 times exceeds the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit;

115.3. a sealed source of radiation the total radioactivity of which 106 times exceeds the limits specified in laws and regulations requiring a special permit (licence) or a permit.

116. The operator shall:

116.1. ensure the development of an environmental radiation monitoring programme and co-ordination thereof with the Centre, as well as according to the environmental radiation monitoring programme ensure the control of the amount of radionuclides in the air, soil, plants and water taking into account the expected specific radioactivity of a radioactive substance in the air, soil, plants and water and the possible changes of the relevant values when performing various operations in the controlled area;

116.2. at least once a year submit to the Centre and the territorial local government a report regarding the results of the monitoring of environmental radiation.

117. The environmental radiation monitoring programme shall determine:

117.1. the values to be measured;

117.2. the territory where measurements shall be carried out and the regularity of measuring;

117.3. methods of measurement, control procedures of the radioactive contamination and dose rate of ionising radiation and apparatus to be used for measurements;

117.4. the permissible levels of ionising radiation and measures to be taken if the relevant level is exceeded.

118. The results of environmental radiation monitoring shall contain the following information:

118.1. the territory where the monitoring of environmental radiation is carried out;

118.2. the date and time of the measurement;

118.3. the values measured;

118.4. the name of the relevant measuring instrument;

118.5. the calculated or assessed values:

118.5.1. the potential internal irradiation;

118.5.2. the potential external irradiation;

118.6. the given name, surname, and position of the worker responsible for the measurements.

119. The environmental radiation monitoring programme shall be reviewed at least once a year in order to evaluate whether it corresponds to the nature of the operator-controlled area and the activities with sources of ionising radiation to be carried out in this area.

120. The assessment of the doses of ionising radiation received by the population shall contain the following:

120.1. the results of the measurements of doses of external ionising radiation for the critical groups of the population;

120.2. assessment of the internal irradiation for the critical groups of the population;

120.3. the results of the radioactive contamination measurements in environmental objects and food products.

121. The Centre shall inform the population and the employer if:

121.1. the irradiation dose of the critical group of the population from an external ionising radiation is permanently 5 mSv per year or higher;

121.2. irradiation from the natural sources of ionising radiation exceeds the limits specified in Chapter 8 of this Regulation.

122. In order to assess the dose of ionising radiation received by the population from internal irradiation the following shall be used:

122.1. the committed effective doses specified in Annex 3 to this Regulation upon ingestion of radionuclides with food or water;

122.2. the committed effective doses specified in Annex 4 to this Regulation upon inhaling of radionuclides;

122.3. coefficients (f1) specified in Annex 6 to this Regulation for gut transfer of compounds of chemical elements upon ingestion thereof with food or water;

122.4. the committed effective doses specified in Annex 8 to this Regulation upon inhaling soluble or reactive gases and vapour;

122.5. effective dose rates specified in Annex 9 to this Regulation for irradiation from inert gases.

8. Protection Against Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation

8.1. Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Buildings

123. The Centre shall determine places in the relevant building with increased level of natural ionising radiation. Investigation of the abovementioned places following an order from the State or local government shall be performed by an accredited laboratory in co-operation with other competent authorities.

124. Following an order of the owner or tenant of the building or apartment the level of radon in buildings shall be determined by accredited laboratories or the Centre.

125. If it is determined that the average specific radioactivity of radon in a building is more than 200 Bq/m3 per year, the owner of the building or apartment shall inform the tenant and the Centre thereof (if the level of radon has been determined by an accredited laboratory). The Centre shall inform the population of the expected damage to their health and jointly with the owner or tenant of the building or apartment decide regarding the taking of protection measures for reduction of the harmful effect of radon.

126. If it is determined that the average specific radioactivity of radon in a building is more than 1000 Bq/m3 at the moment the measurement is made or 600 Bq/m3 on average per year, the owner or tenant of the building or apartment shall immediately take protection measures.

127. The Centre together with the owner or tenant of the building or apartment shall take a decision on the required protection measures of the building or apartment on the basis of the results of continuous or periodic measurements of radon or its decay products, seasonal changes of the specific radioactivity of radon, geological data, and information on construction of the building or apartment.

128. The contractor, designer, and performer of construction works shall be responsible for ensuring that the average specific radioactivity of radon in the newly erected building or apartment does not exceed 200 Bq/m3 per year.

129. The limits of the rate of the equivalent of the dose caused by surrounding sources of external gamma radiation are as follows:

129.1. in new buildings - 0.5 µSv/h;

129.2. in buildings - 1 µSv/h;

129.3. in frequently used places outside the buildings, for example, yards, auxiliary buildings, playgrounds - 1 µSv/h.

8.2. Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation at Workplaces

130. This Sub-chapter refers to natural sources of ionising radiation at workplaces with which sources no activities are carried out but which cause irradiation that exceeds the limits set in Paragraphs 43 and 44 of this Regulation for workers who do not perform activities with sources of ionising radiation or the population. The employer shall ensure appropriate protection measures if the following operations are carried out:

130.1. operations related to increased specific radioactivity of daughter nuclides of radon isotopes 222Rn and 220Rn, increased gamma irradiation or any other exposure at workplaces, such as spas, caves, mines, underground workplaces and separate aboveground workplaces;

130.2. storage of such materials, which are not regarded as radioactive, but which contain significant amount of natural radionuclides, as well as activities therewith;

130.3. activities which produce waste which is not regarded as radioactive but which contains such amount of natural radionuclides that it may exceed the limits specified in Paragraphs 43 and 44 of this Regulation;

130.4. activities in jet planes during the flights thereof.

131. If an employee who is not performing activities with sources of ionising radiation may receive a dose of ionising radiation at the workplace which dose exceeds 1 mSv per year, the employer shall carry out research of the working environment in order to determine in which territories and during performance of which activities and in what conditions the relevant person is subject to exposure and shall take protection measures to reduce the dose of ionising radiation.

132. If an employee who is not performing activities with sources of ionising radiation may receive a dose of ionising radiation at the workplace which dose exceeds 6 mSv per year, the employer shall apply to him or her the protection measures specified for workers in this Regulation.

133. If the committed effective dose is higher than 1 mSv but lower than 6 mSv per year, the employer shall ensure that for an employed pregnant woman the dose of ionising radiation that might be received by the foetus during pregnancy does not exceed 1 mSv.

134. The employer in co-operation with the Centre shall control the dose of ionising radiation received by members of jet crews. If the received dose of ionising radiation is higher than 1 mSv but lower than 6 mSv per year, the employer shall ensure that for female air crew members the dose of ionising radiation which might be received by the foetus during pregnancy does not exceed 1 mSv.

135. If the average specific radioactivity of radon in aboveground and underground workplaces is higher than 400 Bq/m3 per year, the employer shall ensure protective measures for reduction of the harmful effects of radon at workplaces and shall not permit employment of pregnant women at the workplaces referred to during the whole period of pregnancy.

136. If it is impossible to reduce the specific radioactivity of radon to 400 Bq/m3 the workplace shall be equivalent to a place where activities with sources of ionising radiation are performed and the employer shall apply to the relevant employee the protection measures specified for workers in this Regulation.

8.3. Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Water

137. The Centre shall inform the population and the territorial local governments of the potential damage to public health and the protection measures for reduction of the harmful effects of radon if the specific radioactivity of radon in drinking water is 100 Bq/l - 1000 Bq/l. Drinking water where the specific radioactivity of radon is higher than 1000 Bq/l shall not be used if protection measures for reduction of the harmful effects of radon have not been taken.

138. For long-living radionuclides (238U, 234U, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po) the specific radioactivity in drinking water which is expressed as an annual effective dose shall not exceed 1 mSv.

8.4. Natural Sources of Ionising Radiation in Construction Materials and Construction Products

139. If construction materials and construction products contain 226Ra the specific radioactivity of which exceeds 100 Bq/kg, the performer of construction work shall ensure appropriate protection measures to prevent the limits specified in Sub-chapter 8.1 of this Regulation, for concentration of radon in a building in the construction of which the abovementioned construction materials and construction products shall be used, being exceeded.

140. The maximum permissible limits of specific radioactivity of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th) in construction materials and construction products shall be as follows:

140.1. in construction materials and construction products intended for construction, repair and internal finishing work of residential and public houses - 270 Bq/kg;

140.2. in construction materials and construction products intended for construction, repair, reconstruction of engineering structures and industrial buildings and constructions, as well as external finishing work of residential and public houses and road construction in populated areas - 740 Bq/kg;

140.3. in construction materials and construction products intended for external finishing work of engineering structures and industrial buildings and road construction outside populated areas - 1350 Bq/kg.

141. The limit of specific radioactivity of construction materials and construction products - sources of gamma radiation - is 2 Bq/kg. If the specific radioactivity is lower than 1 Bq/kg no protection measures shall be taken. Radioactivity shall be determined, using the following formula:

mγ = CK/3000 + CRa/300 + CTh/200, where

mγ - radioactivity of gamma radiation source (Bq/kg);

Ck - specific radioactivity of potassium 40 (Bq/kg);

CRa - specific radioactivity of radium 226 (Bq/kg);

CTh - specific radioactivity of thorium 232 (Bq/kg).

142. Producers and suppliers of construction materials and construction products and performers of construction works shall be responsible for the observance of the limits of specific radioactivity specified for construction materials and construction products.

9. Protection against Artificial Sources of Ionising Radiation

9.1. Sources of Ionising Radiation in Buildings

143. Performers of construction works shall choose such construction materials and construction products which do not contain artificial sources of ionising radiation, or the quantity thereof is so insignificant that:

143.1. in new buildings the rate of the dose equivalent caused by surrounding external sources of gamma radiation is lower than 0.25 µSv/h;

143.2. in buildings the rate of the dose equivalent caused by surrounding external sources of gamma radiation is lower than 0.5 µSv/h;

143.3. in frequently used places outside the buildings such as yards, auxiliary constructions, playgrounds the rate of the dose equivalent caused by surrounding external sources of gamma radiation is lower than 0.5 µSv/h.

9.2. Radioactive Substances in Water

144. The Centre shall perform monitoring and control of radioactive contamination of water in order to prevent exposure of the population.

145. Monitoring and control of the water intended for human consumption shall be performed in accordance with laws and regulations determining the safety and quality requirements, monitoring, and control procedures of the water intended for human consumption.

[4 November 2003]

145.1 The value limits to be determined in the water intended for human consumption:

145.11. specific radioactivity of tritium - 100 Bq/l;

145.12. total effective dose - 0.10 mSv per year which is assessed, without taking into account tritium, 40K, radon, and radon decay products. The total effective dose shall not exceed 0.10 mSv per year if the total specific radioactivity of alpha radiation sources does not exceed 0.1 Bq/l and the total specific radioactivity of beta radiation sources (total beta radioactivity) does not exceed 1 Bq/l.

[4 November 2003]

146. At least once a year the specific radioactivity of 137Cs and 40K and the total specific radioactivity of beta radiation sources (total beta radioactivity) shall be determined in surface waters in an accredited laboratory according to the national environmental monitoring programme approved by the Minister for Environment.

[4 November 2003]

147. The Centre shall inform the population and the local government of the potential harm to public health and the possible protection measures if the specific radioactivity or the total effective dose:

147.1. in the water intended for human consumption is:

147.1.1. higher than 100 Bq/l for tritium;

147.1.2. higher than 0.06 Bq/l for 90Sr;

147.1.3. higher than 0.1 Bq/l for 137Cs;

147.1.4. higher than 0.1 mSv per year (the total effective dose which may be caused by other radionuclides in water);

147.2. in the surface waters:

147.2.1. is higher than 0.6 Bq/l - the total specific radioactivity of beta radiation sources (total beta radioactivity), re-calculated for 90Sr (minus specific radioactivity of 40K);

147.2.2. higher than 1.0 Bq/l - 137Cs.

[4 November 2003]

9.3. Radioactive Contamination of Food and Animal Feed

[30 March 2004]

148. Supervision of radioactive contamination of food products shall be performed by the Centre.

149. Radioactive contamination of food products and animal feed shall be controlled by the Food and Veterinary Service. Results of the control shall be transferred to the Centre.

150. At least once a year the Food and Veterinary Service shall control the radioactive contamination of milk in holdings where the number of cows exceeds 200 and in food undertakings where milk production within a year exceeds 5000 tons (calculating into milk equivalent). In milk 137Cs and 90Sr shall be controlled but 40K shall be used to assess the quality of measurement methods.

151. If specific radioactivity of 90Sr exceeds 0.2 Bq/l in milk or specific radioactivity of 137Cs exceeds 0.5 Bq/l in milk, the following radionuclides shall be determined as well: 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am (in total), 131I, 89Sr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 134Cs and 137Cs (in total). On the basis of the obtained results of analyses and the data referred to in Annex 3 to this Regulation, the Centre shall, together with the Food and Veterinary Service, assess the committed effective doses upon ingestion of radionuclides with milk or dairy products. If the assessed doses exceed 0.1 mSv per year:

151.1. the situation at the place where milk is produced and processed shall be examined and analysed;

151.2. it shall be requested that milk producers and processors eliminate the causes of radioactive contamination and, if necessary, ensure milk processing in order to reduce radioactive contamination to the maximum permissible level;

151.3. if it is impossible to reduce radioactive contamination in the dairy products, the relevant products shall be withdrawn from the market in accordance with the procedures laid down in the laws and regulations governing handling and supervision of food.

152. For the purposes of control of radioactive contamination, an accredited laboratory shall, at least four times a year, determine radioactivity of 90Sr and 137Cs for the total consumption of food products per person per day (hereinafter - the food basket). In controlling the food basket also imported food products shall be taken into account. Radioactive contamination of the food basket shall be determined by parallel use of the following methods:

152.1. on the basis of statistical data, consumption of individual food products per person per day shall be determined, the relevant amount of individual food products shall be purchased in a shop or market (food products shall be purchased in such shop and market where shopping is done at least by 10 000 persons per day), specific radioactivity shall be determined in each individual food product and the total radioactivity shall be calculated for the food basket;

152.2. samples shall be formed by combining meals for breakfast, lunch and dinner intended for one person (food products shall be purchased in such place of public catering which serves at least 1000 people per day). The quantity of radioactive substances shall be determined for the sample obtained and it shall be applied to the food basket.

153. If radioactivity of 90Sr in the food basket exceeds 0.1 Bq or radioactivity of 137Cs exceeds 0.2 Bq per person per day, the Centre jointly with the Food and Veterinary Service shall:

153.1. examine and analyse the situation at the place where food is produced and distributed;

153.2. request food manufacturers and distributors to eliminate the causes of radioactive contamination and, if necessary, ensure processing of the relevant food to reduce radioactive contamination to the maximum permissible level;

153.3. if it is impossible to reduce radioactive contamination in the products contained by the food basket, the relevant food products shall be withdrawn from the market in accordance with the procedures laid down in the laws and regulations governing handling and supervision of food.

9.4. Radioactive Contamination of Animal Feed

[30 March 2004]

9.5. Radioactive Contamination of Air

157. The Centre shall perform monitoring and control of radioactive contamination of the air in order to assess exposure of the population and ensure monitoring of dose rate of gamma radiation in the air by using the automatic gamma radiation monitoring system.

158. An accredited laboratory shall, at least once a month according to the national environmental monitoring programme approved by the Minister for Environment, determine specific radioactivity of 137Cs and 7Be in air samples by using at least one stationary filtering installation of air aerosol samples located in the Daugavpils district which operates in a non-stop regime. If the specific radioactivity of 137Cs exceeds 0.3 Bq/m3, radioactivity of 90Sr or other radionuclides shall be determined.

[4 November 2003]

10. Protection Measures for Reduction of Exposure

159. Protection measures for reduction of exposure are neutralisation of a source of ionising radiation, modification of ionising radiation or reduction of the number of people exposed to ionising radiation (hereinafter - the intervention). Intervention measures shall be taken:

159.1. in case of radiation accident in order to reduce or prevent short-term exposure;

159.2. in case of chronic exposure to reduce or prevent chronic exposure. Chronic exposure is exposure to:

159.2.1. radiation sources of natural origin;

159.2.2. radioactive substances remaining from previous radiation accidents after protection measures have been completed;

159.2.3. sources of ionising radiation which are not subject to control of the Centre;

159.2.4. such activities with sources of ionising radiation for the performance of which no special permit (licence) or permit for activities with sources of ionising radiation is required.

160. Necessity of intervention shall be assessed by the work manager and radiation safety expert of radiation safety and nuclear safety expert. Intervention shall be permitted if it reduces the possible damage to health and the positive effect is greater than the damage caused by intervention, as well as other costs related to intervention.

161. If intervention is necessary the work manager shall draw up an intervention plan. The form, scale, and duration of the intervention shall be optimised so that the benefit of the reduction in health damage maximally exceeds any costs related with the intervention. The intervention plan shall be approved by the operator. If the relevant measures affect the safety of the environment and humans, the operator shall co-ordinate the intervention plan with the relevant local government and the Centre.

162. Intervention may apply to:

162.1. the source of ionising radiation in order to reduce or stop direct emission of ionising radiation or radionuclides;

162.2. environmental objects in order to reduce the transfer of radioactive substances to humans;

162.3. for humans in order to reduce unexpected exposure and organise the treatment of victims.

163. Intervention in a radiation accident shall be justified if the radiation accident may cause serious damage to human health.

164. Intervention in order to prevent prolonged exposure caused by radon shall be justified if:

164.1. radon concentration in a building or an apartment exceeds 200 Bq/m3 - intervention shall be ensured by the owner of the building or the apartment;

164.2. radon concentration at workplace exceeds 400 Bq/m3 - intervention shall be ensured by the employer.

165. Doses of ionising radiation after receipt of which intervention shall be required are specified in Annex 13 to this Regulation.

166. The operator shall ensure assessment and registration of any consequences of radiation accidents and efficiency of intervention. The Centre shall compile the relevant information.

11. Closing Provision

167. Cabinet Regulation No. 194 of 26 May 1998, Regulations Regarding Control of Radioactive Contamination of Food (Latvijas Vēstnesis, 1998, No. 155/156) is repealed.

167.1 Annexes 11 and 12 to the Regulation are repealed with special Cabinet Regulation.

[4 November 2003]

Informative Reference to the Directives of the European Union

[7 March 2006]

The Regulation includes legal norms arising from:

1) Council Directive 96/29/Euratom of 13 May 1996 laying down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation;

2) Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption;

3) Council Directive 2003/122/Euratom of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources.

Prime Minister A. Bērziņš

Minister for Environmental Protection
and Regional Development V. Makarovs

 

Annex 1
Cabinet Regulation No. 149
9 April 2002

Ionising Radiation Weighting Factor

No. Energy type and range Ionising radiation weighting factor (wR)
1. Photons (all energies) 1
2. Electrons and muons (all energies) 1
3. Neutrons:  
3.1. energy lower than 10 keV 5
3.2. energy from 10 keV to 100 keV 10
3.3. energy from 100 keV to 2 MeV 20
3.4. energy from 2 MeV to 20 MeV 10
3.5. energy higher than 20 MeV 5
4. Protons (except recoil protons) - energy higher than 2 MeV 5
5. Alpha particles, fission fragments, heavy nuclei 20

Minister for Environmental Protection
and Regional Development V. Makarovs

 

Annex 2
Cabinet Regulation No. 149
9 April 2002

Values for Assessment of Potential Exposure

[4 November 2003; 7 March 2006]

The following values shall be used for assessment of potential exposure:

1. A tissue equivalent (ICRU sphere) - a tissue equivalent sphere with a diameter of 30 cm, density of 1 g/cm3 and mass content: 76.2 % of oxygen, 11.1 % of nitrogen, 10.1 % of hydrogen and 2.6 % of nitrogen that is used to view in approximation a human body in relation to absorption of ionising radiation energy.

2. Assessment of external irradiation:

2.1. a surrounding dose equivalent H* (d) - a dose equivalent at the point of the ionising radiation field which would be formed of a corresponding extended and equalised field in the tissue equivalent (ICRU sphere) at the depth d (mm) on a radius the direction of which is opposite to the direction of the equalised field. The surrounding dose equivalent shall be used for monitoring of a working place, and the measurement unit thereof shall be sievert (Sv);

2.2. a directed dose equivalent H' (d, ) - a dose equivalent at the point of the ionising radiation field which would be formed of a corresponding extended field in the tissue equivalent (ICRU sphere) at the depth d (mm) on a radius in a specific direction (angle of incidence). The directed dose equivalent shall be used for monitoring of a working place, and the measurement unit thereof shall be sievert (Sv);

2.3. for ionising radiation with a high penetration capacity, a tissue equivalent (ICRU sphere) with a depth of 10 mm shall be used, while for ionising radiation with a poor penetration capacity - 0.07 mm for skin and 3 mm for eye.

3. Individual dose equivalent Hp (d) - a dose equivalent in soft tissues at the depth d (mm) below a specific point in the body. The individual dose equivalent shall be used in individual monitoring for assessment of external irradiation, and the measurement unit thereof shall be sievert (Sv).

4. Ionising radiation weighting factor (wR):

4.1. shall be used to assess the dose absorbed by tissues or an organ. The appropriate wR values have been specified in Annex 1 to this Regulation. Values of the ionising radiation weighting factor (wR) shall depend on the external ionising radiation field or the type and quality of the ionising radiation emitted by an internally-bound radionuclide. As to the types and energy of ionising radiation not included in Annex 1 to this Regulation, wRapproximation may be obtained by calculating the average quality coefficient (Q) in the tissue equivalent (ICRU sphere) at the depth of 10 mm;

4.2. if the ionising radiation field consists of types and energy of ionising radiation with different wR values, the absorbed dose shall be divided into blocks, out of which each has its own wR value, and they are aggregated to obtain the total equivalent dose. Otherwise it may be expressed as a continuous energy mix where each of the energy elements between E and E+dE absorbed dose elements is multiplied by the relevant wR value from the table referred to in Annex 1 to this Regulation;

4.3. the following mathematical ratio shall be used for calculation of a neutron weighting factor:

, where

E is neutron energy (MeV).

5. Ionising radiation weighting factor for tissues or individual organs (T)1:

Table 1

No. Tissues or organ Weighting factor (wT)
1. Gonads 0.20
2. Bone marrow (red) 0.12
3. Rectum 0.12
4. Lungs 0.12
5. Stomach 0.12
6. Bladder 0.05
7. Lacteal glands 0.05
8. Liver 0.05
9. Oesophagus 0.05
10. Thyroid gland 0.05
11. Skin 0.01
12. Bone surface 0.01
13. Other 0.052,3

Notes.
1 The values have been developed for a risk group with equal number of both sexes and a wide range of ages.
2 Other organs - adrenal glands, brain, upper large intestine, small intestine, kidney, muscles, pancreas, spleen, thymus and uterus.
3 If one organ has received the equivalent dose, which exceeds the highest dose of any of the above organs, a weighting factor of 0,025 shall be applied to the relevant organ.

6. Quality coefficient (Q) - a function of linear energy transfer (L) which is used to assess the absorbed doses at the point by taking into account the quality of ionising radiation.

7. Unlimited linear energy transfer (L) - a value which is defined as follows:

, where

dE is the average energy E lost by a particle by crossing a distance dl in water. In this Regulation L shall be marked with L.

8. Extended field - a field derived from the actual field where the flux density and the mix of direction and energy thereof have the same levels in the whole volume of interest as at the reference point in the actual field.

9. Extended and equalised field - an ionising radiation field where the flux density and the mix of direction and energy thereof are the same as in the extended field, but the flux density is one-way.

10. Flux density () - dN derivation from da:

, where

dN is the number of particles which enter the sphere with a cross-sectional area da.

11. Correlation between the quality coefficient (Q(L)) and the unlimited linear energy transfer (L):

Table 2

No. Unlimited energy transfer L in water (keV µm-1) Q(L)
1. < 10 1
2. 10-100 0.32L-2.2
3. > 100

12. Average quality coefficient () - the average value of the quality coefficient at the point in tissues where the absorbed dose is transferred by particles with different L values. It shall be calculated as follows:

, where

D(L)dL is the absorbed dose at10 mm between the linear energy transfer L and L+dL, and Q(L) is the relevant quality coefficient at the point of interest.

13. Activity (A) is activity of an amount of a radionuclide in a specific energy condition at the relevant time - dN derivation from dt, where dN is the number of spontaneous nuclear transitions expected in this energy condition in the time interval dt:

A = dN  
Dt  

Measurement unit of activity shall be becquerel (Bq). One becquerel is equal to one transfer per second: 1Bq = 1s-1.

 

Annex 3
Cabinet Regulation No. 149
9 April 2002

Committed Effective Dose e (g) (Sv/Bq) for the Population, Apprentices and Students upon Ingestion of Radionuclides with Food or Water

No. Radionuclide T1/2 Age < 1 year Age
> 1 year
f1
Age
1-2 years
e (g)
Age
2-7 years
e (g)
Age
7-12 years
e (g)
Age
12-18 years
e (g)
Age
> 18 year
e (g)
f1 e (g)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  Hydrogen                  
1. Tritiated water 12.3 g. 1.000 6.4 x 10-11 1.000 4.8 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11
2. OBT1 12.3 g. 1.000 1.2 x 10-10 1.000 1.2 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11
  Beryllium                  
3. 7Be 53.3 d 0.020 1.8 x 10-10 0.005 1.3 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 5.3 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11
4. 10Be 1.60 x 106 g. 0.020 1.4 x 10-8 0.005 8.0 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
  Carbon                  
5. 11C 0.340 h 1.000 2.6 x 10-10 1.000 1.5 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 4.3 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11
6. 14C 5.73 x 103 g. 1.000 1.4 x 10-9 1.000 1.6 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10
  Fluorine                  
7. 18F 1.83 h 1.000 5.2 x 10-10 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11 6.2 x 10-11 4.9 x 10-11
  Sodium                  
8. 22Na 2.60 g. 1.000 2.1 x 10-8 1.000 1.5 x 10-8 8.4 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9
9. 24Na 15.0 h 1.000 3.5 x 10-9 1.000 2.3 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.7 x 10-10 5.2 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10
  Magnesium                  
10. 28Mg 20.9 h 1.000 1.2 x 10-8 0.500 1.4 x 10-8 7.4 x 10-9 4.5 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9
  Aluminium                  
11. 26Al 7.16 x 105 g. 0.020 3.4 x 10-8 0.010 2.1 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 7.1 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9
  Silicon                  
12. 31Si 2.62 h 0.020 1.9 x 10-9 0.010 1.0 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10
13. 32Si 4.50 x 102 g. 0.020 7.3 x 10-9 0.010 4.1 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10
  Phosphorus                  
14. 32P 14.3 d 1.000 3.1 x 10-8 0.800 1.9 x 10-8 9.4 x 10-9 5.3 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9
15. 33P 25.4 d 1.000 2.7 x 10-9 0.800 1.8 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
  Sulphur                  
16. 35S inorganic 87.4 d 1.000 1.3 x 10-9 1.000 8.7 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
17. 35S organic 87.4 d 1.000 7.7 x 10-9 1.000 5.4 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-10
  Chlorine                  
18. 36Cl 3.01 x 105 g. 1.000 9.8 x 10-9 1.000 6.3 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10
19. 38Cl 0.620 h 1.000 1.4 x 10-9 1.000 7.7 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
20. 39Cl 0.927 h 1.000 9.7 x 10-10 1.000 5.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-11
  Potassium                  
21. 40K 1.28 x 109 g. 1.000 6.2 x 10-8 1.000 4.2 x 10-8 2.1 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 7.6 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-9
22. 42K 12.4 h 1.000 5.1 x 10-9 1.000 3.0 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.6 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10
23. 43K 22.6 h 1.000 2.3 x 10-9 1.000 1.4 x 10-9 7.6 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
24. 44K 0.369 h 1.000 1.0 x 10-9 1.000 5.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.4 x 10-11
25. 45K 0.333 h 1.000 6.2 x 10-10 1.000 3.5 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 9.9 x 10-11 6.8 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
  Calcium2                  
26. 41Ca 1.40 x 105 g. 0.600 1.2 x 10-9 0.300 5.2 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
27. 45Ca 163 d 0.600 1.1 x 10-8 0.300 4.9 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.1 x 10-10
28. 47Ca 4.53 d 0.600 1.3 x 10-8 0.300 9.3 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9
  Scandium                  
29. 43Sc 3.89 h 0.001 1.8 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
30. 44Sc 3.93 h 0.001 3.5 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.1 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10
31. 44mSc 2.44 d 0.001 24 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-8 8.3 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9
32. 46Sc 83.8 d 0.001 1.1 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 7.9 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
33. 47Sc 3.35 d 0.001 6.1 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 3.9 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10
34. 48Sc 1.82 d 0.001 1.3 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 9.3 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9
35. 49Sc 0.956 h 0.001 1.0 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 5.7 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11
  Titanium                  
36. 44Ti 47.3 g. 0.020 5.5 x 10-8 0.010 3.1 x 10-8 1.7 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 6.9 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9
37. 45Ti 3.08 h 0.020 1.6 x 10-9 0.010 9.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10
  Vanadium                  
38. 47V 0.543 h 0.020 7.3 x 10-10 0.010 4.1 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11 6.3 x 10-11
39. 48V 16.2 d 0.020 1.5 x 10-8 0.010 1.1 x 10-8 5.9 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
40. 49V 330 d 0.020 2.2 x 10-10 0.010 1.4 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11
  Chromium                  
41. 48Cr 23.0 h 0.200 1.4 x 10-9 0.100 9.9 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
42.     0.020 1.4 x 10-9 0.010 9.9 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
43. 49Cr 0.702 h 0.200 6.8 x 10-10 0.100 3.9 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 6.1 x 10-11
44.     0.020 6.8 x 10-10 0.010 3.9 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 6.1 x 10-11
45. 51Cr 27.7 d 0.200 3.5 x 10-10 0.100 2.3 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.8 x 10-11 4.8 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11
46.     0.200 3.3 x 10-10 0.010 2.2 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11
  Manganese                  
47. 51Mn 0.770 h 0.200 1.1 x 10-9 0.100 6.1 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-11
48. 52Mn 5.59 d 0.200 1.2 x 10-8 0.100 8.8 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9
49. 52mMn 0.352 h 0.200 7.8 x 10-10 0.100 4.4 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11 6.9 x 10-11
50. 53Mn 3.70 x 106 g. 0.200 4.1 x 10-10 0.100 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11
51. 54Mn 312 d 0.200 5.4 x 10-9 0.100 3.1 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-10
52. 56Mn 2.58 h 0.200 2.7 x 10-9 0.100 1.7 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
  Iron3                  
53. 52Fe 8.28 h 0.600 1.3 x 10-8 0.100 9.1 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
54. 55Fe 2.70 g. 0.600 7.6 x 10-9 0.100 2.4 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.7 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10
55. 59Fe 44.5 d 0.600 3.9 x 10-8 0.100 1.3 x 10-8 7.5 x 10-9 4.7 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9
56. 60Fe 1.00 x 105 g. 0.600 7.9 x 10-7 0.100 2.7 x 10-7 2.7 x 10-7 2.5 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7
  Cobalt4                  
57. 55Co 17.5 h 0.600 6.0 x 10-9 0.100 5.5 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9
58. 56Co 78.7 d 0.600 2.5 x 10-8 0.100 1.5 x 10-8 8.8 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9
59. 57Co 271 d 0.600 2.9 x 10-9 0.100 1.6 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
60. 58Co 70.8 d 0.600 7.3 x 10-9 0.100 4.4 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.4 x 10-10
61. 58mCo 9.15 h 0.600 2.0 x 10-10 0.100 1.5 x 10-10 7.8 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11
62. 60Co 5.27 g. 0.600 5.4 x 10-8 0.100 2.7 x 10-8 1.7 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 7.9 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9
63. 60mCo 0.174 h 0.600 2.2 x 10-11 0.100 1.2 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-12 3.2 x 10-12 2.2 x 10-12 1.7 x 10-12
64. 61Co 1.65 h 0.600 8.2 x 10-10 0.100 5.1 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 9.2 x 10-11 7.4 x 10-11
65. 62mCo 0.232 h 0.600 5.3 x 10-10 0.100 3.0 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11
  Nickel                  
66. 56Ni 6.10 d 0.100 5.3 x 10-9 0.050 4.0 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.6 x 10-10
67. 57Ni 1.50 d 0.100 6.8 x 10-9 0.050 4.9 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10
68. 59Ni 7.50 x 104 g. 0.100 6.4 x 10-10 0.050 3.4 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 6.3 x 10-11
69. 63Ni 96.0 g. 0.100 1.6 x 10-9 0.050 8.4 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10
70. 65Ni 2.52 h 0.100 2.1 x 10-9 0.050 1.3 x 10-9 6.3 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
71. 66Ni 2.27 d 0.100 3.3 x 10-8 0.050 2.2 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 6.6 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9
  Copper                  
72. 60Cu 0.387 h 1.000 7.0 x 10-10 0.500 4.2 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.9 x 10-11 7.0 x 10-11
73. 61Cu 3.41 h 1.000 7.1 x 10-10 0.500 7.5 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
74. 64Cu 12.7 h 1.000 5.2 x 10-10 0.500 8.3 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
75. 57Cu 2.58 d 1.000 2.1 x 10-9 0.500 2.4 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.2 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
  Zinc                  
76. 62Zn 9.26 h 1.000 4.2 x 10-9 0.500 6.5 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10
77. 63Zn 0.635 h 1.000 8.7 x 10-10 0.500 5.2 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-11
78. 65Zn 244 d 1.000 3.6 x 10-8 0.500 1.6 x 10-8 9.7 x 10-9 6.4 x 10-9 4.5 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9
79. 69Zn 0.950 h 1.000 3.5 x 10-10 0.500 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
80. 69mZn 13.8 h 1.000 1.3 x 10-9 0.500 2.3 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10
81. 71mZn 3.92 h 1.000 1.4 x 10-9 0.500 1.5 x 10-9 7.8 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
82. 72Zn 1.94 d 1.000 8.7 x 10-9 0.500 8.6 x 10-9 4.5 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
  Gallium                  
83. 65Ga 0.253 h 0.010 4.3 x 10-10 0.001 2.4 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11
84. 66Ga 9.40 h 0.010 1.2 x 10-8 0.001 7.9 x 10-9 4.0 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
85. 67Ga 3.26 d 0.010 1.8 x 10-9 0.001 1.2 x 10-9 6.4 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
86. 68Ga 1.13 h 0.010 1.2 x 10-9 0.001 6.7 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
87. 70Ga 0.353 h 0.010 3.9 x 10-10 0.001 2.2 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 5.9 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
88. 72Ga 14.1 h 0.010 1.0 x 10-8 0.001 6.8 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
89. 73Ga 4.91 h 0.010 3.0 x 10-9 0.001 1.9 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
  Germanium                  
90. 66Ge 2.27 h 1.000 8.3 x 10-10 1.000 5.3 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
91. 67Ge 0.312 h 1.000 7.7 x 10-10 1.000 4.2 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11 6.5 x 10-11
92. 68Ge 288 d 1.000 1.2 x 10-8 1.000 8.0 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
93. 69Ge 1.63 d 1.000 2.0 x 10-9 1.000 1.3 x 10-9 7.1 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
94. 71Ge 11.8 d 1.000 1.2 x 10-10 1.000 7.8 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 1.5 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11
95. 75Ge 1.38 h 1.000 5.5 x 10-10 1.000 3.1 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11
96. 77Ge 11.3 h 1.000 3.0 x 10-9 1.000 1.8 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10 6.2 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10
97. 78Ge 1.45 h 1.000 1.2 x 10-9 1.000 7.0 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
  Arsenic                  
98. 69As 0.253 h 1.000 6.6 x 10-10 0.500 3.7 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-11
99. 70As 0.876 h 1.000 1.2 x 10-9 0.500 7.8 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
100. 71As 2.70 d 1.000 2.8 x 10-9 0.500 2.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10
101. 72As 1.08 d 1.000 1.1 x 10-8 0.500 1.2 x 10-8 6.3 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9
102. 73As 80.3 d 1.000 2.6 x 10-9 0.500 1.9 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
103. 74As 17.8 d 1.000 1.0 x 10-8 0.500 8.2 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
104. 76As 1.10 d 1.000 1.0 x 10-8 0.500 1.1 x 10-8 5.8 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9
105. 77As 1.62 d 1.000 2.7 x 10-9 0.500 2.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10
106. 78As 1.51 h 1.000 2.0 x 10-9 0.500 1.4 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
  Selenium                  
107. 70Se 0.683 h 1.000 1.0 x 10-9 0.800 7.1 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
108. 73Se 7.15 h 1.000 1.6 x 10-9 0.800 1.4 x 10-9 7.4 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
109. 73mSe 0.650 h 1.000 2.6 x 10-10 0.800 1.8 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11
110. 75Se 120 d 1.000 2.0 x 10-8 0.800 1.3 x 10-8 8.3 x 10-9 6.0 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9
111. 79Se 6.50 x 104 g. 1.000 4.1 x 10-8 0.800 2.8 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8 1.4 x 10-8 4.1 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9
112. 81Se 0.308 h 1.000 3.4 x 10-10 0.800 1.9 x 10-10 9.0 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11
113. 81mSe 0.954 h 1.000 6.0 x 10-10 0.800 3.7 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.7 x 10-11 5.3 x 10-11
114. 83Se 0.375 h 1.000 4.6 x 10-10 0.800 2.9 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11
  Bromine                  
115. 74Br 0.422 h 1.000 9.0 x 10-10 1.000 5.2 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.4 x 10-11
116. 74mBr 0.691 h 1.000 1.5 x 10-9 1.000 8.5 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10
117. 75Br 1.63 h 1.000 8.5 x 10-10 1.000 4.9 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.9 x 10-11 7.9 x 10-11
118. 76Br 16.2 h 1.000 4.2 x 10-9 1.000 2.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10
119. 77Br 2.33 d 1.000 6.3 x 10-10 1.000 4.4 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 9.6 x 10-11
120. 80Br 0.290 h 1.000 3.9 x 10-10 1.000 2.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
121. 80mBr 4.42 h 1.000 1.4 x 10-9 1.000 8.0 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
122. 82Br 1.47 d 1.000 3.7 x 10-9 1.000 2.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10
123. 83Br 2.39 h 1.000 5.3 x 10-10 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.3 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11 4.3 x 10-11
124. 84Br 0.530 h 1.000 1.0 x 10-9 1.000 5.8 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11
  Rubidium                  
125. 79Rb 0.382 h 1.000 5.7 x 10-10 1.000 3.2 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 9.2 x 10-11 6.3 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11
126. 81Rb 4.58 h 1.000 5.4 x 10-10 1.000 3.2 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.7 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
127. 81mRb 0.533 h 1.000 1.1 x 10-10 1.000 6.2 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11 9.7 x 10-12
128. 82mRb 6.20 h 1.000 8.7 x 10-10 1.000 5.9 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
129. 83Rb 86.2 d 1.000 1.1 x 10-8 1.000 8.4 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9
130. 84Rb 32.8 d 1.000 2.0 x 10-8 1.000 1.4 x 10-8 7.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9
131. 86Rb 18.7 d 1.000 3.1 x 10-8 1.000 2.0 x 10-8 9.9 x 10-9 5.9 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9
132. 87Rb 4.70 x 1010 g. 1.000 1.5 x 10-8 1.000 1.0 x 10-8 5.2 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
133. 88Rb 0.297 h 1.000 1.1 x 10-9 1.000 6.2 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.0 x 10-11
134. 89Rb 0.253 h 1.000 5.4 x 10-10 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 8.6 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11
  Strontium5                  
135. 80Sr 1.67 h 0.600 3.7 x 10-9 0.300 2.3 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.5 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
136. 81Sr 0.425 h 0.600 8.4 x 10-10 0.300 4.9 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 9.6 x 10-11 7.7 x 10-11
137. 82Sr 25.0 d 0.600 7.2 x 10-8 0.300 4.1 x 10-8 2.1 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 8.7 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-9
138. 83Sr 1.35 d 0.600 3.4 x 10-9 0.300 2.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10
139. 85Sr 64.8 d 0.600 7.7 x 10-9 0.300 3.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 5.6 x 10-10
140. 85mSr 1.16 h 0.600 4.5 x 10-11 0.300 3.0 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11 1.1 x 10-11 7.8 x 10-12 6.1 x 10-12
141. 87mSr 2.80 h 0.600 2.4 x 10-10 0.300 1.7 x 10-10 9.0 x 10-11 5.6 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11
142. 89Sr 50.5 d 0.600 3.6 x 10-8 0.300 1.8 x 10-8 8.9 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9 4.0 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9
143. 90Sr 29.1 g. 0.600 2.3 x 10-7 0.300 7.3 x 10-8 4.7 x 10-8 6.0 x 10-8 8.0 x 10-8 2.8 x 10-8
  91Sr 9.50 h 0.600 5.2 x 10-9 0.300 4.0 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.4 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-10
144. 92Sr 2.71 h 0.600 3.4 x 10-9 0.300 2.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10
  Yttrium                  
145. 86Y 14.7 h 0.001 7.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 5.2 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.6 x 10-10
146. 86mY 0.800 h 0.001 4.5 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-4 3.1 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-11 5.6 x 10-11
147. 87Y 3.35 d 0.001 4.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 3.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
148. 88Y 107 d 0.001 8.1 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 6.0 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
149. 90Y 2.67 d 0.001 3.1 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 2.0 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-8 5.9 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9
150. 90mY 3.19 h 0.001 1.8 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
151. 91Y 58.5 d 0.001 2.8 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 1.8 x 10-8 8.8 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9
152. 91mY 0.828 h 0.001 9.2 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-4 6.0 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.4 x 10-11 1.1 x 10-11
153. 92Y 3.54 h 0.001 5.9 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 3.6 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10
154. 93Y 10.1 h 0.001 1.4 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 8.5 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
155. 94Y 0.318 h 0.001 9.9 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-4 5.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11
156. 95Y 0.178 h 0.001 5.7 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-4 3.1 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11
  Zirconium                  
157. 86Zr 16.5 h 0.020 6.9 x 10-9 0.010 4.8 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.6 x 10-10
158. 88Zr 83.4 d 0.020 2.8 x 10-9 0.010 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 8.0 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10
159. 89Zr 3.27 d 0.020 6.5 x 10-9 0.010 4.5 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-10
160. 93Zr 1.53 x 106 g. 0.020 1.2 x 10-9 0.010 7.6 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10 8.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-9
161. 95Zr 64.0 d 0.020 8.5 x 10-9 0.010 5.6 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10
162. 97Zr 16.9 h 0.020 2.2 x 10-8 0.010 1.4 x 10-8 7.3 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9
  Niobium                  
163. 88Nb 0.238 h 0.020 6.7 x 10-10 0.010 3.8 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-11 6.3 x 10-11
164. 89Nb 2.03 h 0.020 3.0 x 10-9 0.010 2.0 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.0 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
165. 89Nb 1.10 h 0.020 1.5 x 10-9 0.010 8.7 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10
166. 90Nb 14.6 h 0.020 1.1 x 10-8 0.010 7.2 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
167. 93mNb 13.6 g. 0.020 1.5 x 10-9 0.010 9.1 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
168. 94Nb 2.03 x 104 g. 0.020 1.5 x 10-8 0.010 9.7 x 10-9 5.3 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9
169. 95Nb 35.1 d 0.020 4.6 x 10-9 0.010 3.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.4 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10
170. 95mNb 3.61 d 0.020 6.4 x 10-9 0.010 4.1 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.1 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10
171. 96Nb 23.3 h 0.020 9.2 x 10-9 0.010 6.3 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
172. 97Nb 1.20 h 0.020 7.7 x 10-10 0.010 4.5 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 6.8 x 10-11
173. 98Nb 0.858 h 0.020 1.2 x 10-9 0.010 7.1 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
  Molybdenum                  
174. 90Mo 5.67 h 1.000 1.7 x 10-9 1.000 1.2 x 10-9 6.3 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10
175. 93Mo 3.50 x 103 g. 1.000 7.9 x 10-9 1.000 6.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-9 4.0 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9
176. 93mMo 6.85 h 1.000 8.0 x 10-10 1.000 5.4 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
177. 99Mo 2.75 d 1.000 5.5 x 10-9 1.000 3.5 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.6 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10
178. 101Mo 0.244 h 1.000 4.8 x 10-10 1.000 2.7 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.6 x 10-11 5.2 x 10-11 4.1 x 10-11
  Technetium                  
179. 93Tc 2.75 h 1.000 2.7 x 10-10 0.500 2.5 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.8 x 10-11 6.8 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11
180. 93mTc 0.725 h 1.000 2.0 x 10-10 0.500 1.3 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11
181. 94Tc 4.88 h 1.000 1.2 x 10-9 0.500 1.0 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
182. 94mTc 0.867 h 1.000 1.3 x 10-9 0.500 6.5 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
183. 95Tc 20.0 h 1.000 9.9 x 10-10 0.500 8.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
184. 95mTc 61.0 d 1.000 4.7 x 10-9 0.500 2.8 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10
185. 96Tc 4.28 d 1.000 6.7 x 10-9 0.500 5.1 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
186. 96mTc 0.858 h 1.000 1.0 x 10-10 0.500 6.5 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11 1.6 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11
187. 97Tc 2.60 x 106g. 1.000 9.9 x 10-10 0.500 4.9 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11 6.8 x 10-11
188. 97mTc 87.0 d 1.000 8.7 x 10-9 0.500 4.1 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
189. 98Tc 4.20 x 106g. 1.000 2.3 x 10-9 0.500 1.2 x 10-8 6.1 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
190. 99Tc 2.13 x 105g. 1.000 1.0 x 10-8 0.500 4.8 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-10
191. 99mTc 6.02 h 1.000 2.0 x 10-10 0.500 1.3 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 4.3 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11
192. 101Tc 0.237 h 1.000 2.4 x 10-10 0.500 1.3 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11
193. 104Tc 0.303 h 1.000 1.9 x 10-9 0.500 5.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11
  Ruthenium                  
194. 94Ru 0.863 h 0.100 9.3 x 10-10 0.050 5.9 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.4 x 10-11
195. 97Ru 2.90 d 0.100 1.2 x 10-9 0.050 8.5 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10
196. 103Ru 39.3 d 0.100 7.1 x 10-9 0.050 4.6 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-10
197. 105Ru 4.44 h 0.100 2.7 x 10-9 0.050 1.8 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
198. 106Ru 1.01 g. 0.100 8.4 x 10-8 0.050 4.9 x 10-8 2.5 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 8.6 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-9
  Rhodium                  
199. 99Rh 16.0 d 0.100 4.2 x 10-9 0.050 2.9 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.5 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10
200. 99mRh 4.70 h 0.100 4.9 x 10-10 0.050 3.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.3 x 10-11 6.6 x 10-11
201. 100Rh 20.8 h 0.100 4.9 x 10-9 0.050 3.6 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.8 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-10
202. 101Rh 3.20 g. 0.100 4.9 x 10-9 0.050 2.8 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
203. 101mRh 4.34 d 0.100 1.7 x 10-9 0.050 1.2 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10
204. 102Rh 2.90 g. 0.100 1.9 x 10-8 0.050 1.0 x 10-8 6.4 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9
205. 102mRh 207 g. 0.100 1.2 x 10-8 0.050 7.4 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
206. 103mRh 0.935 h 0.100 4.7 x 10-11 0.050 2.7 x 10-11 1.3 x 10-11 7.4 x 10-12 4.8 x 10-12 3.8 x 10-12
207. 105Rh 1.47 d 0.100 4.0 x 10-9 0.050 2.7 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.0 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10
208. 106mRh 2.20 h 0.100 1.4 x 10-9 0.050 9.7 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10
209. 107Rh 0.362 h 0.100 2.9 x 10-10 0.050 1.6 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11
  Palladium                  
210. 100Pd 3.63 d 0.050 7.4 x 10-9 0.005 5.2 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10
211. 101Pd 8.27 h 0.050 8.2 x 10-10 0.005 5.7 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.4 x 10-11
212. 103Pd 17.0 d 0.050 2.2 x 10-9 0.005 1.4 x 10-9 7.2 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
213. 107Pd 6.50 x 106 g. 0.050 4.4 x 10-10 0.005 2.8 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11
214. 109Pd 13.4 h 0.050 6.3 x 10-9 0.005 4.1 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
  Silver                  
215. 102Ag 0.215 h 0.100 4.2 x 10-10 0.050 2.4 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11
216. 103Ag 1.09 h 0.100 4.5 x 10-10 0.050 2.7 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.3 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11 4.3 x 10-11
217. 104Ag 1.15 h 0.100 4.3 x 10-10 0.050 2.9 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-11
218. 104mAg 0.558 h 0.100 5.6 x 10-10 0.050 3.3 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.8 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
219. 105Ag 41.0 d 0.100 3.9 x 10-9 0.050 2.5 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10 5.9 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10
220. 106Ag 0.399 h 0.100 3.7 x 10-10 0.050 2.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-11 4.1 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11
221. 106mAg 8.41 d 0.100 9.7 x 10-9 0.050 6.9 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
222. 108mAg 1.27 x 102 g. 0.100 2.1 x 10-8 0.050 1.1 x 10-8 6.5 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9
223. 110mAg 250 d 0.100 2.4 x 10-8 0.050 1.4 x 10-8 7.8 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9
224. 111Ag 7.45 d 0.100 1.4 x 10-8 0.050 9.3 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
225. 112Ag 3.12 h 0.100 4.9 x 10-9 0.050 3.0 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10
226. 115Ag 0.333 h 0.100 7.2 x 10-10 0.050 4.1 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-11
  Cadmium                  
227. 104Cd 0.961 h 0.100 4.2 x 10-10 0.050 2.9 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
228. 107Cd 6.49 h 0.100 7.1 x 10-10 0.050 4.6 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.8 x 10-11 6.2 x 10-11
229. 109Cd 1.27 g. 0.100 2.1 x 10-8 0.050 9.5 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
230. 113Cd 9.30 x 1015 g. 0.100 1.0 x 10-7 0.050 4.8 x 10-8 3.7 x 10-8 3.0 x 10-8 2.6 x 10-8 2.5 x 10-8
231. 113mCd 13.6 g. 0.100 1.2 x 10-7 0.050 5.6 x 10-8 3.9 x 10-8 2.9 x 10-8 2.4 x 10-8 2.3 x 10-8
232. 115Cd 2.23 d 0.100 1.4 x 10-8 0.050 9.7 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
233. 115mCd 44.6 d 0.100 4.1 x 10-8 0.050 1.9 x 10-8 9.7 x 10-9 6.9 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9
234. 117Cd 2.49 h 0.100 2.9 x 10-9 0.050 1.9 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10
235. 117mCd 3.36 h 0.100 2.6 x 10-9 0.050 1.7 x 10-9 9.0 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10
  Indium                  
236. 109In 4.20 h 0.040 5.2 x 10-10 0.020 3.6 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11 6.6 x 10-11
237. 110In 4.90 h 0.040 1.5 x 10-9 0.020 1.1 x 10-9 6.5 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
238. 110In 1.15 h 0.040 1.1 x 10-9 0.020 6.4 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
239. 111In 2.83 d 0.040 2.4 x 10-9 0.020 1.7 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10 5.9 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10
240. 112In 0.240 h 0.040 1.2 x 10-10 0.020 6.7 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11 1.3 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11
241. 113mIn 1.66 h 0.040 3.0 x 10-10 0.020 1.8 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-11 6.2 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11
242. 114mIn 49.5 d 0.040 5.6 x 10-8 0.020 3.1 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 9.0 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9
243. 115In 5.10 x 1015 g. 0.040 1.3 x 10-7 0.020 6.4 x 10-8 4.8 x 10-8 4.3 x 10-8 3.6 x 10-8 3.2 x 10-8
244. 115mIn 4.49 h 0.040 9.6 x 10-10 0.020 6.0 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.6 x 10-11
245. 116mIn 0.902 h 0.040 5.8 x 10-10 0.020 3.6 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11 6.4 x 10-11
246. 117In 0.730 h 0.040 3.3 x 10-10 0.020 1.9 x 10-10 9.7 x 10-11 5.8 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
247. 117mIn 1.94 h 0.040 1.4 x 10-9 0.020 8.6 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
248. 119mIn 0.300 h 0.040 5.9 x 10-10 0.020 3.2 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11
  Tin                  
249. 110Sn 4.00 h 0.040 3.5 x 10-9 0.020 2.3 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.4 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10
250. 111Sn 0.588 h 0.040 2.5 x 10-10 0.020 1.5 x 10-10 7.4 x 10-11 4.4 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11
251. 113Sn 115 d 0.040 7.8 x 10-9 0.020 5.0 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-10
252. 117mSn 13.6 d 0.040 7.7 x 10-9 0.020 5.0 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.8 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-10
253. 119mSn 293 d 0.040 4.1 x 10-9 0.020 2.5 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.5 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
254. 121Sn 1.13 d 0.040 2.6 x 10-9 0.020 1.7 x 10-9 8.4 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10
255. 121mSn 55.0 g. 0.040 4.6 x 10-9 0.020 2.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10
256. 123Sn 129 d 0.040 2.5 x 10-8 0.020 1.6 x 10-8 7.8 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9
257. 123mSn 0.668 h 0.040 4.7 x 10-10 0.020 2.6 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 4.9 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11
258. 125Sn 9.64 d 0.040 3.5 x 10-8 0.020 2.2 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 6.7 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9
259. 126Sn 1.00 x 105 g. 0.040 5.0 x 10-8 0.020 3.0 x 10-8 1.6 x 10-8 9.8 x 10-9 5.9 x 10-9 4.7 x 10-9
260. 127Sn 2.10 h 0.040 2.0 x 10-9 0.020 1.3 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
261. 128Sn 0.985 h 0.040 1.6 x 10-9 0.020 9.7 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10
  Antimony                  
262. 115Sb 0.530 h 0.200 2.5 x 10-10 0.100 1.5 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11
263. 116Sb 0.263 h 0.200 2.7 x 10-10 0.100 1.6 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11 4.8 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11 2.6 x 10-11
264. 116mSb 1.00 h 0.200 5.0 x 10-10 0.100 3.3 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.3 x 10-11 6.7 x 10-11
265. 117Sb 2.80 h 0.200 1.6 x 10-10 0.100 1.0 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11
266. 118mSb 5.00 h 0.200 1.3 x 10-9 0.100 1.0 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
267. 119Sb 1.59 d 0.200 8.4 x 10-10 0.100 5.8 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11
268. 120Sb 5.76 d 0.200 8.1 x 10-9 0.100 6.0 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
269. 120Sb 0.265 h 0.200 1.7 x 10-10 0.100 9.4 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11 1.4 x 10-11
270. 122Sb 2.70 d 0.200 1.8 x 10-8 0.100 1.2 x 10-8 6.1 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9
271. 124Sb 60.2 d 0.200 2.5 x 10-8 0.100 1.6 x 10-8 8.4 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9
272. 124mSb 0.337 h 0.200 8.5 x 10-11 0.100 4.9 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11 1.5 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11 8.0 x 10-12
273. 125Sb 2.77 g. 0.200 1.1 x 10-8 0.100 6.1 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
274. 126Sb 12.4 d 0.200 2.0 x 10-8 0.100 1.4 x 10-8 7.6 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9
275. 126mSb 0.317 h 0.200 3.9 x 10-10 0.100 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.6 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11
276. 127Sb 3.85 d 0.200 1.7 x 10-8 0.100 1.2 x 10-8 5.9 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9
277. 128Sb 9.01 h 0.200 6.3 x 10-9 0.100 4.5 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 7.6 x 10-10
278. 128Sb 0.173 h 0.200 3.7 x 10-10 0.100 2.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-11 4.1 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11
279. 129Sb 4.32 h 0.200 4.3 x 10-9 0.100 2.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.8 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10
280. 130Sb 0.667 h 0.200 9.1 x 10-10 0.100 5.4 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11
281. 131Sb 0.383 h 0.200 1.1 x 10-9 0.100 7.3 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
  Tellurium                  
282. 116Te 2.49 h 0.600 1.4 x 10-9 0.300 1.0 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
283. 121Te 17.0 d 0.600 3.1 x 10-9 0.300 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 8.0 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10
284. 121mTe 154 d 0.600 2.7 x 10-8 0.300 1.2 x 10-8 6.9 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9
285. 123Te 1.00 x 1013 g. 0.600 2.0 x 10-8 0.300 9.3 x 10-9 6.9 x 10-9 5.4 x 10-9 4.7 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9
286. 123mTe 120 d 0.600 1.9 x 10-8 0.300 8.8 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
287. 125mTe 58.0 d 0.600 1.3 x 10-8 0.300 6.3 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10
288. 127Te 9.35 h 0.600 1.5 x 10-9 0.300 1.2 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
289. 127mTe 109 d 0.600 4.1 x 10-8 0.300 1.8 x 10-8 9.5 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9
290. 129Te 1.16 h 0.600 7.5 x 10-10 0.300 4.4 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11 6.3 x 10-11
291. 129mTe 33.6 d 0.600 4.4 x 10-8 0.300 2.4 x 10-8 1.2 x 10-8 6.6 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9
292. 131Te 0.417 h 0.600 9.0 x 10-10 0.300 6.6 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11
293. 131mTe 1.25 d 0.600 2.0 x 10-8 0.300 1.4 x 10-8 7.8 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9
294. 132Te 3.26 d 0.600 4.8 x 10-8 0.300 3.0 x 10-8 1.6 x 10-8 8.3 x 10-9 5.3 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9
295. 133Te 0.207 h 0.600 8.4 x 10-10 0.300 6.3 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11
296. 133mTe 0.923 h 0.600 3.1 x 10-9 0.300 2.4 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 6.3 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10
297. 134Te 0.696 h 0.600 1.1 x 10-9 0.300 7.5 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
  Iodine                  
298. 120I 1.35 h 1.000 3.9 x 10-9 1.000 2.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 7.2 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
299. 120mI 0.883 h 1.000 2.3 x 10-9 1.000 1.5 x 10-9 7.8 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
300. 121I 2.12 h 1.000 6.2 x 10-10 1.000 5.3 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11
301. 123I 13.2 h 1.000 2.2 x 10-9 1.000 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
302. 124I 4.18 d 1.000 1.2 x 10-7 1.000 1.1 x 10-7 6.3 x 10-8 3.1 x 10-8 2.0 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8
303. 125I 60.1 d 1.000 5.2 x 10-8 1.000 5.7 x 10-8 4.1 x 10-8 3.1 x 10-8 2.2 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8
304. 126I 13.0 d 1.000 2.1 x 10-7 1.000 2.1 x 10-7 1.3 x 10-7 6.8 x 10-8 4.5 x 10-8 2.9 x 10-8
305. 128I 0.416 h 1.000 5.7 x 10-10 1.000 3.3 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 8.9 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11
306. 129I 1.57 x 107 g. 1.000 1.8 x 10-7 1.000 2.2 x 10-7 1.7 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7
307. 130I 12.4 h 1.000 2.1 x 10-8 1.000 1.8 x 10-8 9.8 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
308. 131I 8.04 d 1.000 1.8 x 10-7 1.000 1.8 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7 5.2 x 10-8 3.4 x 10-8 2.2 x 10-8
309. 132I 2.30 h 1.000 3.0 x 10-9 1.000 2.4 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10
310. 132mI 1.39 h 1.000 2.4 x 10-9 1.000 2.0 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10
311. 133I 20.8 h 1.000 4.9 x 10-8 1.000 4.4 x 10-8 2.3 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-8 6.8 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9
312. 134I 0.876 h 1.000 1.1 x 10-9 1.000 7.5 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
313. 135I 6.61 h 1.000 1.0 x 10-8 1.000 8.9 x 10-9 4.7 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10
314. 125Cs 0.750 h 1.000 3.9 x 10-10 1.000 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 4.4 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11
315. 127Cs 6.25 h 1.000 1.8 x 10-10 1.000 1.2 x 10-10 6.6 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11
316. 129Cs 1.34 d 1.000 4.4 x 10-10 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-11
317. 130Cs 0.498 h 1.000 3.3 x 10-10 1.000 1.8 x 10-10 9.0 x 10-11 5.2 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11
318. 131Cs 9.69 d 1.000 4.6 x 10-10 1.000 2.9 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-11 5.8 x 10-11
319. 132Cs 6.48 d 1.000 2.7 x 10-9 1.000 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.7 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10
320. 134Cs 2.06 g. 1.000 2.6 x 10-8 1.000 1.6 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 1.4 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8
321. 134mCs 2.90 h 1.000 2.1 x 10-10 1.000 1.2 x 10-10 5.9 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11
322. 135Cs 2.30 x 106 g. 1.000 4.1 x 10-9 1.000 2.3 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
323. 135mCs 0.883 h 1.000 1.3 x 10-10 1.000 8.6 x 10-11 4.9 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11
324. 136Cs 13.1 d 1.000 1.5 x 10-8 1.000 9.5 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9
325. 137Cs 30.0 g. 1.000 2.1 x 10-8 1.000 1.2 x 10-8 9.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8
326. 138Cs 0.536 h 1.000 1.1 x 10-9 1.000 5.9 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.2 x 10-11
  Barium6                  
327. 126Ba 1.61 h 0.600 2.7 x 10-9 0.200 1.7 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
328. 128Ba 2.43 d 0.600 2.0 x 10-8 0.200 1.7 x 10-8 9.0 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9
329. 131Ba 11.8 d 0.600 4.2 x 10-9 0.200 2.6 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10 6.2 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10
330. 131mBa 0.243 h 0.600 5.8 x 10-11 0.200 3.2 x 10-11 1.6 x 10-11 9.3 x 10-12 6.3 x 10-12 4.9 x 10-12
331. 133Ba 10.7 g. 0.600 2.2 x 10-8 0.200 6.2 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
332. 133mBa 1.62 d 0.600 4.2 x 10-9 0.200 3.6 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 5.9 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10
333. 135mBa 1.20 d 0.600 3.3 x 10-9 0.200 2.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10
334. 139Ba 1.38 h 0.600 1.4 x 10-9 0.200 8.4 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
335. 140Ba 12.7 d 0.600 3.2 x 10-8 0.200 1.8 x 10-8 9.2 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9
336. 141Ba 0.305 h 0.600 7.6 x 10-10 0.200 4.7 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.6 x 10-11 7.0 x 10-11
337. 142Ba 0.177 h 0.600 3.6 x 10-10 0.200 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.6 x 10-11 4.3 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11
  Lanthanum                  
338. 131La 0.983 h 0.005 3.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.1 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.6 x 10-11 4.4 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11
339. 132La 4.80 h 0.005 3.8 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.8 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10
340. 135La 19.5 h 0.005 2.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.9 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11
341. 137La 6.00 x 104 g. 0.005 1.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.5 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11
342. 138La 1.35 x 1011 g. 0.005 1.3 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 4.6 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
343. 140La 1.68 d 0.005 2.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-8 6.8 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
344. 141La 3.93 h 0.005 4.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.6 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10
345. 142La 1.54 h 0.005 1.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
346. 143La 0.237 h 0.005 6.9 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 3.9 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-11 5.6 x 10-11
  Cerium                  
347. 134Ce 3.00 d 0.005 2.8 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.8 x 10-8 9.1 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9
348. 135Ce 17.6 h 0.005 7.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.7 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 7.9 x 10-10
349. 137Ce 9.00 h 0.005 2.6 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.7 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11
350. 137mCe 1.43 d 0.005 6.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.9 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10
351. 139Ce 138 d 0.005 2.6 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-9 8.6 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
352. 141Ce 32.5 d 0.005 8.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.8 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-10
353. 143Ce 1.38 d 0.005 1.2 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 8.0 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
354. 144Ce 284 d 0.005 6.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 3.9 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 6.5 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9
  Praseodymium                  
355. 136Pr 0.218 h 0.005 3.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11
356. 137Pr 1.28 h 0.005 4.1 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.5 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11
357. 138mPr 2.10 h 0.005 1.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 7.4 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
358. 139Pr 4.51 h 0.005 3.2 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.0 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
359. 142Pr 19.1 h 0.005 1.5 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 9.8 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
360. 142mPr 0.243 h 0.005 2.0 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-10 6.2 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11
361. 143Pr 13.6 d 0.005 1.4 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 8.7 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
362. 144Pr 0.288 h 0.005 6.4 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 3.5 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11 6.5 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11
363. 145Pr 5.98 h 0.005 4.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.9 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10
364. 147Pr 0.227 h 0.005 3.9 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11
  Neodymium                  
365. 136Nd 0.844 h 0.005 1.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.1 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.9 x 10-11
366. 138Nd 5.04 h 0.005 7.2 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.5 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.0 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-10
367. 139Nd 0.495 h 0.005 2.1 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11
368. 139mNd 5.50 h 0.005 2.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.4 x 10-9 7.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
369. 141Nd 2.49 h 0.005 7.8 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 5.0 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11 1.6 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11 8.3 x 10-12
370. 147Nd 11.0 d 0.005 1.2 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 7.8 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
371. 149Nd 1.73 h 0.005 1.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 8.7 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
372. 151Nd 0.207 h 0.005 3.4 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.0 x 10-10 9.7 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11
  Promethium                  
373. 141Pm 0.348 h 0.005 4.2 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 6.8 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11
374. 143Pm 265 d 0.005 1.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10
375. 144Pm 363 d 0.005 7.6 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.7 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.7 x 10-10
376. 145Pm 17.7 g. 0.005 1.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.8 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
377. 146Pm 5.53 g. 0.005 1.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 5.1 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.0 x 10-10
378. 147Pm 2.62 g. 0.005 3.6 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.9 x 10-9 9.6 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
379. 148Pm 5.37 d 0.005 3.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.9 x 10-8 9.7 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9
380. 148mPm 41.3 d 0.005 1.5 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-8 5.5 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9
381. 149Pm 2.21 d 0.005 1.2 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 7.4 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10
382. 150Pm 2.68 h 0.005 2.8 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.7 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 5.2 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
383. 151Pm 1.18 d 0.005 8.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-10
  Samarium                  
384. 141Sm 0.170 h 0.005 4.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.5 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11
385. 141mSm 0.377 h 0.005 7.0 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 4.0 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11 6.5 x 10-11
386. 142Sm 1.21 h 0.005 2.2 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
387. 145Sm 340 d 0.005 2.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.4 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
388. 146Sm 1.03 x 108 g. 0.005 1.5 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 1.5 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7 7.0 x 10-8 5.8 x 10-8 5.4 x 10-8
389. 147Sm 1.06 x 1011 g. 0.005 1.4 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 1.4 x 10-7 9.2 x 10-8 6.4 x 10-8 5.2 x 10-8 4.9 x 10-8
390. 151Sm 90.0 g. 0.005 1.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.4 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.8 x 10-11
391. 153Sm 1.95 d 0.005 8.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.4 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10 7.4 x 10-10
392. 155Sm 0.368 h 0.005 3.6 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.0 x 10-10 9.7 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11
393. 156Sm 9.40 h 0.005 2.8 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.8 x 10-9 9.0 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
  Europium                  
394. 145Eu 5.94 d 0.005 5.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.7 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-10
395. 146Eu 4.61 d 0.005 8.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.2 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
396. 147Eu 24.0 d 0.005 3.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.5 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
397. 148Eu 54.5 d 0.005 8.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.0 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
398. 149Eu 93.1 d 0.005 9.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 6.3 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
399. 150Eu 34.2 g. 0.005 1.3 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 5.7 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
400. 150Eu 12.6 h 0.005 4.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10
401. 152Eu 13.3 g. 0.005 1.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 7.4 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
402. 152mEu 9.32 h 0.005 5.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.6 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10
403. 154Eu 8.80 g. 0.005 2.5 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-8 6.5 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
404. 155Eu 4.96 g. 0.005 4.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10
405. 156Eu 15.2 d 0.005 2.2 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.5 x 10-8 7.5 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9
406. 157Eu 15.1 h 0.005 6.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.3 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.5 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10
407. 158Eu 0.765 h 0.005 1.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.2 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.4 x 10-11
  Gadolinium                  
408. 145Gd 0.382 h 0.005 4.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.6 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11 5.6 x 10-11 4.4 x 10-11
409. 146Gd 48.3 d 0.005 9.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.0 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.6 x 10-10
410. 147Gd 1.59 d 0.005 4.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.7 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-10
411. 148Gd 93.0 g. 0.005 1.7 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7 7.3 x 10-8 5.9 x 10-8 5.6 x 10-8
412. 149Gd 9.40 d 0.005 4.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.7 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10
413. 151Gd 120 d 0.005 2.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
414. 152Gd 1.08 x 1014 g. 0.005 1.2 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-7 7.7 x 10-8 5.3 x 10-8 4.3 x 10-8 4.1 x 10-8
415. 153Gd 242 d 0.005 2.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.8 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
416. 159Gd 18.6 h 0.005 5.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.6 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10
  Terbium                  
417. 147Tb 1.65 h 0.005 1.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-9 5.4 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10
418. 149Tb 4.15 h 0.005 2.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.5 x 10-9 8.0 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
419. 150Tb 3.27 h 0.005 2.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-9 8.3 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
420. 151Tb 17.6 h 0.005 2.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.9 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
421. 153Tb 2.34 d 0.005 2.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.5 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
422. 154Tb 21.4 h 0.005 4.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.4 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.1 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-10
423. 155Tb 5.32 d 0.005 1.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
424. 156Tb 5.34 d 0.005 9.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.3 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
425. 156mTb 1.02 d 0.005 1.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-9 5.6 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
426. 156mTb 5.00 h 0.005 8.0 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 5.2 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11
427. 157Tb 1.50 x 102 g. 0.005 4.9 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.8 x 10-11 4.1 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11
428. 158Tb 1.50 x 102 g. 0.005 1.3 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 5.9 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
429. 160Tb 72.3 d 0.005 1.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-8 5.4 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9
430. 161Tb 6.91 d 0.005 8.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.3 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.0 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-10
  Dysprosium                  
431. 155Dy 10.0 h 0.005 9.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 6.8 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
432. 157Dy 8.10 h 0.005 4.4 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 3.1 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 6.1 x 10-11
433. 159Dy 144 d 0.005 1.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.4 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
434. 165Dy 2.33 h 0.005 1.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 7.9 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
435. 166Dy 3.40 d 0.005 1.9 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-8 6.0 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9
  Holmium                  
436. 155Ho 0.800 h 0.005 3.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.3 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11
437. 157Ho 0.210 h 0.005 5.8 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 3.6 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11 8.1 x 10-12 6.5 x 10-12
438. 159Ho 0.550 h 0.005 7.1 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 4.3 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11 1.4 x 10-11 9.9 x 10-12 7.9 x 10-12
439. 161Ho 2.50 h 0.005 1.4 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 8.1 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11 1.6 x 10-11 1.3 x 10-11
440. 162Ho 0.250 h 0.005 3.5 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 2.0 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-12 4.2 x 10-12 3.3 x 10-12
441. 162mHo 1.13 h 0.005 2.4 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.5 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-11 4.9 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11 2.6 x 10-11
442. 164Ho 0.483 h 0.005 1.2 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 6.5 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11 9.5 x 10-12
443. 164mHo 0.625 h 0.005 2.0 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.6 x 10-11
444. 166Ho 1.12 d 0.005 1.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-8 5.2 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
445. 166mHo 1.20 x 103 g. 0.005 2.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 9.3 x 10-9 5.3 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
446. 167Ho 3.10 h 0.005 8.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 5.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.3 x 10-11
  Erbium                  
447. 161Er 3.24 h 0.005 6.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 4.4 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11
448. 165Er 10.4 h 0.005 1.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-10 6.2 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11
449. 169Er 9.30 d 0.005 4.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10
450. 171Er 7.52 h 0.005 4.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.5 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.6 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10
451. 172Er 2.05 d 0.005 1.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 6.8 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9
  Thulium                  
452. 162Tm 0.362 h 0.005 2.9 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.7 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 5.2 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11
453. 166Tm 7.70 h 0.005 2.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.5 x 10-9 8.3 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10
454. 167Tm 9.24 d 0.005 6.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.9 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10
455. 170Tm 129 d 0.005 1.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 9.8 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
456. 171Tm 1.92 g. 0.005 1.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 7.8 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
457. 172Tm 2.65 d 0.005 1.9 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-8 6.1 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9
458. 173Tm 8.24 h 0.005 3.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.1 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.5 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10
459. 175Tm 0.253 h 0.005 3.1 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.7 x 10-10 8.6 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11
  Ytterbium                  
460. 162Yb 0.315 h 0.005 2.2 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11
461. 166Yb 2.36 d 0.005 7.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.4 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10
462. 167Yb 0.292 h 0.005 7.0 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 4.1 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11 8.4 x 10-12 6.7 x 10-12
463. 169Yb 32.0 d 0.005 7.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.6 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.8 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-10
464. 175Yb 4.19 d 0.005 5.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.2 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
465. 177Yb 1.90 h 0.005 1.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.8 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11
466. 178Yb 1.23 h 0.005 1.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 8.4 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
  Lutetium                  
467. 169Lu 1.42 d 0.005 3.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10
468. 170Lu 2.00 d 0.005 7.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.2 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10
469. 171Lu 8.22 d 0.005 5.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.0 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 6.7 x 10-10
470. 172Lu 6.70 d 0.005 1.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 7.0 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
471. 173Lu 1.37 g. 0.005 2.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-9 8.6 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
472. 174Lu 3.31 g. 0.005 3.2 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.7 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
473. 174mLu 142 d 0.005 6.2 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.8 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10
474. 176Lu 3.60 x 1010 g. 0.005 2.4 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-8 5.7 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9
475. 176mLu 3.68 h 0.005 2.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-9 6.0 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
476. 177Lu 6.71 d 0.005 6.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.9 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10
477. 177mLu 161 d 0.005 1.7 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-8 5.8 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9
478. 178Lu 0.473 h 0.005 5.9 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 3.3 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 9.0 x 10-11 6.1 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11
479. 178mLu 0.378 h 0.005 4.3 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-11 4.9 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11
480. 179Lu 4.59 h 0.005 2.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.5 x 10-9 7.5 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
  Hafnium                  
481. 170Hf 16.0 h 0.020 3.9 x 10-9 0.002 2.7 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10
482. 172Hf 1.87 g. 0.020 1.9 x 10-8 0.002 6.1 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9
483. 173Hf 24.0 h 0.020 1.9 x 10-9 0.002 1.3 x 10-9 7.2 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10
484. 175Hf 70.0 d 0.020 3.8 x 10-9 0.002 2.4 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.4 x 10-10 5.2 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10
485. 177mHf 0.856 h 0.020 7.8 x 10-10 0.002 4.7 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11
486. 178mHf 31.0 g. 0.020 7.0 x 10-8 0.002 1.9 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 7.8 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-9 4.7 x 10-9
487. 179mHf 25.1 d 0.020 1.2 x 10-8 0.002 7.8 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
488. 180mHf 5.50 h 0.020 1.4 x 10-9 0.002 9.7 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
489. 181Hf 42.4 d 0.020 1.2 x 10-8 0.002 7.4 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
490. 182Hf 9.00 x 106 g. 0.020 5.6 x 10-8 0.002 7.9 x 10-9 5.4 x 10-9 4.0 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9
491. 182mHf 1.02 h 0.020 4.1 x 10-10 0.002 2.5 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.8 x 10-11 5.2 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11
492. 183Hf 1.07 h 0.020 8.1 x 10-10 0.002 4.8 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-11 7.3 x 10-11
493. 184Hf 4.12 h 0.020 5.5 x 10-9 0.002 3.6 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 5.2 x 10-10
  Tantalum                  
494. 172Ta 0.613 h 0.010 5.5 x 10-10 0.001 3.2 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 9.8 x 10-11 6.6 x 10-11 5.3 x 10-11
495. 173Ta 3.65 h 0.010 2.0 x 10-9 0.001 1.3 x 10-9 6.5 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
496. 174Ta 1.20 h 0.010 6.2 x 10-10 0.001 3.7 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-11
497. 175Ta 10.5 h 0.010 1.6 x 10-9 0.001 1.1 x 10-9 6.2 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
498. 176Ta 8.08 h 0.010 2.4 x 10-9 0.001 1.7 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10
499. 177Ta 2.36 d 0.010 1.0 x 10-9 0.001 6.9 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
500. 178Ta 2.20 h 0.010 6.3 x 10-10 0.001 4.5 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11
501. 179Ta 1.82 g. 0.010 6.2 x 10-10 0.001 4.1 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11 6.5 x 10-11
502. 180Ta 1.00 x 1013 g. 0.010 8.1 x 10-9 0.001 5.3 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.4 x 10-10
503. 180mTa 8.10 h 0.010 5.8 x 10-10 0.001 3.7 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.7 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
504. 182Ta 115 d 0.010 1.4 x 10-8 0.001 9.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
505. 182mTa 0.264 h 0.010 1.4 x 10-10 0.001 7.5 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.5 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11
506. 183Ta 5.10 d 0.010 1.4 x 10-8 0.001 9.3 x 10-9 4.7 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
507. 184Ta 8.70 h 0.010 6.7 x 10-9 0.001 4.4 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 6.8 x 10-10
508. 185Ta 0.816 h 0.010 8.3 x 10-10 0.001 4.6 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.6 x 10-11 6.8 x 10-11
509. 186Ta 0.175 h 0.010 3.8 x 10-10 0.001 2.1 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11
  Wolfram                  
510. 176W 2.30 h 0.600 6.8 x 10-10 0.300 5.5 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
511. 177W 2.25 h 0.600 4.4 x 10-10 0.300 3.2 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 5.8 x 10-11
512. 178W 21.7 d 0.600 1.8 x 10-9 0.300 1.4 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10
513. 179W 0.625 h 0.600 3.4 x 10-11 0.300 2.0 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11 6.2 x 10-12 4.2 x 10-12 3.3 x 10-12
514. 181W 121 d 0.600 6.3 x 10-10 0.300 4.7 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11 7.6 x 10-11
515. 185W 75.1 d 0.600 4.4 x 10-9 0.300 3.3 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.7 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
516. 187W 23.9 h 0.600 5.5 x 10-9 0.300 4.3 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.8 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-10
517. 188W 69.4 d 0.600 2.1 x 10-8 0.300 1.5 x 10-8 7.7 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9
  Rhenium                  
518. 177Re 0.233 h 1.000 2.5 x 10-10 0.800 1.4 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 4.1 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11
519. 178Re 0.220 h 1.000 2.9 x 10-10 0.800 1.6 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11
520. 181Re 20.0 h 1.000 4.2 x 10-9 0.800 2.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10
521. 182Re 2.67 d 1.000 1.4 x 10-8 0.800 8.9 x 10-9 4.7 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
522. 182Re 12.7 h 1.000 2.4 x 10-9 0.800 1.7 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 5.2 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
523. 184Re 38.0 d 1.000 8.9 x 10-9 0.800 5.6 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9
524. 184mRe 165 d 1.000 1.7 x 10-8 0.800 9.8 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
525. 186Re 3.78 d 1.000 1.9 x 10-8 0.800 1.1 x 10-8 5.5 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
526. 186mRe 2.00 x 105 g. 1.000 3.0 x 10-8 0.800 1.6 x 10-8 7.6 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9
527. 187Re 5.00 x 1010 g. 1.000 6.8 x 10-11 0.800 3.8 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11 6.6 x 10-12 5.1 x 10-12
528. 188Re 17.0 h 1.000 1.7 x 10-8 0.800 1.1 x 10-8 5.4 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
529. 188mRe 0.310 h 1.000 3.8 x 10-10 0.800 2.3 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11
530. 189Re 1.01 d 1.000 9.8 x 10-9 0.800 6.2 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 7.8 x 10-10
  Osmium                  
531. 180Os 0.366 h 0.020 1.6 x 10-10 0.010 9.8 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11
532. 181Os 1.75 h 0.020 7.6 x 10-10 0.010 5.0 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.9 x 10-11
533. 182Os 22.0 h 0.020 4.6 x 10-9 0.010 3.2 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10
534. 185Os 94.0 d 0.020 3.8 x 10-9 0.010 2.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.8 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10
535. 189mOs 6.00 h 0.020 2.1 x 10-10 0.010 1.3 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11
536. 191Os 15.4 d 0.020 6.3 x 10-9 0.010 4.1 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10
537. 191mOs 13.0 h 0.020 1.1 x 10-9 0.010 7.1 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.6 x 10-11
538. 193Os 1.25 d 0.020 9.3 x 10-9 0.010 6.0 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 8.1 x 10-10
539. 194Os 6.00 g. 0.020 2.9 x 10-8 0.010 1.7 x 10-8 8.8 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9
  Iridium                  
540. 182Ir 0.250 h 0.020 5.3 x 10-10 0.010 3.0 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 8.9 x 10-11 6.0 x 10-11 4.8 x 10-11
541. 184Ir 3.02 h 0.020 1.5 x 10-9 0.010 9.7 x 10-10 5.2 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
542. 185Ir 14.0 h 0.020 2.4 x 10-9 0.010 1.6 x 10-9 8.6 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
543. 186Ir 15.8 h 0.020 3.8 x 10-9 0.010 2.7 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.6 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10
544. 186Ir 1.75 h 0.020 5.8 x 10-10 0.010 3.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 6.1 x 10-11
545. 187Ir 10.5 h 0.020 1.1 x 10-9 0.010 7.3 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
546. 188Ir 1.73 d 0.020 4.6 x 10-9 0.010 3.3 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.9 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-10
547. 189Ir 13.3 d 0.020 2.5 x 10-9 0.010 1.7 x 10-9 8.6 x 10-10 5.2 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
548. 190Ir 12.1 d 0.020 1.0 x 10-8 0.010 7.1 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
549. 190mIr 3.10 h 0.020 9.4 x 10-10 0.010 6.4 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
550. 190mIr 1.20 h 0.020 7.9 x 10-11 0.010 5.0 x 10-11 2.6 x 10-11 1.6 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11 8.0 x 10-12
551. 192Ir 74.0 d 0.020 1.3 x 10-8 0.010 8.7 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
552. 192mIr 2.41 x 102 g. 0.020 2.8 x 10-9 0.010 1.4 x 10-9 8.3 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10
553. 193mIr 11.9 d 0.020 3.2 x 10-9 0.010 2.0 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.0 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
554. 194Ir 19.1 h 0.020 1.5 x 10-8 0.010 9.8 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
555. 194mIr 171 d 0.020 1.7 x 10-8 0.010 1.1 x 10-8 6.4 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9
556. 195Ir 2.50 h 0.020 1.2 x 10-9 0.010 7.3 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
557. 195mIr 3.80 h 0.020 2.3 x 10-9 0.010 1.5 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10
  Platinum                  
558. 186Pt 2.00 h 0.020 7.8 x 10-10 0.010 5.3 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-10
559. 188Pt 10.2 d 0.020 6.7 x 10-9 0.010 4.5 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 7.6 x 10-10
560. 189Pt 10.9 h 0.020 1.1 x 10-9 0.010 7.4 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
561. 191Pt 2.80 d 0.020 3.1 x 10-9 0.010 2.1 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.9 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
562. 193Pt 50.0 g. 0.020 3.7 x 10-10 0.010 2.4 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
563. 193mPt 4.33 d 0.020 5.2 x 10-9 0.010 3.4 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10
564. 195mPt 4.02 d 0.020 7.1 x 10-9 0.010 4.6 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 7.9 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-10
565. 197Pt 18.3 h 0.020 4.7 x 10-9 0.010 3.0 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.8 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10
566. 197mPt 1.57 h 0.020 1.0 x 10-9 0.010 6.1 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.4 x 10-11
567. 199Pt 0.513 h 0.020 4.7 x 10-10 0.010 2.7 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11
568. 200Pt 12.5 h 0.020 1.4 x 10-8 0.010 8.8 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
  Gold                  
569. 193Au 17.6 h 0.200 1.2 x 10-9 0.100 8.8 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
570. 194Au 1.65 d 0.200 2.9 x 10-9 0.100 2.2 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 8.1 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10
571. 195Au 183 d 0.200 2.4 x 10-9 0.100 1.7 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
572. 198Au 2.69 d 0.200 1.0 x 10-8 0.100 7.2 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9
573. 198mAu 2.30 d 0.200 1.2 x 10-8 0.100 8.5 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
574. 199Au 3.14 d 0.200 4.5 x 10-9 0.100 3.1 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
575. 200Au 0.807 h 0.200 8.3 x 10-10 0.100 4.7 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 6.8 x 10-11
576. 200mAu 18.7 h 0.200 9.2 x 10-9 0.100 6.6 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
577. 201Au 0.400 h 0.200 3.1 x 10-10 0.100 1.7 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11
  Mercury                  
578. 193Hg organic 3.50 h 1.000 3.3 x 10-10 1.000 1.9 x 10-10 9.8 x 10-11 5.8 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
579.     0.800 4.7 x 10-10 0.400 4.4 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.3 x 10-11 6.6 x 10-11
580. 193Hg inorganic 3.50 h 0.040 8.5 x 10-10 0.020 5.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11
581. 193mHg organic 11.1 h 1.000 1.1 x 10-9 1.000 6.8 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
582.     0.800 1.6 x 10-9 0.400 1.8 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10
583. 193mHg inorganic 11.1 h 0.040 3.6 x 10-9 0.020 2.4 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.1 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10
584. 194Hg organic 2.60 x 102 g. 1.000 1.3 x 10-7 1.000 1.2 x 10-7 8.4 x 10-8 6.6 x 10-8 5.5 x 10-8 5.1 x 10-8
585.     0.800 1.1 x 10-7 0.400 4.8 x 10-8 3.5 x 10-8 2.7 x 10-8 2.3 x 10-8 2.1 x 10-8
586. 194Hg inorganic 2.60 x 102 g. 0.040 7.2 x 10-9 0.020 3.6 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
587. 195Hg organic 9.90 h 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 1.000 2.0 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11
588.     0.800 4.6 x 10-10 0.400 4.8 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-11 7.5 x 10-11
589. 195Hg inorganic 9.90 h 0.040 9.5 x 10-10 0.020 6.3 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.7 x 10-11
590. 195mHg organic 1.73 d 1.000 2.1 x 10-9 1.000 1.3 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10
591.     0.800 2.6 x 10-9 0.400 2.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10
592. 195mHg inorganic 1.73 d 0.040 5.8 x 10-9 0.020 3.8 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10
593. 197Hg organic 2.67 d 1.000 9.7 x 10-10 1.000 6.2 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.9 x 10-11
594.     0.800 1.3 x 10-9 0.400 1.2 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
595. 197Hg inorganic 2.67 d 0.040 2.5 x 10-9 0.020 1.6 x 10-9 8.3 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10
596. 197mHg organic 23.8 h 1.000 1.5 x 10-9 1.000 9.5 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10
597.     0.800 2.2 x 10-9 0.400 2.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
598. 197mHg inorganic 23.8 h 0.040 5.2 x 10-9 0.020 3.4 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 5.9 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10
599. 199mHg organic 0.710 h 1.000 3.4 x 10-10 1.000 1.9 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-11 5.3 x 10-11 3.6 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11
600.     0.800 3.6 x 10-10 0.400 2.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
601. 199mHg inorganic 0.710 h 0.040 3.7 x 10-10 0.020 2.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 5.9 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
602. 203Hg organic 46.6 d 1.000 1.5 x 10-8 1.000 1.1 x 10-8 5.7 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9
603.     0.800 1.3 x 10-8 0.400 6.4 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
604. 203Hg inorganic 46.6 d 0.040 5.5 x 10-9 0.020 3.6 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10
  Thallium                  
605. 194Tl 0.550 h 1.000 6.1 x 10-11 1.000 3.9 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.4 x 10-11 1.0 x 10-11 8.1 x 10-12
606. 194mTl 0.546 h 1.000 3.8 x 10-10 1.000 2.2 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.0 x 10-11 4.9 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11
607. 195Tl 1.16 h 1.000 2.3 x 10-10 1.000 1.4 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11
608. 197Tl 2.84 h 1.000 2.1 x 10-10 1.000 1.3 x 10-10 6.7 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11
609. 198Tl 5.30 h 1.000 4.7 x 10-10 1.000 3.3 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 7.3 x 10-11
610. 198mTl 1.87 h 1.000 4.8 x 10-10 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 9.7 x 10-11 6.7 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
611. 199Tl 7.42 h 1.000 2.3 x 10-10 1.000 1.5 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 4.8 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.6 x 10-11
612. 200Tl 1.09 d 1.000 1.3 x 10-9 1.000 9.1 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
613. 201Tl 3.04 d 1.000 8.4 x 10-10 1.000 5.5 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11
614. 202Tl 12.2 d 1.000 2.9 x 10-9 1.000 2.1 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.9 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10
615. 204Tl 3.78 g. 1.000 1.3 x 10-8 1.000 8.5 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
  Lead7                  
616. 195mPb 0.263 h 0.600 2.6 x 10-10 0.200 1.6 x 10-10 8.4 x 10-11 5.2 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11
617. 198Pb 2.40 h 0.600 5.9 x 10-10 0.200 4.8 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
618. 199Pb 1.50 h 0.600 3.5 x 10-10 0.200 2.6 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.4 x 10-11 6.3 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
619. 200Pb 21.5 h 0.600 2.5 x 10-9 0.200 2.0 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10
620. 201Pb 9.40 h 0.600 9.4 x 10-10 0.200 7.8 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10
621. 202Pb 3.00 x 105 g. 0.600 3.4 x 10-8 0.200 1.6 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8 2.7 x 10-8 8.8 x 10-9
622. 202mPb 3.62 h 0.600 7.6 x 10-10 0.200 6.1 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
623. 203Pb 2.17 d 0.600 1.6 x 10-9 0.200 1.3 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
624. 205Pb 1.43 x 107 g. 0.600 2.1 x 10-9 0.200 9.9 x 10-10 6.2 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10
625. 209Pb 3.25 h 0.600 5.7 x 10-10 0.200 3.8 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.6 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-11
626. 210Pb 22.3 g. 0.600 8.4 x 10-6 0.200 3.6 x 10-6 2.2 x 10-6 1.9 x 10-6 1.9 x 10-6 6.9 x 10-7
627. 211Pb 0.601 h 0.600 3.1 x 10-9 0.200 1.4 x 10-9 7.1 x 10-10 4.1 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
628. 212Pb 10.6 h 0.600 1.5 x 10-7 0.200 6.3 x 10-8 3.3 x 10-8 2.0 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 6.0 x 10-9
629. 214Pb 0.447 h 0.600 2.7 x 10-9 0.200 1.0 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10
  Bismuth                  
630. 200Bi 0.606 h 0.100 4.2 x 10-10 0.050 2.7 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11 6.4 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11
631. 201Bi 1.80 h 0.100 1.0 x 10-9 0.050 6.7 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
632. 202Bi 1.67 h 0.100 6.4 x 10-10 0.050 4.4 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.9 x 10-11
633. 203Bi 11.8 h 0.100 3.5 x 10-9 0.050 2.5 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10
634. 205Bi 15.3 d 0.100 6.1 x 10-9 0.050 4.5 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.0 x 10-10
635. 206Bi 6.24 d 0.100 1.4 x 10-8 0.050 1.0 x 10-8 5.7 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9
636. 207Bi 38.0 g. 0.100 1.0 x 10-8 0.050 7.1 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
637. 210Bi 5.01 d 0.100 1.5 x 10-8 0.050 9.7 x 10-9 4.8 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
638. 210mBi 3.00 x 106 g. 0.100 2.1 x 10-7 0.050 9.1 x 10-8 4.7 x 10-8 3.0 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8
639. 212Bi 1.01 h 0.100 3.2 x 10-9 0.050 1.8 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
640. 213Bi 0.761 h 0.100 2.5 x 10-9 0.050 1.4 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
641. 214Bi 0.332 h 0.100 1.4 x 10-9 0.050 7.4 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
  Polonium                  
642. 203Po 0.612 h 1.000 2.9 x 10-10 0.500 2.4 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-11 5.8 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11
643. 205Po 1.80 h 1.000 3.5 x 10-10 0.500 2.8 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-11 5.8 x 10-11
644. 207Po 5.83 h 1.000 4.4 x 10-10 0.500 5.7 x 10-10 3.2 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
645. 210Po 138 d 1.000 2.6 x 10-5 0.500 8.8 x 10-6 4.4 x 10-6 2.6 x 10-6 1.6 x 10-6 1.2 x 10-6
  Astatine                  
646. 207At 1.80 h 1.000 2.5 x 10-9 1.000 1.6 x 10-9 8.0 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
647. 211At 7.21 h 1.000 1.2 x 10-7 1.000 7.8 x 10-8 3.8 x 10-8 2.3 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8
  Francium                  
648. 222Fr 0.240 h 1.000 6.2 x 10-9 1.000 3.9 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-10
649. 223Fr 0.363 h 1.000 2.6 x 10-8 1.000 1.7 x 10-8 8.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9
  Radium8                  
650. 223Ra 11.4 d 0.600 5.3 x 10-6 0.200 1.1 x 10-6 5.7 x 10-7 4.5 x 10-7 3.7 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7
651. 224Ra 3.66 d 0.600 2.7 x 10-6 0.200 6.6 x 10-7 3.5 x 10-7 2.6 x 10-7 2.0 x 10-7 6.5 x 10-8
652. 225Ra 14.8 d 0.600 7.1 x 10-6 0.200 1.2 x 10-6 6.1 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-7 4.4 x 10-7 9.9 x 10-8
653. 226Ra 1.60 x 103 g. 0.600 4.7 x 10-6 0.200 9.6 x 10-7 6.2 x 10-7 8.0 x 10-7 1.5 x 10-6 2.8 x 10-7
654. 227Ra 0.703 h 0.600 1.1 x 10-9 0.200 4.3 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.1 x 10-11
655. 228Ra 5.75 g. 0.600 3.0 x 10-5 0.200 5.7 x 10-6 3.4 x 10-6 3.9 x 10-6 5.3 x 10-6 6.9 x 10-7
  Actinium                  
656. 224Ac 2.90 h 0.005 1.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 5.2 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.8 x 10-10 7.0 x 10-10
657. 225Ac 10.0 d 0.005 4.6 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 1.8 x 10-7 9.1 x 10-8 5.4 x 10-8 3.0 x 10-8 2.4 x 10-8
658. 226Ac 1.21 d 0.005 1.4 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 7.6 x 10-8 3.8 x 10-8 2.3 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-8
659. 227Ac 21.8 g. 0.005 3.3 x 10-5 5.0 x 10-4 3.1 x 10-6 2.2 x 10-6 1.5 x 10-6 1.2 x 10-6 1.1 x 10-6
660. 228Ac 6.13 h 0.005 7.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 4.3 x 10-10
  Thorium                  
661. 226Th 0.515 h 0.005 4.4 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10
662. 227Th 18.7 d 0.005 3.0 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 7.0 x 10-8 3.6 x 10-8 2.3 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 8.8 x 10-9
663. 228Th 1.91 g. 0.005 3.7 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.7 x 10-7 2.2 x 10-7 1.5 x 10-7 9.4 x 10-8 7.2 x 10-8
664. 229Th 7.34 x 103 g. 0.005 1.1 x 10-5 5.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-6 7.8 x 10-7 6.2 x 10-7 5.3 x 10-7 4.9 x 10-7
665. 230Th 7.70 x 104 g. 0.005 4.1 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 4.1 x 10-7 3.1 x 10-7 2.4 x 10-7 2.2 x 10-7 2.1 x 10-7
666. 231Th 1.06 d 0.005 3.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.4 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10
667. 232Th 1.40 x 1010 g. 0.005 4.6 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 4.5 x 10-7 3.5 x 10-7 2.9 x 10-7 2.5 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7
668. 234Th 24.1 d 0.005 4.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 2.5 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 7.4 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9
  Protactinium                  
669. 227Pa 0.638 h 0.005 5.8 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.2 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10
670. 228Pa 22.0 h 0.005 1.2 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 4.8 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.7 x 10-10 7.8 x 10-10
671. 230Pa 17.4 d 0.005 2.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 5.7 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10
672. 231Pa 3.27 x 104 g. 0.005 1.3 x 10-5 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-6 1.1 x 10-6 9.2 x 10-7 8.0 x 10-7 7.1 x 10-7
673. 232Pa 1.31 d 0.005 6.3 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.2 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-10
674. 233Pa 27.0 d 0.005 9.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.2 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10
675. 234Pa 6.70 h 0.005 5.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.2 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.4 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10
  Uranium                  
676. 230U 20.8 d 0.040 7.9 x 10-7 0.020 3.0 x 10-7 1.5 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7 6.6 x 10-8 5.6 x 10-8
677. 231U 4.20 d 0.040 3.1 x 10-9 0.020 2.0 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10
678. 232U 72.0 g. 0.040 2.5 x 10-6 0.020 8.2 x 10-7 5.8 x 10-7 5.7 x 10-7 6.4 x 10-7 3.3 x 10-7
679. 233U 1.58 x 105 g. 0.040 3.8 x 10-7 0.020 1.4 x 10-7 9.2 x 10-8 7.8 x 10-8 7.8 x 10-8 5.1 x 10-8
680. 234U 2.44 x 105 g. 0.040 3.7 x 10-7 0.020 1.3 x 10-7 8.8 x 10-8 7.4 x 10-8 7.4 x 10-8 4.9 x 10-8
681. 235U 7.04 x 108 g. 0.040 3.5 x 10-7 0.020 1.3 x 10-7 8.5 x 10-8 7.1 x 10-8 7.0 x 10-8 4.7 x 10-8
682. 236U 2.34 x 107 g. 0.040 3.5 x 10-7 0.020 1.3 x 10-7 8.4 x 10-8 7.0 x 10-8 7.0 x 10-8 4.7 x 10-8
683. 237U 6.75 d 0.040 8.3 x 10-9 0.020 5.4 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 7.6 x 10-10
684. 238U 4.47 x 109 g. 0.040 3.4 x 10-7 0.020 1.2 x 10-7 8.0 x 10-8 6.8 x 10-8 6.7 x 10-8 4.5 x 10-8
685. 239U 0.392 h 0.040 3.4 x 10-10 0.020 1.9 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11
686. 240U 14.1 h 0.040 1.3 x 10-8 0.020 8.1 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
  Neptunium                  
687. 232Np 0.245 h 0.005 8.7 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 5.1 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11 9.7 x 10-12
688. 233Np 0.603 h 0.005 2.1 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-11 6.6 x 10-12 4.0 x 10-12 2.8 x 10-12 2.2 x 10-12
689. 234Np 4.40 d 0.005 6.2 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 4.4 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 8.1 x 10-10
690. 235Np 1.08 g. 0.005 7.1 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 4.1 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 6.8 x 10-11 5.3 x 10-11
691. 236Np 1.15 x 105 g. 0.005 1.9 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-8 1.8 x 10-8 1.8 x 10-8 1.8 x 10-8 1.7 x 10-8
692. 236Np 22.5 h 0.005 2.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 4.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
693. 237Np 2.14 x 106 g. 0.005 2.0 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 2.1 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7
694. 238Np 2.12 d 0.005 9.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.2 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10
695. 239Np 2.36 d 0.005 8.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.7 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 8.0 x 10-10
696. 240Np 1.08 h 0.005 8.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 5.2 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11
  Plutonium                  
697. 234Pu 8.80 h 0.005 2.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10
698. 235Pu 0.422 h 0.005 2.2 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-4 1.3 x 10-11 6.5 x 10-12 3.9 x 10-12 2.7 x 10-12 2.1 x 10-12
699. 236Pu 2.85 g. 0.005 2.1 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7 8.5 x 10-8 8.7 x 10-8
700. 237Pu 45.3 d 0.005 1.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.9 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
701. 238Pu 87.7 g. 0.005 4.0 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 4.0 x 10-7 3.1 x 10-7 2.4 x 10-7 2.2 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7
702. 239Pu 2.41 x 104 g. 0.005 4.2 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 4.2 x 10-7 3.3 x 10-7 2.7 x 10-7 2.4 x 10-7 2.5 x 10-7
703. 240Pu 6.54 x 103 g. 0.005 4.2 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 4.2 x 10-7 3.3 x 10-7 2.7 x 10-7 2.4 x 10-7 2.5 x 10-7
704. 241Pu 14.4 g. 0.005 5.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 5.7 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-9 4.8 x 10-9 4.8 x 10-9
705. 242Pu 3.76 x 105 g. 0.005 4.0 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 4.0 x 10-7 3.2 x 10-7 2.6 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7 2.4 x 10-7
706. 243Pu 4.95 h 0.005 1.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 6.2 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-11
707. 244Pu 8.26 x 107 g. 0.005 4.0 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 4.1 x 10-7 3.2 x 10-7 2.6 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7 2.4 x 10-7
708. 245Pu 10.5 h 0.005 8.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 5.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 7.2 x 10-10
709. 246Pu 10.9 d 0.005 3.6 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 2.3 x 10-8 1.2 x 10-8 7.1 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9
  Americium                  
710. 237Am 1.22 h 0.005 1.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.0 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11
711. 238Am 1.63 h 0.005 2.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11
712. 239Am 11.9 h 0.005 2.6 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.7 x 10-9 8.4 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
713. 240Am 2.12 d 0.005 4.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.3 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10
714. 241Am 4.32 x 102 g. 0.005 3.7 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.7 x 10-7 2.7 x 10-7 2.2 x 10-7 2.0 x 10-7 2.0 x 10-7
715. 242Am 16.0 h 0.005 5.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.4 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10
716. 242mAm 1.52 x 102 g. 0.005 3.1 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.0 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7 2.0 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7
717. 243Am 7.38 x 103 g. 0.005 3.6 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.7 x 10-7 2.7 x 10-7 2.2 x 10-7 2.0 x 10-7 2.0 x 10-7
718. 244Am 10.1 h 0.005 4.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.1 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.6 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10
719. 244mAm 0.433 h 0.005 3.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.0 x 10-10 9.6 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11
720. 245Am 2.05 h 0.005 6.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 4.5 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-11 6.2 x 10-11
721. 246Am 0.650 h 0.005 6.7 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 3.8 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 5.8 x 10-11
722. 246mAm 0.417 h 0.005 3.9 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-11 4.4 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11
  Curium                  
723. 238Cm 2.40 h 0.005 7.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 4.9 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.0 x 10-11
724. 240Cm 27.0 d 0.005 2.2 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 4.8 x 10-8 2.5 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 9.2 x 10-9 7.6 x 10-9
725. 241Cm 32.8 d 0.005 1.1 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 5.7 x 10-9 3.0 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10
726. 242Cm 163 d 0.005 5.9 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 7.6 x 10-8 3.9 x 10-8 2.4 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 1.2 x 10-8
727. 243Cm 28.5 g. 0.005 3.2 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.3 x 10-7 2.2 x 10-7 1.6 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7 1.5 x 10-7
728. 244Cm 18.1 g. 0.005 2.9 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 2.9 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7 1.2 x 10-7 1.2 x 10-7
729. 245Cm 8.50 x 103 g. 0.005 3.7 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.7 x 10-7 2.8 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7 2.1 x 10-7 2.1 x 10-7
730. 246Cm 4.73 x 103 g. 0.005 3.7 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.7 x 10-7 2.8 x 10-7 2.2 x 10-7 2.1 x 10-7 2.1 x 10-7
731. 247Cm 1.56 x 107 g. 0.005 3.4 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 3.5 x 10-7 2.6 x 10-7 2.1 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7
732. 248Cm 3.39 x 105 g. 0.005 1.4 x 10-5 5.0 x 10-4 1.4 x 10-6 1.0 x 10-6 8.4 x 10-7 7.7 x 10-7 7.7 x 10-7
733. 249Cm 1.07 h 0.005 3.9 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11
734. 250Cm 6.90 x 103 g. 0.005 7.8 x 10-5 5.0 x 10-4 8.2 x 10-6 6.0 x 10-6 4.9 x 10-6 4.4 x 10-6 4.4 x 10-6
  Berkelium                  
735. 245Bk 4.94 d 0.005 6.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.9 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.2 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10
736. 246Bk 1.83 d 0.005 3.7 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 2.6 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10
737. 247Bk 1.38 x 103 g. 0.005 8.9 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 8.6 x 10-7 6.3 x 10-7 4.6 x 10-7 3.8 x 10-7 3.5 x 10-7
738. 249Bk 320 d 0.005 2.2 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 2.9 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.7 x 10-10
739. 250Bk 3.22 h 0.005 1.5 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 8.5 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10
  Californium                  
740. 244Cf 0.323 h 0.005 9.8 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 4.8 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.9 x 10-11 7.0 x 10-11
741. 246Cf 1.49 d 0.005 5.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-8 1.2 x 10-8 7.3 x 10-9 4.1 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9
742. 248Cf 334 d 0.005 1.5 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-7 9.9 x 10-8 6.0 x 10-8 3.3 x 10-8 2.8 x 10-8
743. 249Cf 3.50 x 102 g. 0.005 9.0 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 8.7 x 10-7 6.4 x 10-7 4.7 x 10-7 3.8 x 10-7 3.5 x 10-7
744. 250Cf 13.1 g. 0.005 5.7 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 5.5 x 10-7 3.7 x 10-7 2.3 x 10-7 1.7 x 10-7 1.6 x 10-7
745. 251Cf 8.98 x 102 g. 0.005 9.1 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 8.8 x 10-7 6.5 x 10-7 4.7 x 10-7 3.9 x 10-7 3.6 x 10-7
746. 252Cf 2.64 g. 0.005 5.0 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 5.1 x 10-7 3.2 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7 1.0 x 10-7 9.0 x 10-8
747. 253Cf 17.8 d 0.005 1.0 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-8 6.0 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
748. 254Cf 60.5 d 0.005 1.1 x 10-5 5.0 x 10-4 2.6 x 10-6 1.4 x 10-6 8.4 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-7 4.0 x 10-7
  Einsteinium                  
749. 250Es 2.10 h 0.005 2.3 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-4 9.9 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 2.6 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11
750. 251Es 1.38 d 0.005 1.9 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
751. 253Es 20.5 d 0.005 1.7 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 4.5 x 10-8 2.3 x 10-8 1.4 x 10-8 7.6 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-9
752. 254Es 276 d 0.005 1.4 x 10-6 5.0 x 10-4 1.6 x 10-7 9.8 x 10-8 6.0 x 10-8 3.3 x 10-8 2.8 x 10-8
753. 254mEs 1.64 d 0.005 5.7 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 3.0 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 9.1 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9
  Fermium                  
754. 252Fm 22.7 h 0.005 3.8 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 2.0 x 10-8 9.9 x 10-9 5.9 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9
755. 253Fm 3.00 d 0.005 2.5 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 6.7 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.1 x 10-10
756. 254Fm 3.24 h 0.005 5.6 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 3.2 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
757. 255Fm 20.1 h 0.005 3.3 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-4 1.9 x 10-8 9.5 x 10-9 5.6 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9
758. 257Fm 101 d 0.005 9.8 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 1.1 x 10-7 6.5 x 10-8 4.0 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8
  Mendelevium                  
759. 257Md 5.20 h 0.005 3.1 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-4 8.8 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
760. 258Md 55.0 d 0.005 6.3 x 10-7 5.0 x 10-4 8.9 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-8 3.0 x 10-8 1.6 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8

Notes.
1 OBT - organically bound tritium.
2 The f1 value of calcium for 1 to 15 year olds is 0,4.
3 The f1 value of iron for 1 to 15 year olds is 0,2.
4 The f1 value of cobalt for 1 to 15 year olds is 0,3.
5 The f1 value of strontium for 1 to 15 year olds is 0,4.
6 The f1 value of barium for 1 to 15 year olds is 0,3.
7 The f1 value of lead for 1 to 15 year olds is 0,4.
8 The f1 value of radium for 1 to 15 year olds is 0,3.

Minister for Environmental Protection
and Regional Development V. Makarovs

 

Annex 4
Cabinet Regulation No. 149
9 April 2002

Committed Effective Dose e (g) (SM/Bq) for the Population, Apprentices and Students upon Inhalation of Radionuclides

No. Radionuclide T1/2 Type1 Age < 1 year Age
> 1 year
f1
Age
1-2 years
e (g)
Age
2-7 years
e (g)
Age
7-12 years
e (g)
Age
12-18 years
e (g)
Age
> 18 years
e (g)
f1 e (g)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  Hydrogen                    
1. Tritiated water 12.3 g. F 1.000 2.6 x 10-11 1.000 2.0 x 10-11 1.1 x 10-11 8.2 x 10-12 5.9 x 10-12 6.2 x 10-12
2.     M 0.200 3.4 x 10-10 0.100 2.7 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11 5.3 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11
3.     S 0.020 1.2 x 10-9 0.010 1.0 x 10-9 6.3 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10
  Beryllium                    
4. 7Be 53.3 d M 0.020 2.5 x 10-10 0.005 2.1 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.3 x 10-11 6.2 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11
5.     S 0.020 2.8 x 10-10 0.005 2.4 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 9.6 x 10-11 6.8 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11
6. 10Be 1.60 x 106 g. M 0.020 4.1 x 10-8 0.005 3.4 x 10-8 2.0 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 9.6 x 10-9
7.     S 0.020 9.9 x 10-8 0.005 9.1 x 10-8 6.1 x 10-8 4.2 x 10-8 3.7 x 10-8 3.5 x 10-8
  Carbon                    
8. 11C 0.340 h F 1.000 1.0 x 10-10 1.000 7.0 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.3 x 10-11 1.1 x 10-11
9.     M 0.200 1.5 x 10-10 0.100 1.1 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11
10.     S 0.020 1.6 x 10-10 0.010 1.1 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11
11. 14C 5.73 x 103 g. F 1.000 6.1 x 10-10 1.000 6.7 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
12.     M 0.200 8.3 x 10-9 0.100 6.6 x 10-9 4.0 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
13.     S 0.020 1.9 x 10-8 0.010 1.7 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 7.4 x 10-9 6.4 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9
  Fluorine                    
14. 18F 1.83 h F 1.000 2.6 x 10-10 1.000 1.9 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11 5.6 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11
15.     M 1.000 4.1 x 10-10 1.000 2.9 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.7 x 10-11 6.9 x 10-11 5.6 x 10-11
16.     S 1.00 4.2 x 10-10 1.000 3.1 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11
  Sodium                    
17. 22Na 2.60 g. F 1.000 9.7 x 10-9 1.000 7.3 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
18. 24Na 15.0 h F 1.000 2.3 x 10-9 1.000 1.8 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
  Magnesium                    
19. 28Mg 20.9 h F 1.000 5.3 x 10-9 0.500 4.7 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10
20.     M 1.000 7.3 x 10-9 0.500 7.2 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
  Aluminium                    
21. 26Al 7.16 x 105 g. F 0.020 8.1 x 10-8 0.010 6.2 x 10-8 3.2 x 10-8 2.0 x 10-8 1.3 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8
22.     M 0.020 8.8 x 10-8 0.010 7.4 x 10-8 4.4 x 10-8 2.9 x 10-8 2.2 x 10-8 2.0 x 10-8
  Silicon                    
23. 31Si 2.62 h F 0.020 3.6 x 10-10 0.010 2.3 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.7 x 10-11
24.     M 0.020 6.9 x 10-10 0.010 4.4 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.9 x 10-10 7.4 x 10-11
25.     S 0.020 7.2 x 10-10 0.010 4.7 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11 7.9 x 10-11
26. 32Si 4.50 x 102g. F 0.020 3.0 x 10-8 0.010 2.3 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 6.4 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9
27.     M 0.020 7.1 x 10-8 0.010 6.0 x 10-8 3.6 x 10-8 2.4 x 10-8 1.9 x 10-8 1.7 x 10-8
28.     S 0.020 2.8 x 10-7 0.010 2.7 x 10-7 1.9 x 10-7 1.3 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7 1.1 x 10-7
  Phosphorus                    
29. 32P 14.3 d F 1.000 1.2 x 10-8 0.800 7.5 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 9.8 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-10
30.     M 1.000 2.2 x 10-8 0.800 1.5 x 10-8 8.0 x 10-9 5.3 x 10-9 4.0 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9
31. 33P 25.4 d F 1.000 1.2 x 10-9 0.800 7.8 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 9.2 x 10-11
32.     M 1.000 6.1 x 10-9 0.800 4.6 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
  Sulphur                    
33. 35 inorganic 87.4 d F 1.000 5.5 x 10-10 0.800 3.9 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11
34.     M 0.200 5.9 x 10-9 0.100 4.5 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
35.     S 0.020 7.7 x 10-9 0.010 6.0 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9
  Chlorine                    
36. 36Cl 3.01 x 105 g. F 1.000 3.9 x 10-9 1.000 2.6 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.1 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10
37.     M 1.00 3.1 x 10-7 1.000 2.6 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-8 8.8 x 10-9 7.3 x 10-9
38. 38Cl 0.620 h F 1.000 2.9 x 10-10 1.000 1.9 x 10-10 8.4 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11
39.     M 1.000 4.7 x 10-10 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11
40. 39Cl 0.927 h F 1.000 2.7 x 10-10 1.000 1.8 x 10-10 8.4 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11
41.     M 1.000 4.3 x 10-10 1.000 2.8 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-11 5.6 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11
  Potassium                    
42. 40K 1.28 x 109 g. F 1.000 2.4 x 10-8 1.000 1.7 x 10-8 7.5 x 10-9 4.5 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9
43. 42K 12.4 h F 1.000 1.6 x 10-9 1.000 1.0 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
44. 43K 22.6 h F 1.000 1.3 x 10-9 1.000 9.7 x 10-10 4.7 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10
45. 44K 0.369 h F 1.000 2.2 x 10-10 1.000 1.4 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11
46. 45K 0.333 h F 1.000 1.5 x 10-10 1.000 1.0 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11 1.8 x 10-11 1.5 x 10-11
  Calcium2                    
47. 41Ca 1.40 x 105 g. F 0.600 6.7 x 10-10 0.300 3.8 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10
48.     M 0.200 4.2 x 10-10 0.100 2.6 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11
49.     S 0.020 6.7 x 10-10 0.010 6.0 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
50. 45Ca 163 d F 0.600 5.7 x 10-9 0.300 3.0 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 7.6 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10
51.     M 0.200 1.2 x 10-8 0.100 8.8 x 10-9 5.3 x 10-9 3.9 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9
52.     S 0.020 1.5 x 10-8 0.010 1.2 x 10-8 7.2 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9
53. 47Ca 4.53 d F 0.600 4.9 x 10-9 0.300 3.6 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
54.     M 0.200 1.0 x 10-8 0.100 7.7 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9
55.     S 0.020 1.2 x 10-8 0.010 8.5 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9
  Scandium                    
56. 43Sc 3.89 h S 0.001 9.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-4 6.7 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
57. 44Sc 3.93 h S 0.001 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 1.2 x 10-9 5.6 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
58. 44mSc 2.44 d S 0.001 1.1 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 8.4 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 2.8 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
59. 46Sc 83.8 d S 0.001 2.8 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-4 2.3 x 10-8 1.4 x 10-8 9.8 x 10-9 8.4 x 10-9 6.8 x 10-9
60. 47Sc 3.35 d S 0.001 4.0 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 2.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10 7.3 x 10-10
61. 48Sc 1.82 d S 0.001 7.8 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-4 5.9 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
62. 49Sc 0.956 h S 0.001 3.9 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-4 2.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 7.1 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11
  Titanium                    
63. 44Ti 47.3 g. F 0.020 3.1 x 10-7 0.010 2.6 x 10-7 1.5 x 10-7 9.6 x 10-8 6.6 x 10-8 6.1 x 10-8
64.     M 0.020 1.7 x 10-7 0.010 1.5 x 10-7 9.2 x 10-8 5.9 x 10-8 4.6 x 10-8 4.2 x 10-8
65.     S 0.020 3.2 x 10-7 0.010 3.1 x 10-7 2.1 x 10-7 1.5 x 10-7 1.3 x 10-7 1.2 x 10-7
66. 45Ti 3.08 h F 0.020 4.4 x 10-10 0.010 3.2 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11
67.     M 0.020 7.4 x 10-10 0.010 5.2 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11
68.     S 0.020 7.7 x 10-10 0.010 5.5 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 9.3 x 10-11
  Vanadium                    
69. 47V 0.543 h F 0.020 1.8 x 10-10 0.010 1.2 x 10-10 5.6 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11
70.     M 0.020 2.8 x 10-10 0.010 1.9 x 10-10 8.6 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11
71. 48V 16.2 d F 0.020 8.4 x 10-9 0.010 6.4 x 10-9 3.3 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9
72.     M 0.020 1.4 x 10-8 0.010 1.1 x 10-8 6.3 x 10-9 4.3 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9
73. 49V 330 d F 0.020 2.0 x 10-10 0.010 1.6 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 4.3 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11
74.     M 0.020 2.8 x 10-10 0.010 2.1 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11
  Chromium                    
75. 48Cr 23.0 h F 0.200 7.6 x 10-10 0.100 6.0 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 9.9 x 10-11
76.     M 0.200 1.1 x 10-9 0.100 9.1 x 10-10 5.1 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
77.     S 0.200 1.2 x 10-9 0.100 9.8 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10
78. 49Cr 0.702 h F 0.200 1.9 x 10-10 0.100 1.3 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11
79.     M 0.200 3.0 x 10-10 0.100 2.0 x 10-10 9.5 x 10-11 6.1 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11
80.     S 0.200 3.1 x 10-10 0.100 2.1 x 10-10 9.9 x 10-11 6.4 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11
81. 51Cr 27.7 d F 0.200 1.7 x 10-10 0.100 1.3 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11
82.     M 0.200 2.6 x 10-10 0.100 1.9 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-11 3.9 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11
83.     S 0.200 2.6 x 10-10 0.100 2.1 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.6 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11
  Manganese                    
84. 51Mn 0.770 h F 0.200 2.5 x 10-10 0.100 1.7 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11
85.     M 0.200 4.0 x 10-10 0.100 2.7 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.8 x 10-11 5.0 x 10-11 4.1 x 10-11
86. 52Mn 5.59 d F 0.200 7.0 x 10-9 0.100 5.5 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10
87.     M 0.200 8.6 x 10-9 0.100 6.8 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9
88. 52mMn 0.352 h F 0.200 1.9 x 10-10 0.100 1.3 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11
89.     M 0.200 2.8 x 10-10 0.100 1.9 x 10-10 8.7 x 10-11 5.5 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11
90. 53Mn 3.70 x 106 g. F 0.200 3.2 x 10-10 0.100 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11
91.     M 0.200 4.6 x 10-10 0.100 3.4 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.4 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11
92. 54Mn 312 d F 0.200 5.2 x 10-9 0.100 4.1 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-10
93.     M 0.200 7.5 x 10-9 0.100 6.2 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9
94. 56Mn 2.58 h F 0.200 6.9 x 10-10 0.100 4.9 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 7.8 x 10-11 6.4 x 10-11
95.     M 0.200 1.1 x 10-9 0.100 7.8 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
  Iron3                    
96. 52Fe 8.28 h F 0.600 5.2 x 10-9 0.100 3.6 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10 3.9 x 10-10
97.     M 0.200 5.8 x 10-9 0.100 4.1 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 7.4 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-10
98.     S 0.020 6.0 x 10-9 0.010 4.2 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 7.7 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-10
99. 55Fe 2.70 g. F 0.600 4.2 x 10-9 0.100 3.2 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.4 x 10-9 9.4 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-10
100.     M 0.200 1.9 x 10-9 0.100 1.4 x 10-9 9.9 x 10-10 6.2 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10 3.8 x 10-10
101.     S 0.020 1.0 x 10-9 0.010 8.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
102. 59Fe 44.5 d F 0.600 2.1 x 10-8 0.100 1.3 x 10-8 7.1 x 10-9 4.2 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9
103.     M 0.200 1.8 x 10-8 0.10 1.3 x 10-8 7.9 x 10-9 5.5 x 10-9 4.6 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9
104.     S 0.020 1.7 x 10-8 0.010 1.3 x 10-8 8.1 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-9 4.0 x 10-9
105. 60Fe 1.00 x 105 g. F 0.600 4.4 x 10-7 0.100 3.9 x 10-7 3.5 x 10-7 3.2 x 10-7 2.9 x 10-7 2.8 x 10-7
106.     M 0.200 2.0 x 10-7 0.100 1.7 x 10-7 1.6 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7 1.4 x 10-7
107.     S 0.020 9.3 x 10-8 0.100 8.8 x 10-8 6.7 x 10-8 5.2 x 10-8 4.9 x 10-8 4.9 x 10-8
  Cobalt4                    
108. 55Co 17.5 h F 0.600 2.2 x 10-9 0.100 1.8 x 10-9 9.0 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
109.     M 0.200 4.1 x 10-9 0.100 3.1 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.8 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10
110.     S 0.020 4.6 x 10-9 0.010 3.3 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10
111. 56Co 78.7 d F 0.600 1.4 x 10-8 0.100 1.0 x 10-8 5.5 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9
112.     M 0.200 2.5 x 10-8 0.100 2.1 x 10-8 1.1 x 10-8 7.4 x 10-9 5.8 x 10-9 4.8 x 10-9
113.     S 0.020 2.9 x 10-8 0.010 2.5 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-8 8.0 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-9
114. 57Co 271 d F 0.600 1.5 x 10-9 0.100 1.1 x 10-9 5.6 x 10-10 3.7 x 10-10 2.3 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10
115.     M 0.200 2.8 x 10-9 0.100 2.2 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 8.5 x 10-10 6.7 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
116.     S 0.020 4.4 x 10-9 0.010 3.7 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9
117. 58Co 70.8 d F 0.600 4.0 x 10-9 0.100 3.0 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.4 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10
118.     M 0.200 7.3 x 10-9 0.100 6.5 x 10-9 3.5 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9
119.     S 0.020 9.0 x 10-9 0.010 7.5 x 10-9 4.5 x 10-9 3.1 x 10-9 2.6 x 10-9 2.1 x 10-9
120. 58mCo 9.15 h F 0.600 4.8 x 10-11 0.100 3.6 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11 1.1 x 10-11 5.9 x 10-12 5.2 x 10-12
121.     M 0.200 1.1 x 10-10 0.100 7.6 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 1.6 x 10-11 1.3 x 10-11
122.     S 0.020 1.3 x 10-10 0.010 9.0 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11 3.0 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11
123. 60Co 5.27 g. F 0.600 3.0 x 10-8 0.100 2.3 x 10-8 1.4 x 10-8 8.9 x 10-9 6.1 x 10-9 5.2 x 10-9
124.     M 0.200 4.2 x 10-8 0.100 3.4 x 10-8 2.1 x 10-8 1.5 x 10-8 1.2 x 10-8 1.0 x 10-8
125.     S 0.020 9.2 x 10-8 0.010 8.6 x 10-8 5.9 x 10-8 4.0 x 10-8 3.4 x 10-8 3.1 x 10-8
126. 60mCo 0.174 h F 0.600 4.4 x 10-12 0.100 2.8 x 10-12 1.5 x 10-12 1.0 x 10-12 8.3 x 10-13 6.9 x 10-13
127.     M 0.200 7.1 x 10-12 0.100 4.7 x 10-12 2.7 x 10-12 1.8 x 10-12 1.5 x 10-12 1.2 x 10-12
128.     S 0.020 7.6 x 10-12 0.010 5.1 x 10-12 2.9 x 10-12 2.0 x 10-12 1.7 x 10-12 1.4 x 10-12
129. 61Co 1.65 h F 0.600 2.1 x 10-10 0.100 1.4 x 10-10 6.0 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11 2.2 x 10-11 1.9 x 10-11
130.     M 0.200 4.0 x 10-10 0.100 2.7 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 8.2 x 10-11 5.7 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11
131.     S 0.020 4.3 x 10-10 0.010 2.8 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11 6.1 x 10-11 5.1 x 10-11
132. 62mCo 0.232 h F 0.600 1.4 x 10-10 0.100 9.5 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11 1.4 x 10-11
133.     M 0.200 1.9 x 10-10 0.100 1.3 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-11 3.8 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11
134.     S 0.020 2.0 x 10-10 0.010 1.3 x 10-10 6.3 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 2.5 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11
  Nickel                    
135. 56Ni 6.10 d F 0.100 3.3 x 10-9 0.050 2.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.3 x 10-10 5.8 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10
136.     M 0.100 4.9 x 10-9 0.050 4.1 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.7 x 10-10
137.     S 0.020 5.5 x 10-9 0.010 4.6 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-19 1.3 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9
138. 57Ni 1.50 d F 0.100 2.2 x 10-9 0.050 1.8 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
139.     M 0.100 3.6 x 10-9 0.050 2.8 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 6.2 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10
140.     S 0.020 3.9 x 10-9 0.010 3.0 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10
141. 59Ni 7.50 x 104 g. F 0.100 9.6 x 10-10 0.050 8.1 x 10-10 4.5 x 10-10 2.8 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10
142.     M 0.100 7.9 x 10-10 0.050 6.2 x 10-10 3.4 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10
143.     S 0.020 1.7 x 10-9 0.010 1.5 x 10-9 9.5 x 10-10 5.9 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
144. 63Ni 96.0 g. F 0.100 2.3 x 10-9 0.050 2.0 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.7 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
145.     M 0.100 2.5 x 10-9 0.050 1.9 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 7.0 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10
146.     S 0.020 4.8 x 10-9 0.010 4.3 x 10-9 2.7 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
147. 65Ni 2.52 h F 0.100 4.4 x 10-10 0.050 3.0 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-11 4.9 x 10-11 4.1 x 10-11
148.     M 0.100 7.7 x 10-10 0.050 5.2 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 8.5 x 10-11
149.     S 0.020 8.1 x 10-10 0.010 5.5 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.7 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 9.0 x 10-11
150. 66Ni 2.27 d F 0.100 5.7 x 10-9 0.050 3.8 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 5.1 x 10-10 4.2 x 10-10
151.     M 0.100 1.3 x 10-8 0.050 9.4 x 10-9 4.5 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9
152.     S 0.020 1.5 x 10-8 0.010 1.0 x 10-8 5.0 x 10-9 3.2 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9
  Copper                    
153. 60Cu 0.387 h F 1.000 2.1 x 10-10 0.500 1.6 x 10-10 7.5 x 10-11 4.6 x 10-11 2.9 x 10-11 2.3 x 10-11
154.     M 1.000 3.0 x 10-10 0.500 2.2 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 3.3 x 10-11
155.     S 1.000 3.1 x 10-10 0.500 2.2 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.7 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11
156. 61Cu 3.41 h F 1.000 3.1 x 10-10 0.500 2.7 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 7.9 x 10-11 4.5 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11
157.     M 1.000 4.9 x 10-10 0.500 4.4 x 10-10 2.1 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11 7.4 x 10-11
158.     S 1.000 5.1 x 10-10 0.500 4.5 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 9.6 x 10-11 7.8 x 10-11
159. 64Cu 12.7 h F 1.000 2.8 x 10-10 0.500 2.7 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 7.6 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11
160.     M 1.000 5.5 x 10-10 0.500 5.4 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10
161.     S 1.000 5.8 x 10-10 0.500 5.7 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 1.3 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10
162. 67Cu 2.58 d F 1.000 9.5 x 10-10 0.500 8.0 x 10-10 3.5 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.2 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10
163.     M 1.000 2.3 x 10-9 0.500 2.0 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 8.1 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
164.     S 1.000 2.5 x 10-9 0.500 2.1 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9 8.9 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-10 6.1 x 10-10
  Zinc                    
165. 62Zn 9.26 h F 1.000 1.7 x 10-9 0.500 1.7 x 10-9 7.7 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10
166.     M 0.200 4.5 x 10-9 0.100 3.5 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 6.0 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10
167.     S 0.020 5.1 x 10-9 0.010 3.4 x 10-9 1.8 x 10-9 1.1 x 10-9 6.6 x 10-10 5.5 x 10-10
168. 63Zn 0.635 h F 1.000 2.1 x 10-10 0.500 1.4 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 4.0 x 10-11 2.4 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11
169.     M 0.200 3.4 x 10-10 0.100 2.3 x 10-10 1.0 x 10-10 6.6 x 10-11 4.2 x 10-11 3.5 x 10-11
170.     S 0.020 3.6 x 10-10 0.010 2.4 x 10-10 1.1 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-11 4.4 x 10-11 3.7 x 10-11
171. 65Zn 244 d F 1.000 1.5 x 10-8 0.500 1.0 x 10-8 5.7 x 10-9 3.8 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 2.2 x 10-9
172.     M 0.200 8.5 x 10-9 0.100 6.5 x 10-9 3.7 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.9 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9
173.     S 0.020 7.6 x 10-9 0.010 6.7 x 10-9 4.4 x 10-9 2.9 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 2.0 x 10-9
174. 69Zn 0.950 h F 1.000 1.1 x 10-10 0.500 7.4 x 10-11 3.2 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.2 x 10-11 1.1 x 10-11
175.     M 0.200 2.2 x 10-10 0.100 1.4 x 10-10 6.5 x 10-11 4.4 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.6 x 10-11
176.     S 0.020 2.3 x 10-10 0.010 1.5 x 10-10 6.9 x 10-11 4.7 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11 2.8 x 10-11
177. 69mZn 13.8 h F 1.000 6.6 x 10-10 0.500 6.7 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 1.8 x 10-10 9.9 x 10-11 8.2 x 10-11
178.     M 0.200 2.1 x 10-9 0.100 1.5 x 10-9 7.5 x 10-10 5.0 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
179.     S 0.020 2.2 x 10-9 0.010 1.7 x 10-9 8.2 x 10-10 5.4 x 10-10 3.3 x 10-10 2.7 x 10-10
180. 71mZn 3.92 h F 1.000 6.2 x 10-10 0.500 5.5 x 10-10 2.6 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10 9.1 x 10-11 7.4 x 10-11
181.     M 0.200 1.3 x 10-9 0.100 9.4 x 10-10 4.6 x 10-10 2.9 x 10-10 1.9 x 10-10 1.5 x 10-10
182.     S 0.020 1.4 x 10-9 0.010 1.0 x 10-9 4.9 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-10 2.0 x 10-10 1.6 x 10-10
183. 72Zn 1.94 d F 1.000 4.3 x 10-9 0.500 3.5 x 10-9 1.7 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-9 5.9 x 10-10 4.9 x 10-10
184.     M 0.200 8.8 x 10-9 0.100 6.5 x 10-9 3.4 x 10-9 2.3 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 1.2 x 10-9
185.     S 0.020 9.7 x 10-9 0.010 7.0 x 10-9 3.6 x 10-9 2.4 x 10-9 1.6 x 10-9 1.3 x 10-9
  Gallium                    
186. 65Ga 0.253 h F 0.010 1.1 x 10-10 0.001 7.3 x 10-11 3.4 x 10-11 2.1 x 10-11 1.3 x 10-11 1.1 x 10-11
187.     M 0.010 1.6 x 10-10 0.001 1.1 x 10-10 4.8 x 10-10 3.1 x 10-11 2.0 x 10-11 1.7 x 10-11
188. 66Ga 9.40 h F 0.010 2.8 x 10-9 0.001 2.0 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10 5.7 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.5 x 10-10
189.     M 0.010 4.5 x 10-9 0.001 3.1 x 10-9 1.5 x 10-9 9.2 x 10-10 5.3 x 10-10 4.4 x 10-10
190. 67Ga 3.26 d F 0.010 6.4 x 10-10 0.001 4.6 x 10-10 2.2 x 10-10 1.4 x 10-10 7.7 x 10-11 6.4 x 10-11
191.     M 0.010 1.4 x 10-9 0.001 1.0 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-10 3.6 x 10-10 3.0 x 10-10 2.4 x 10-10
192. 68Ga 1.13 h F 0.010 2.9 x 10-10 0.001 1.9 x 10-10 8.8 x 10-11 5.4 x 10-11 3.1 x 10-11 2.6 x 10-11
193.     M 0.010 4.6 x 10-10 0.001 3.1 x